Smart Terminal System of Systems’ Cyber Threat Impact Evaluation




cyber ecosystem, threat impacts, business continuity, terminal system of systems, cybersecurity of ICS, cybersecurity of ICT


Systems of system-level thinking is required when the purpose is to develop a coherent understanding of the ecosystem where every user and system requirements are divided into specific parts. The smarter project, as a part of the Sea4value program of DIMECC, aims to develop harbor operations, including passenger and cargo transportation, in a way that port processes will improve, emissions will decrease, and overall security will enhance in smart ports. This paper describes cyber-attack impacts against the Smart terminal system of systems in the cyber realm by utilizing the MITRE ATTACK® framework to map the objectives of threat actors. The Smart Terminal system environment includes ICT, ICS networks and components, communication systems, and port service systems. Internal and external threat sources or actors are hard to divide exactly because of the diversity of the threats. Hybrid threats challenge maritime domain awareness globally. The cyber threat impacts on IT and OT environments are connected to each other because of the use of internal and external networks that impact each other by combining vulnerabilities and threats. Well-working port and terminal operations require not only protected operational systems or sensor systems, but human errors must also be minimized. Objectives of threat actors are presented, categorized, and listed. Threat scenarios illustrate that cyber threats and risks are mainly similar in the maritime global-linked port community and basic hinterland trade. The networked supply chain of the business causes evolving and combined threat scenarios. European and international standards, regulations, policies, recommendations, and, e.g., guidelines by the IMO, set new cyber-threat requirements for port and terminal services and facilities. Therefore, overall security must be considered when cyber-security is the development area. Information exchange in an understandable form is essential for maintaining business continuity. Threat information has to be transferred among stakeholders as well as cyber security codes have to be followed in the port operations of partners that are involved, for example, in operational and system-level actions. Digitalization in smart ports and terminals enhances the capacity to handle cargo and passengers more efficiently, but cyber threats evolve.

Author Biographies

Jussi Simola, University of Jyväskylä

Dr. Jussi Simola is a postdoctoral researcher of cyber security programs in University of Jyväskylä. He received a Ph.D. degree in cyber security from the University of Jyväskylä. His expertise includes decision-support technologies, situational awareness systems, information security, and continuity management. His current research work is focused on the cyber security in supply chain management. He has been involved in developing a common early warning system for the EC. 

Jouni Pöyhönen, University of Jyväskylä

Dr. Jouni Pöyhönen, Col (ret.)  is a postdoctoral researcher of cyber security programs in University of Jyväskylä.  He received a Ph.D. in Information Technology from University of Jyväskylä. He has over 30 years’ experience as developer and leader of C4ISR Systems in Finnish Air Forces. He has more than twenty cyber security research papers or articles.  

Martti Lehto, University of Jyväskylä

Dr. Martti Lehto, (Military Sciences), Col (GS) (ret.) works as a Professor (Cyber security) in the University of Jyväskylä. He served for 30 years in the Finnish Air Force. He has over 200 publications, research reports and articles on the areas of C4ISR systems, cyber security and defence, information warfare, air power and defence policy.