The Concept of Comprehensive Security as a Tool for Cyber Deterrence
Keywords:Cyber Deterrence, Finland, Concept of Comprehensive Security, Resilience
Cyber deterrence is often studied from the point of view of deterrence by punishment or offensive cyber strategies. A vast amount of studies claim that deterrence in cyberspace can never be successful with cyber means alone due to technical challenges and the problem of attribution. Some scholars argue that cyber resilience is an essential part of cyber deterrence, since not every cyberattack can be countered. These reviews are usually technical and concentrate on investigating the balance of offensive and defensive cyber strategies. The technical view leaves gaps in the physical and cyber-persona layers of cyberspace. This paper examines resilience from a societal perspective and reflects on the findings of cyber deterrence theories. The Concept of Comprehensive Security (CCS) is a Finnish model for building and sustaining resilience in society. Preparation for disruptive situations is carried out with the operating principle of overall safety, where society´s vital functions are protected in collaboration between the authorities, the business world, organisations, and citizens. The growing importance of cyber security has led to emphasising the importance of cyber resilience in the Concept of Comprehensive Security. This study investigates the possibilities to utilize the CCS as a tool for cyber deterrence and aims to create a new perspective on the international academic discussion of cyber deterrence. The research method is content analysis. The investigated material consists of Finnish CCS documents, as well as academic cyber deterrence and cyber resilience literature. The characteristics of the CCS are compared to the factors found in the cyber deterrence material to answer the research question. The key observation presented in this study is that a comprehensive approach to building resilience in the society is essential for the credibility of cyber deterrence. Resilience in cyberspace should be viewed from the perspective of every layer, including logical, physical and cyber-persona layers.
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