Applications of Post-Quantum Cryptography




Quantum Computing Applications, Post-quantum cryptography, PQC, cryptographic algorithms


With the constantly advancing capabilities of quantum computers, conventional cryptographic systems relying on complex math problems may encounter unforeseen vulnerabilities. Unlike regular computers, which are often deemed cost-ineffective in cryptographic attacks, quantum computers have a significant advantage in calculation speed. This distinction potentially makes currently used algorithms less secure or even completely vulnerable, compelling the exploration of post-quantum cryptography (PQC) as the most reasonable solution to quantum threats. This review aims to provide current information on applications, benefits, and challenges associated with the PQC. The review employs a systematic scoping review with the scope restricted to the years 2022 and 2023; only articles that were published in scientific journals were used in this paper. The review examined the articles on the applications of quantum computing in various spheres. However, the scope of this paper was restricted to the domain of the PQC because most of the analyzed articles featured this field. Subsequently, the paper is analyzing various PQC algorithms, including lattice-based, hash-based, code-based, multivariate polynomial, and isogeny-based cryptography. Each algorithm is being judged based on its potential applications, robustness, and challenges. All the analyzed algorithms are promising for the post-quantum era in such applications as digital signatures, communication channels, and IoT. Moreover, some of the algorithms are already implemented in the spheres of banking transactions, communication, and intellectual property. Meanwhile, despite their potential, these algorithms face serious challenges since they lack standardization, require vast amounts of storage and computation power, and might have unknown vulnerabilities that can be discovered only with years of cryptanalysis. This overview aims to give a basic understanding of the current state of post-quantum cryptography with its applications and challenges. As the world enters the quantum era, this review not only shows the need for strong security methods that can resist quantum attacks but also presents an optimistic outlook on the future of secure communications, guided by advancements in quantum technology. By bridging the gap between theoretical research and practical implementation, this paper aims to inspire further innovation and collaboration in the field.

Author Biographies

Emils Bagirovs, Jamk University of Applied Sciences, Jyväskylä, Finland

Emils Bagirovs is an IT student at Jamk Univesity of Applied Sciences with an extensive background in coding. Emils was always fascinated by computers and programming, building a foundation in software development. His research interests are cybersecurity and data networks.

Grigory Provodin, Jamk University of Applied Sciences, Jyväskylä, Finland

Grigory Provodin is an ICT student interested in recent technological advancements and challenges. He lives in Finland and is currently in his 3rd year of Information and Communication Technology studies at Jamk (Jyväskylä University of Applied Sciences). His main areas of interest include Cloud Computing, Cybersecurity, DevOps, and their synergy.

Tuomo Sipola, Jamk University of Applied Sciences, Jyväskylä, Finland

Tuomo Sipola works as a senior researcher at the Institute of Information Technology at Jamk University of Applied Sciences, Jyväskylä, Finland. He completed his PhD in mathematical information technology (University of Jyväskylä) in 2013. He has also worked as a CEO. His interests include machine learning, data analytics and cybersecurity.

Jari Hautamäki, Jamk University of Applied Sciences, Jyväskylä, Finland

Jari Hautamäki, PhL works as a Principal Lecturer of ICT Programmes in a JAMK University of Applied Sciences, Jyväskylä Finland. He has more than 30 years’ experience of university education and its management. His research interesting topics are Data Networks, IT Service Management, Security Information Sharing and Information Security Management.