The Impact of Operational Technology Requirements in Maritime Industries




operational technology, overall situational awareness, maritime cybersecurity, governance model


The maritime ecosystem and industry require more efficient and coordinated cybersecurity governance. No common cybersecurity mechanism in the maritime sector may steer the whole supply chain management, for example, in the port areas and fairways. Cyberthreat prevention mechanisms in harbor areas and port terminals must be standardized more in the Western world. It has been recognized that understanding cybersecurity of operational technology in the harbor area is based on a more traditional experience of what it requires. The overall security of the maritime ecosystem requires more than random checks of passengers and vehicles and customs functions on cargo and passenger transportation, which are mainly physical security service routines. Traditional physical threats have changed to a combination of threat types. Hybrid threats may prevent everyday harbor activities so that damage can become long-lasting and harm overall business continuity management. It is crucial to prevent cyber threat factors in the maritime domain. The research provides transnational and EU-level cyber security assessments regarding cyber security regulation. The findings determine where to direct and concentrate a focus maritime domain and why it is essential to survey cyber security requirements set for member states to apply. In Finland, this research belongs to the cybersecurity governance of operational technology in the sector connected to the smart energy networks (CSG) research program. The project aims to develop a common cybersecurity governance model for operational technology.

Author Biographies

Jussi Simola, University of Jyväskylä

Jussi Simola is a postdoctoral researcher at the University of Jyväskylä, and his current research focuses on developing the cybersecurity governance model of operational technology for industry stakeholders. He has worked as a cybersecurity specialist at Laurea University of Applied Sciences and participated in developing a joint early warning system for the EU member countries.

Jarkko Paavola, Turku University of Applied Sciences

Dr. Tech. Jarkko Paavola works as executive principal lecturer and research group leader for the Wireless Communications and Cybersecurity research group at Turku University of Applied Sciences. He also holds adjunct professor position in Åbo Akademi University. He received a Doctoral degree in technology in the field of wireless communications from University of Turku, Finland in 2007 and has over 60 scientific articles. His current research interests include 6G wireless communications, cybersecurity, and smart shipping. The primary focus of his research group is in the development of unmanned surface vessel technologies, where cybersecurity and wireless connectivity play crucial roles

Piia Satopää, Turku University of Applied Sciences

MBA Pia Satopää has been working as a lecturer in cybersecurity and a member of the cybersecurity research group at Turku University of Applied Sciences since 2022. She is an experienced professional in information and cybersecurity, with over 15 years of experience related to national defense cybersecurity. She had a long career in the Finnish Defence Forces, including roles such as the Chief of Information Security for the Navy and as the Head of Information Security for the Defence Forces. As a member of the research group, she brings her expertise in information and cybersecurity to various research projects