Cyber Security Norms: Trust and Cooperation




cyber security, norms, trust, cooperation, dynamics


As cyber crime becomes ever more sophisticated and a significant asymmetric threat, the need for effective cyber security is of vital importance. One important cyber security response is through cyber norms. At the same time, calls for multi-sector and multi-domain trust and cooperation are widespread. Yet research on the nature of trust and cooperation in cyber security norms appears to be underdeveloped. Key questions remain concerning the emergence and nature of trust and cooperation in norms. In addressing this gap, the article first considers how we can understand trust and cooperation in cyber norms through leveraging well-established theory from management research on trust building. Next, the paper examines the SolarWinds breach, as an example, to evaluate norms, trust and cooperation. The paper then applies principles from prominent trust-building theory to examine the antecedents, processes of outputs involved in building trust and cooperation. The contribution of this work presents a foundational conceptual framework, to allow the dynamics of norms, trust, and cooperation in managing cyber crime incidents to be studied. In doing so, the literature on examining trust and cooperation in norms is extended. Other researchers’ interest is encouraged as is an agenda for further research on norms, trust, and cooperation to support cyber security management. Implications may help the cyber security community as they construct and manage norms, trust, and cooperation.