European Conference on e-Learning <p>21st European Conference on e-Learning - ECEL 2022<br />27-28 October 2022<br />Brighton, UK</p> Academic Conferences International en-US European Conference on e-Learning 2048-8637 Learning Analytics: A case study of Adaptive Video Activities <p>Adaptive elements are integrated in activities to facilitate personalization of the learning process and provide learning analytics for each student. Following the digital storytelling trends, integrating adaptive activities in interactive videos facilitates student engagement in crucial topics and personalizes the learning path to each individual student’s pace and learning ability. However, it is considered challenging for teachers to design an effective cluster of adaptive activities and to make sense of the learning analytics that are provided. A literature review was conducted to examine how teachers make use of user analytics in real circumstances. It showed that despite the variety of existing tools that can facilitate teachers in collecting learning analytics, the raw data require further analysis for the teacher to be able to understand the students’ individual paths and more training is required so that teachers can effectively interpret these data. This paper is based on a case study conducted to examine how learning analytics are used and what tools can support teachers in making sense of their students’ data. Moreover, it reveals how students perceive adaptive activities, in relevance to their flow and usability, as part of the overall goal of the activity, which focused on environmental awareness. To understand the processes involved around the implementation of adaptive activities, an interactive video with adaptive activities was designed and implemented in a classroom of 12 students (M=12.5 years old). The methodology followed a quantitative approach. A structured questionnaire was used to understand students’ perspectives regarding the flow and usability of the adaptive activities. Considering students’ perspectives on the flow of the adaptive-interactive video activity, students’ level of absorption and the natural progress of the activities received scores of 3.8/5 and 4/5, respectively. The usability of the activity received an average of 75.4 as a System Usability Score (SUS), which is considered above average. The results reveal that both flow and usability are essential for the effective implementation of adaptive activities. This research study recommends further studies of the topic to understand how learning analytics can become manageable and/or better integrated in software enabling the creation of adaptive activities.</p> Despo Nicolaidou Iolie Nicolaidou Copyright (c) 2022 2022-11-08 2022-11-08 21 1 484 488 10.34190/ecel.21.1.945 Post- COVID-19 Pandemic Education: The Student Perspective <p>The COVID-19 pandemic can be considered to be a long-term crisis and the outcome of such a crisis is depending on the decisions made during the crisis. As a Higher Education Institution, we are now at a crossroad regarding how to utilize experiences learned during the pandemic. Before the COVID-19 pandemic, there were only a few online study programmes at the Inland Norway University of Applied Sciences, Rena, Norway. During the pandemic, all of the education provided was online. &nbsp;There are now discussions amongst faculty staff regarding a return to the "ordinary" physical lectures or to embark on a hybrid way of educating students. However, equally important is what the students' perceptions of hybrid versus physical lectures are. We have therefor, through qualitative interviews, investigated what would suit the students’ needs. We have asked the students if they prefer digital teaching, physical teaching or a hybrid which combines both digital and physical teaching. In this paper we present the results from these investigations. The students feedback indicated clearly that they prefer physical teaching, but also that they would like to have access to digital recordings and lectures. We believe that his feedback is an important input to the further discussions on the New Normal in Higher Education Institutions.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Tone Vold Monica Lervik Stig Holen Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on e-Learning 2022-10-21 2022-10-21 21 1 489 497 10.34190/ecel.21.1.916 Designing for blended learning approaches for sustainable attitudes and actions <p><span data-contrast="auto">As part of the call for action to protect the planet, an increase of interest in applying topics on Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) into education has been evident in recent years. The agenda calls for transformative Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) which allows learners to achieve knowledge and skills to influence values and attitudes as well as enable individual and collective sustainable actions towards society and the planet. In this work in progress paper the Learning design workshop</span><span data-contrast="auto">, developed</span><span data-contrast="auto"> for supporting educators in designing blended learning for ESD, is presented and discussed. The Blend for ESD framework (B-ESD) is developed based on a literature study and observations from a blended learning course on developing ESD competencies for educators in higher education. Findings showed challenges in how to design for ESD in a blend between online and on-site settings. The Learning design workshop is conducted with inspiration from card-based facilitation methods to support educators in designing for learners to achieve knowledge and inspire for sustainable attitudes and actions. The workshop consists of four stages addressing: </span><em><span data-contrast="auto">Why</span></em><span data-contrast="auto">, </span><em><span data-contrast="auto">who</span></em><span data-contrast="auto">, </span><em><span data-contrast="auto">what</span></em><span data-contrast="auto"> and </span><em><span data-contrast="auto">how, </span></em><span data-contrast="auto">where</span> <span data-contrast="auto">educators are inspired and supported in the process of identifying subjects to address within sustainability and making pedagogical informed decisions on the usage of online resources to support and supplement on-site learning activities. Findings from the initial iteration showed that the learning design process supports the educators in navigating and acting in the complexity of designing ESD. </span><span data-ccp-props="{&quot;134233117&quot;:true,&quot;134233118&quot;:true,&quot;201341983&quot;:0,&quot;335559740&quot;:240}">&nbsp;</span></p> Maja Melballe Jensen Michal Pilgaard Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on e-Learning 2022-10-21 2022-10-21 21 1 472 474 Designing a curriculum for digital competencies towards teaching and learning <p>The COVID-19 pandemic initiated a fundamental change in learning and teaching in (higher-) education [HE]. On short notice, traditional teaching in HE suddenly had to be transformed into online teaching. This shift into the digital world posed a great challenge to in-service teachers at schools and universities, and pre-service teachers, as the acquisition of digital competences was no longer an option but a real necessity. The previously rather hidden or even neglected importance of teachers’ digital competences for successful teaching and learning became manifest and clearly visible.&nbsp;</p> <p>In this work, we investigate necessary digital competences to ensure high quality teaching and learning in and beyond the current COVID-19 pandemic. Based upon the European DigComp 2.1 (Carretero et al., 2017), DigCompEdu (Redecker, 2017) frameworks, the Austrian Digi.kompP framework (Virtuelle PH, 2021), and the recommendations given by German Education authorities (KMK 2017; KMK 2021; HRK 2022), we developed a curriculum consisting of 5 modules: 2 for individual digital media competence, and 3 for media didactic competence. For each module, competence-oriented learning goals and corresponding micro-learning contents were defined to meet the needs of teachers while considering their time constraints.</p> <p>Based on three online workshops, the curriculum and the corresponding learning goals were discussed with university teachers, pre-service teachers, and policymakers. The content of the curriculum was perceived as highly relevant for these target groups; however, some adaptations were required. From the university teachers’ perspective, we got feedback that they were overwhelmed with the situation and urgently needed digital competences. Policymakers suggested that further education regarding digital competences needs to offer a systematic exchange of experiences with peers. From the perspective of in-service teachers, it was stated that teacher education should focus more on digital competences and tools.</p> <p>In this paper, we will present the result of the workshop series that informed the design process of the DIGIVID curriculum for teaching professionals.</p> Angela Fessl Katharina Maitz Lisa Paleczek Thomas Köhler Selina Irnleitner Monica Divitini Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on e-Learning 2022-10-21 2022-10-21 21 1 469 471 10.34190/ecel.21.1.723 Artificial Intelligence to improve learning outcomes through online collaborative activities <p>A key strategic objective of the University courses is the promotion and development of new and innovative teaching activities, also through the e-learning environment, with the aim of providing students with direct involvement in the learning process. Collaborative activities represent important and effective teaching methodologies that allow the improvements of learning outcomes through active learning. Furthermore, they can allow the development of soft skills because they enable learners to work together and practice critical reflection and conflict negotiation. Recently, online learning environments are being used to design and deliver assignments based on student work groups. Indeed, the development of digital technologies allows the organization of these online activities in a flexible way for both students and teachers. The goal of this work is to develop successful collaborative activities for undergraduate students to ensure the improvement of knowledge and soft skills on a specific topic. One of the fundamental factors that influence the success of collaborative learning is the students’ group formation, which consists in the realization of heterogeneous groups in terms of cognitive resources, characteristics, and behaviors, composed by four or five students. However, the correct implementation of groups requires careful profiling of each student’s behavior which can be difficult for the teacher to detect. In this work an intelligent software, developed using Artificial Intelligence algorithms, was used to assist the teacher in the realization of heterogeneous groups of students. It is composed of a Machine Learning model, consisting in clustering techniques applied to Moodle learning analytics performed to return clusters that identifies different students’ profiles, and a specific algorithm that automatically organizes the groups, ensuring the heterogeneity including at least one student from each cluster. At the end of the execution the software returns the list of the heterogeneous groups to the teacher. The software was applied to assignments that required working group within a specific online course for university students, using a Moodle e-learning platform. The quantitative analysis demonstrated the effectiveness of the numerical method for group composition proposed in this work to ensure successful collaborative activities, confirmed also by the perceptions of the students on the course.</p> Giacomo Nalli Daniela Amendola Serengul Smith Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on e-Learning 2022-10-21 2022-10-21 21 1 475 479 10.34190/ecel.21.1.661 Empowering students to engage in the design of COVID-19 related gamified applications <p>COVID-19 related games have recently been developed to combat misinformation and raise awareness of COVID-19 protocols. COVID-19 related games or gamified apps were designed using top-down approaches (from company to players). The COVID-19 pandemic highlighted challenges in their uptake and usage. Strategies such as co-design may be leveraged to address these challenges, particularly for developing new technologies. This in-progress, exploratory mixed-methods study aimed to engage university students in designing gamified applications to address their needs amidst and post-pandemic. Its first step was to empower students to think of design ideas. The study's research questions were: What are students’ goals for designing pandemic-related gamified apps? To what extent do students make use of gamification techniques in their design? A convenience sample of 20 third/fourth-year undergraduates expressed their ideas individually, in an online class, at a time of university closures (May 2021). A second sample of 37 first-year undergraduates engaged in the same activity in a face-to-face class (December 2021). The data were analyzed using a qualitative data analysis software. Thematic analysis was used, data were coded, and themes and sub-themes emerged. Qualitative analysis of all 57 students’ responses revealed two main themes expressed by students as a goal for their app: a) increasing pandemic awareness and following hygiene protocols (24/57, 42.1%) and b) building resilience through different ways to cope with the pandemic, including physical exercise, social interaction, entertainment and education (31/57, 54.4%). Students maintained similar design goals for proposed apps despite increasingly less strict public-health measures from May to December 2021. The majority of students (52.6%, 30/57) used one to three gamification techniques, while 38.6% of them (22/57) did not use any. Third/fourth-year students used significantly more (t<sub>55</sub>=4.65, p=0.000) gamification techniques (M=2.35, SD=1.31) compared to first-year students (M=0.81, SD=1.13). The first stage of this study showed value in involving students in the design of interventions that targeted themselves and revealed the need for training students who lack a design background in identifying relevant gamification techniques. Future research will aim to materialize students’ suggested design ideas into design prototypes by involving them in the process through interdisciplinary collaborations.</p> Iolie Nicolaidou Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on e-Learning 2022-10-21 2022-10-21 21 1 480 483 10.34190/ecel.21.1.731 Exploring Augmented Reality Affordances for Media Literacy in the EFL Context <p>The ever-evolving information and communication technologies (ICTs) have affected the learners’ preferences for on-demand and on-the-spot access to information that challenge the traditional classroom practices and call for a reconstruction of curricula. New educational approaches are to be encompassed so as to align with the tech-savvy Generation Z needs and the contemporary digitized world that demands competences and skills for successful and well-informed personal and professional choices. Nevertheless, consumption and creation of new knowledge in the plethora of the new crowdsourced information ecosystem have to be critically accessed, analyzed, evaluated, and leveraged so as to lead to creativity and innovation. This paper is a report of the design of an educational intervention with the intent to enhance students’ media literacy skills in the English as a Foreign Language (EFL) secondary education context leveraging immersive technologies. In the first part there is a review of related work leveraging AR affordances in the EFL context. The second part explores the instructional design and pedagogical framework that AR assets can enrich a course material on media literacy for inclusive education practices taking into consideration students’ preferences on their learning process.</p> Chrysoula Lazou Avgoustos Tsinakos Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on e-Learning 2022-10-21 2022-10-21 21 1 449 457 10.34190/ecel.21.1.673 A new e-Learning Resource to Support Music Education in Romanian Schools <p>The pandemic has demonstrated the need for e-learning tools to support Romanian music education. The lack of digital resources in the national language adapted to the Romanian music curriculum made it difficult for students to learn using foreign applications with a different music notation system from Romania’s during the online teaching period. In response to this, we created a software tool that supports musical instruction in line with the outcomes expected by the country's school music curricula. This study investigated the effect of the new software on improving learning outcomes and student motivation. The participants were three experimental groups from eight schools. Group A (n = 60 pupils) were required to use the software for six weeks, at least 15 minutes per day, five days a week. This was carried out under teacher supervision in classrooms and under teacher guidance at home. Group B (n = 61 pupils) were asked to use the software once a week for six weeks in their music lessons. Group C (n=10 teachers) lead the application's testing process. Each child was allocated a unique code (to ensure each pupil's anonymity), which enabled the researcher to observe their activity. The average total use per child in Group A was 48 sessions, and for Group B, it was 12 sessions. The results for Group A showed pupils had notably enhanced their learning outcomes. Of the (n=60) pupils, 96% reported feeling 'highly motivated' by the software. The tool's facility for personalised, needs-focused exercises with immediate feedback was identified as particularly helpful. Group B, who used the software occasionally, made slower progress, but 93% reported that the addition of the software was preferable to traditional classroom music education conducted without such individual-focused technology. Out of (n=121) pupils, 94% reported the software was easy to learn and use. Each of the ten teachers who led the testing process reported increased accuracy of the elements practised with the software after six weeks of usage and decided to continue using it. More exercise resources are currently being developed for the software. Now also in English, it is easily translatable into other languages.</p> Maria Moldovan Nelida Nedelcut Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on e-Learning 2022-10-21 2022-10-21 21 1 458 467 10.34190/ecel.21.1.565 Investigating Learning Experience When Lecturer and Learners’ Roles are Reversed <div><span lang="EN-GB">The "reversed classroom" involves the reversals of the learning instruction and the lecturer and student roles in class. The study investigates the learners' views of a reversed classroom on their first online learning experience, the development of the competencies targeted by the course, and how the reversed classroom promotes self-direction. On three occasions (at the beginning, middle, and end of the course), learners were required to complete a self-positioning survey and declare their perceptions of their competencies. They were also invited to point out their learning experience using a questionnaire. Data collected were analysed using the descriptive analysis method. Learners also shared their views on how the adopted reversed classroom ensured their self-directed learning in the interview. This data was analysed using thematic analysis. The findings revealed that although this was the learners' first experience of a reversed classroom, they appreciated it and developed various competencies. They further confirmed that the learning setting, the mentoring roles, and the pedagogical styles adopted successfully ensured their self-direction in learning.</span></div> Dina Adinda Maria Denami Christophe Jeunesse Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on e-Learning 2022-10-21 2022-10-21 21 1 1 9 10.34190/ecel.21.1.730 From flipped to remote to hybrid: transformation of a game-based flipped classroom during the Covid-19 pandemic <p>Purpose – This research examines how students’ learning was affected by the transition from a flipped classroom model to remote learning during the Covid19 lockdown and hybrid learning after return to class.&nbsp;</p> <p>Methodology – This study features quantitative analysis of undergraduate students’ online interactions with the course material over two semesters with the same instructor, one completely online, the other in the form of hybrid learning imposed by Covid19 restrictions. Participation in the game-based quizzes before class, in-class multiplayer game sessions, and presence in the classroom or online during the lectures were measured, as well as the students’ score to the final exam. Students also took a survey at the end of each semester to provide feedback on the course. Finally, interviews were made with some of the students to document their detailed impression of the learning challenges of the period.</p> <p>Findings – Results from this study identified four groups of students with different attitudes regarding learning and challenges during and after Covid19 restrictions. Some came back immediately in the physical class while others remained online or did both. Average scores correlate increased face-to-face time and regular online preparation before class with better results in the final exam. Qualitative data from students’ interviews confirm these changing attitudes to learning due to Covid19.</p> <p>Practical implication – This study allows us to reflect on best practices for hybrid learning and opportunities to improve on the flipped classroom model under changing modes of delivery. Furthermore, it underlines strategic importance to engage different profiles and challenges for students with less time and opportunity to engage in face-to-face learning.</p> <p>Interest – While research on flipped and hybrid classrooms is prevalent, little has been done in comparing the two models and their impact on students’ learning attitudes Furthermore, research on classroom adaption and adjustment during Covid19 is still at early stages. This study presents opportunities and challenges for the hybrid classroom moving forward.</p> Muriel Algayres Olga Timcenko Evangelia Triantafyllou Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on e-Learning 2022-10-21 2022-10-21 21 1 10 18 10.34190/ecel.21.1.715 Podcasts: A generator of non-formal learning <p>The present study examines the relationship between the use of podcasts (mp3 files) as a non-formal learning tool. The study´s epistemological origins lie in Dewey's pragmatism and learning and reflection theory, including the learning approach at University College of Northern Denmark’s (UCN) “Reflective Practice-based Learning” (RPL). This paper focuses on how podcasts can increase students’ learning and reflection skills by using podcasts as a generator for non-formal learning. The study is based on two different classes that attend an extended course in digital technologies and project management at the Danish University of Applied Science (UCN). The study applies integrated mixed-method data collection: observations, a quantitative survey, and semi-structured interviews. The observations were carried out during four (project management) and seven (digital technologies) full-day lectures in two different classes. These offered an insight into the extent to which the students acquired knowledge by listening to podcasts between classes. The quantitative data consisted of a survey of 65 students, all of whom participated in the courses. The survey was performed as a part of the evaluation at the final course lectures. The semi-structured interviews (ten in all) were used to investigate how the use of podcasts affects students' reflective skills. Ten semi-structured interviews were conducted. The data in this study finds that podcasts/podcasting can have a positive effect on students’ non-formal learning in higher education. Established on the findings, there is evidence indicating podcasts as a supplement in higher education can increase students´ motivation toward non-formal learning. The study reveals that podcasts hold the potential to stimulate the student's non-formal learning and increase the students’ reflective skills. Based on this evidence, further research is suggested e.g. studies that include an extended investigation on the benefits of students’ non-formal learning by using podcasts.</p> René Andersen Susanne Dau Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on e-Learning 2022-10-21 2022-10-21 21 1 19 24 10.34190/ecel.21.1.527 Motivational Challenges of Engineers Participating in an Online Upskilling Program <div><span lang="EN-GB">The present powerful surge of available online learning platforms will provide employees with enhanced opportunities to rapidly develop their skills, regardless of time and place. Despite the potential, there are challenges for participants on online learning platforms to finalise the courses they engage in. The reasons for the high number of students dropping out before completion of the course are motivational, social, and technological. Studies show that large skill gaps exist among industry employees worldwide. It is often caused by the implementation of new technologies, digitalization, as well as increasing requirements on sustainability and resilience. E-learning provides a major opportunity to bridge such skill gaps. Thus, the flexibility offered by online learning platforms can be of high value for upskilling of industrial employees. This paper describes a study on the skills and learning processes of engineers in industry, participating in a national Swedish upskilling programme. The programme offers online learning modules, provided by 13 collaborating Swedish universities. The paper proposes a method for understanding underlying challenges in the participants’ motivation and their module completion rates. The questionnaire “HowULearn”, developed by Helsinki University, has been previously validated at several universities, consistently delivering a valuable understanding of student learning and motivation. To accommodate the methodological needs of this study, the questionnaire was adapted for an industrial context, investigating motivational challenges of learners on the Ingenjör4.0 platform. The primary outcome of the study is a framework for analysing learner challenges related to motivation within e-learning contexts. Further, this paper suggests a way of utilising the HowULearn questionnaire for participants on the Ingenjör4.0 online learning platform, to understand their challenges. The adapted questionnaire was tested with participants of the platform (22 respondents) and the results were analysed by identifying participant challenges. The outcome and conclusions of this study will improve the Ingenjör4.0 online learning platform but can also be used generically, to improve other e-learning environments.</span></div> Greta Braun Miitta Järvinen Johan Stahre Raija Hämäläinen Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on e-Learning 2022-10-21 2022-10-21 21 1 25 31 10.34190/ecel.21.1.594 The Global Case Study Challenge: A Virtual Exchange Developing Global Work Competencies <p>The Global Case Study Challenge (GCSC) is a virtual exchange program designed for Bachelor and Master level students from interdisciplinary programs. The program focuses on the development of key Global Work (GloW) competencies, defined as: intercultural, digital communication and sustainability competencies. This paper discusses how the GCSC, as a new virtual model of teaching and learning, in a real-world context, supports the development of future-oriented work competencies. These competencies are crucial for effective global virtual teamwork and New Work scenarios in remote contexts. To date, 1450 students and 50 educators from 30 universities across 20 different countries have worked together in some 380 Global Virtual Teams on real-life business cases.&nbsp;</p> <p>The learning design of this virtual exchange project is rooted in the knowledge that future-oriented global work competencies such as intercultural competence, digital communication competence and sustainability competence can only be developed through transformative learner-centred experiential learning. In the 2021 iteration of the GCSC, over the 8-weeks of the program, 86 groups of interdisciplinary Global Virtual Teams (GVTs) worked together: Establishing team-building dynamics while working in self-directed GVTs of 5-7 students, reflecting on (corporate) sustainability, collaborating on real-life business cases, and presenting their solutions and recommendations to a major global corporate partner at a virtual conference.&nbsp;The impact of the program on students’ competency development was measured using a longitudinal study design. The intercultural, digital communication, and sustainability competencies of the participants were measured pre-exchange (n=263) and post-exchange (n=274). The findings demonstrate a consistent increase of competencies over time among the program participants in almost all categories (knowledge, skills, attitudes), providing clear evidence of the overall positive impact of the GCSC on participants' competency development over the two-month program. Ultimately, the GCSC contributes towards students becoming highly effective members and leaders of high-performing Global Virtual Teams.</p> Svetlana Buko Eithne Knappitsch Anna Zinenko Barbara Covarrubias Venegas Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on e-Learning 2022-10-21 2022-10-21 21 1 32 41 10.34190/ecel.21.1.775 Improving e-Learning Videos by Adding Sign Language Interpretation and Subtitles <p>As a professional academic supporting unit of the University, The Independent Learning Centre (ILC) at The Chinese University of Hong Kong (CUHK) has decided to provide additional support by adding sign language interpretation versions and subtitles to the existing self-learning videos. Such a project is pioneering in Hong Kong in addressing the needs of Special Education Needs (SEN) students. The project aims to benefit students with different levels of hearing impairment or other SEN as well as general students. While the revised videos will allow and encourage a wide range of students with different levels of learning difficulties to foster their independent learning skills, the added subtitles (Cantonese, Mandarin or English) can aid learning in terms of retention, comprehension, accuracy and engagement. Such benefit means general students are also expected to have their learning effectiveness increased by viewing these inclusive design videos. The whole project selected 98 videos from different self-designed online platforms, which would be over 10 hours in total. Once ready, the videos will be incorporated into the redesigned online platform and revised micro-modules accordingly. This paper aims to offer a first-handed and thorough perspective on the whole project in order to share the experience of supporting SEN and general students by making eLearning more accessible. When we are carrying out the project, we hope we can further benefit academia by sharing our successful experience. We believe the aims of the project can be further extended by sharing our experience with our academic peers, that is, our partners.</p> Pak-ka Parker Chan Felix Chao Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on e-Learning 2022-10-21 2022-10-21 21 1 42 50 10.34190/ecel.21.1.576 The Impact on Learners’ Identities of Aligning Pedagogy, Design and Technologies With Theory in Online Courses <p>In the past two decades, much of e-learning scholarship has reflected the tensions between what we as educators aspire to do, the theory we have to support what we do, and what we actually accomplish when it comes to technology supported learning. Some scholars are recognizing that inroads to resolving these tensions can be gained through a deeper understanding of the kinds of identities we promote in learners through our pedagogies, course designs and technologies. If our goals are to promote empowered, self-directed and life-long learners in our programs, then the practices, designs and technologies we employ must all be framed by theories that support such goals. Too often this is not the case. This study forms part of a larger longitudinal inquiry aimed at aligning these three components with 21st century goals and contemporary e-learning theory at a fully online higher education (HE) technical institution in Chile. An earlier pilot focussed on the reaction to this new alignment from the institution’s broad student body of working adults (n=2,300), the majority from socially and academically disadvantaged backgrounds. Narrowing the lens on a small cohort of students (n=14) entering the institution into a cross section of career disciplines, we adopted a qualitative case study approach to uncover a deeper understanding of the identities of these students on first arrival. Our objective was to determine how highly interactive group work-based teaching practices, learner-centred instructionally designed programs and social media-based technologies such as forums and live videoconferencing sessions, impacted their identities over the course of the first 5-month period. Data collection involved in-depth individual and focus group bi-weekly interviews, reflective feedback from routine student questionnaires, field notes, instructor observations and digital activity online. Findings indicated the crucial nature of this initial period for influencing student’s learning trajectories in terms of retention and for promoting the kinds of 21st century learner identities to which the institutional programs aspired. As a surge of institutions worldwide are more motivated than ever to finding effective e-learning solutions after experiencing challenges in their online programs during the pandemic, these results could provide empirical evidence of a viable pathway forward.</p> Paula Charbonneau-Gowdy Caroline Galdames Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on e-Learning 2022-10-21 2022-10-21 21 1 51 60 10.34190/ecel.21.1.899 The Relative Importance of Digital Competences for Predicting Student Learning Performance: An Importance-Performance Map Analysis <p>Today’s higher education learning environment expects students to have such digital skills as navigating a learning management system, using word processing or presentation software, and searching for online information. The widespread use of digital technology in teaching and learning has necessitated a need for students to be digitally competent in order to perform well in their studies. However, different types of digital competence may be necessary at different stages of the students’ learning journey, and some digital competences may be more essential to students’ academic performance than others. To identify the digital competences that students perceive to be most important for their learning performance, and to determine students’ perception of their level of performance in these digital competences, this study adopted the Digital Competence Framework for Citizens 2.2 (DigComp) to design a survey questionnaire and collect responses from university students. An importance-performance map analysis (IPMA) was conducted to examine the relative importance of each of the five digital competence areas and the 21 digital competences identified in DigComp, as well as how each performs in relation to the others, in predicting student learning performance. Study findings revealed that the problem solving competence area was perceived to be the most important for student learning performance, followed by information and data literacy, and communication and collaboration. The respondents did not perceive the digital content creation and safety competence areas as important for their learning performance. The study findings also found that the respondents differed in their perception of how well they were performing in these competence areas. Using DigComp as a point of departure, this study makes a novel attempt to determine the relative importance of each of the five digital competence areas and 21 digital competences identified in the framework, as well as how each one compares to the others in performance when it comes to predicting how well students will perform in their learning.</p> Lee Yen Chaw Chun Meng Tang Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on e-Learning 2022-10-21 2022-10-21 21 1 61 70 10.34190/ecel.21.1.582 How to Design Virtual Video Production for Augmented Student Presentations <p>e-Learning environments have been developed and used by teachers and learners for decades. However, it is well known that sending, recording or meeting online can have a lack of presence and immersion. Furthermore, the configuration of a studio environment typically depends on physical props and technologies, which can be time consuming and hard to use for teaching purposes where each session may need a different configuration. Virtual Video Production (VVP) is a relatively new technology that builds on advances in extended reality (XR), supported by game engines and computer-controlled camera equipment. Camera data (pan, tilt, zoom, position) can be sent to a virtual camera in the game engine. The scene can be rendered via a green screen or with large LED displays. This provides an immersive presence with virtual 3D objects positioned in the room. Light settings can be mixed into the scene with remote control of LED lights to be in sync with virtual lights. Thus, VVP opens many opportunities for more immersive e-learning experiences. The challenge is how to apply these opportunities that involve syncing of several technical components and layers, designed to be useful within limited course resources. The question in this paper is how VVP can be designed and set up in an easy way for teachers and students to use it for presentations in courses? This paper presents results from a course in Immersive Environments where students first developed mobile Augmented Reality app prototypes and then used VVP to present their final work together with the authors. The authors documented preparation, wrote instructions for students and observed with notes taken during recording sessions. The results show how VVP can be designed and set up for course presentations that goes beyond a plain video recording in a lecture room or at home, but also beyond what was previously possible in a video studio at the university. This includes e.g., technical setup, direction of students, synopsis, concepts and virtual 3D props. Finally, the authors draw conclusions of what challenges remain for future research and suggestions of how to overcome them.</p> Jonas Collin Thomas Westin Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on e-Learning 2022-10-21 2022-10-21 21 1 71 78 10.34190/ecel.21.1.819 Machine Assessment of Student Discussion-Board Formal-Style Debates <p>This paper explores machine identification of argumentative moves in asynchronous online student debates. Student debate is a technique for engaging with topics which have no clear answer. Online debates differ from less-structured discussion-board class discussions in that students are restricted to formal debating moves such as advancing a new argument, providing evidence, or rebutting an argument. They are also assigned to debate a particular side. This research explores whether the different argumentative skills in student debate can be distinguished from each other by reading the texts of the students’ discussion. The data for this research are the postings from 20 week-long student debates, an assignment in an educational technology class. Utilizing exclusively the text the students wrote, machine classifiers were trained to recognize the argumentative role of a message. If machines can detect an average difference between these debate moves from the text of the debate, and if they can detect the side of the debate, then the students are likely exercising different argumentative skills. The experiment shows it is possible to identify the skills which make debating different than free-form discussion with accuracy significantly better than chance.</p> Michael Glass Alexis Cooper Jung Hee Kim Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on e-Learning 2022-10-21 2022-10-21 21 1 79 86 10.34190/ecel.21.1.773 Haptic Technology in Digital Music Learning Context: A State-of-the-Art Analysis <p><strong>Abstract: </strong>Digital media have become increasingly established in learning contexts in recent decades, and it seems impossible to imagine education without them, especially in recent years. Various technological advances can be observed, such as developments in virtual reality and augmented reality. To give learners a realistic impression of the virtual world, as many sensory impressions as possible should be addressed. However, current developments have mainly addressed the visual and auditory modalities, which make up two of the five human senses. Research and developments for the use of the other senses are being made but at this stage they are not yet ready for mass use. Especially the sense of touch based on skin as the largest human sensory organ or tactile and haptic perception seem to be of interest. Particularly in manual or medical areas where motor skills are required, haptic technologies are declared to be supportive and beneficial. One area that has hardly focused on digital learning so far is the music sector. Learning a musical instrument in this context seems to be an interesting field of research, as it not only promotes motor skills, but also cognitive development in both children and adults.</p> <p>To give an update on the technical developments in the field of digital teaching and learning in music, and especially to highlight the use of haptic technologies, we will briefly review the state of the art in this paper. It begins with a brief overview of the basics of digital learning and haptics, as well as previous work in this field. Using the method of a scoping review, the topic of haptic technologies in the field of music education will be researched, analysed, and summarised according to defined criteria to give a condensed overview of it. The selected database and appropriate search strings will be used to achieve the aim of the paper. The results help to shed light on current research gaps and give indications for future developments of haptic technology in the music learning context.</p> Bianka Dörr Farzaneh Norouzinia Kristin Altmeyer Dirk Werth Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on e-Learning 2022-10-21 2022-10-21 21 1 87 94 10.34190/ecel.21.1.529 Flipping the Learning to Engage? Herts Route to Students’ Higher Levels of Learning <p>This paper looks at the application of flipped learning as a pedagogy for student learning and its blended approach to the delivery of the learning and teaching materials. This paper is based on research conducted on the delivery of a Postgraduate Business Research Methods Module. The research indicates a specific structure and sequencing is to be followed in delivering the teaching materials of the Module, providing students the opportunity to learn to higher levels, using quizzes to test knowledge and subject understanding, case studies, practical applications and student-initiated discussions. The structured synchronous online flipped learning approach, known as SOFLA, is of great importance for large modules and a big teaching team, not only to ensure consistency of delivery but also for the educational experience of mainly international students. In addition, compassion pedagogy needs to be considered to create inclusion and engagement. Mid-module feedback and end-term student voice questionnaire datasets are used in the analysis of effectiveness and student learning of the Business Research Methods Module. The conclusions drawn are an excellently designed and managed Module, giving the required learning focus, with the realisation by students that their use of learning materials and engagement is open to improvement. Recommendations are made to seek solutions to enhance student engagement in the preparation for the Module’s learning materials, achieving higher learning.</p> Xiangping Du Maarten Pontier Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on e-Learning 2022-10-21 2022-10-21 21 1 95 104 10.34190/ecel.21.1.585 A Personalized Approach to Learning Across Time and Space <p>In a higher education environment massively disrupted by the pandemic, the importance of exploring the efficacy of purposeful, flexible, online learning is essential. Research shows that blended approaches to learning can be active, flexible, and student-centred. However, this research suggests that without human intervention or a bespoke context, there can also be very poor engagement. As such, this study presents the successes and challenges of introducing a personalised mobile-learning resource in a supported, personalized environment. The resource was designed and developed in 2019 and integrated in 2020 and 2021 into a large (n=200+) communication design class at an Australian university. This paper evaluates the effectiveness of the app using measures drawn from Abdullah &amp; Ward’s (2016) take on the Technology Acceptance Model. Their model, GETAMEL (general extended technology acceptance model for e-learning) measures technology acceptance factors in eLearning such as enthusiasm, self-efficacy, and student enjoyment of technology in relation to contextual purpose. This paper also considers the value of self-directed learning and co-curricular activities in the context of additional learning to support core curriculum. This paper presents an evaluation of student experience drawn from a class-wide survey and analysis of usage data. We conclude that the use of a personalised app fosters an autonomously supportive experience that leads to intrinsic motivation and improves overall learning (Baker &amp; Goodboy, 2018). The app provides additional support for students unable to attend tutorials and enabled students to remain engaged and abreast of the general topics each week and provided some additional prompts about self-directed learning activities they could engage in, that they wouldn’t have otherwise had. Enjoyment, as one of the key factors of the GETAMEL model, was explicitly mentioned by students.&nbsp; While a personalised tool is labour intensive and expensive in cost and time, this study concludes that the rewards regarding student experience make it worthwhile.</p> Rachel Fitzgerald Eliza Rossiter T.J. Thompson Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on e-Learning 2022-10-21 2022-10-21 21 1 105 110 10.34190/ecel.21.1.901 Filling Voids in Japanese EFL Programs with Bricolage, MAYA, and Intentional Space <p>Japanese universities and their EFL programs, when seen together, one may get a general sense that policy aims and actual effects show high-sounding slogans with results mainly in the opposite direction (Yoshida, 2019). A lack of a unified approach to EFL education can be explained at the program level when the following three terms are considered: 1) Bricolage, 2) the MAYA Principle, and 3) Intentional Space creation. Professors, often from eclectically different backgrounds, who are charged with curriculum design, hiring and training, and implementing their EFL program need to recognize their shared participation as something within an entire that will always be larger than the sum of what they can contribute. Hence the use of the term bricolage. Bricolage is a French loanword that means the process of improvisation in a human endeavor. The word is derived from the French verb bricoler, to tinker, with the English term DIY ("Do-it-yourself") being the closest equivalent. MAYA stands for: "Most Advanced, Yet Acceptable," a principle initially constructed by industrial designer Raymond Loewy. MAYA provides users, product consumers, teachers, students, coaches, and literally anyone with enough of what they already use and understand with enough new features that are easy to adopt ("Design - Raymond Loewy the first real Mad Man," 2017). MAYA is never applied nor experienced in a vacuum, always within a predetermined space. Within educational settings, MAYA needs to be applied not just in a classroom but to intentional spaces that include and go beyond the classroom. Creating an intentional space is about validating the students and making them feel valued and belong. It is also about building a dynamic, informed community applicable to learners' lives (Bauwens, 2008). So, what makes an EFL program good? Everyone working hard for the students? Is it teaching in an informed, smart manner? These questions and others were shared and discussed at a medium-sized university's EFL program in Japan. Survey results and discussion outcomes will be shared along with case study-like anecdotes and vignettes.</p> Thomas Goetz Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on e-Learning 2022-10-21 2022-10-21 21 1 111 118 10.34190/ecel.21.1.910 Adapting OER: Addressing the Challenges of Reuse When Designing for HE Capacity Development <p>Changes in learning and teaching due to COVID-19 have prompted higher education (HE) institutions to develop strategies and skills related to technology-supported education, creating development opportunities that help staff teach and support students in online or blended situations. Using open educational resources (OER) meant training could be developed and localised quickly. However, there has been little research into the use of OER to meet urgent, unanticipated teaching needs. This paper provides a critical reflective account of learning design for the use of OER in a national capacity development initiative in Kenya as part of the Foreign, Commonwealth and Development Office (FCDO) funded Skills for Prosperity Kenya project. Development of this OER was led by The Open University in partnership with 37 Kenyan universities. The initiative was designed to develop the knowledge and skills of educators, educational leaders, and support staff. The contribution of this paper is that it identifies challenges encountered when adapting OER for use in a technologically low-resourced context, showing how these can be addressed successfully at different learning design stages. Challenges were identified using the 7Cs of Learning Design (Conole, 2014): conceptualise, create, communicate, collaborate, consider, combine and consolidate. The paper concludes with recommendations for design practice and creating and remixing OER.</p> Fereshte Goshtasbpour Rebecca Ferguson Beck Pitt Simon Cross Denise Whitelock Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on e-Learning 2022-10-21 2022-10-21 21 1 119 127 10.34190/ecel.21.1.718 A Literature Study on Experiential Collaborative e-Learning Based on ECEL Articles <p>Abstract: Educational institutions around the world continue to develop teaching practices in which the importance of digital solutions is expanding. The increasing digitization of education and learning has made it even more important to explore and test how experiential collaborative teaching methods can be digitized and designed to facilitate collaboration, active participation, and exploration, elements that are all crucial to support development of complex skills and competencies. Previous research reveals that many solutions for e-learning do not sufficiently support more complex forms of learning. The authors argue that many technologies developed for the field of education fall short of their purposes and neglect or ignore intended underpinning pedagogy and didactics. As new technologies are being developed, promising great improvements in supporting student’ learning processes, the problem is exasperated by a technological euphoria, supported by EdTech companies, which effectively undermines appropriate cautions and reservations. The article applies the overarching conceptualization Experiential and Collaborative learning (ECL) in an attempt of include an array of established and complex educational methods or pedagogical models, such as Problem-Based Learning (PBL), Reflective Practice-based Learning (RPL) and Inquiry- of ECL have been derived. Based on those keywords, a systematic literature study within the database of ECEL article from 2012-2021 has been conducted to investigate and summarize the potential gap often seen between pedagogical and technological development in Edtech. The research question is twofold: "How is ECL addressed in ECELs papers" and "What is the potential gap transforming ECL to digital solutions"? The findings reveal that ECL is present in many articles to some extent. However, after sorting the articles using PRISMA, only a few articles are included capturing the complexity of ECLs. Based on the selected articles, gaps and potentials are identified, indicating a need for further research.</p> Camilla Gyldendahl Jensen Sofie Otto Susanne Dau Nicolaj Riise Clausen Thomas Andersen Lykke Brogaard Bertel Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on e-Learning 2022-10-21 2022-10-21 21 1 128 136 10.34190/ecel.21.1.924 Analysis of Approaches to the use of ICT in the Teaching of Mathematics <p>Information and communication technologies (ICT) play an increasingly important role in learning and teaching. The way they are used in specific lessons is influenced by a number of factors, one of the most important of which is the teacher's beliefs about the use of ICT in education. The way teachers think about modern technologies is very important and greatly influences how they use ICT in their teaching. Our paper presents a partial output of research focusing on the influence of teachers' beliefs on the use of ICT in teaching.</p> <p>Within the presented research, lessons of several mathematics teachers were recorded longitudinally. The recordings from classes were subsequently coded by a team of researchers and analysed in detail on the basis of Grounded theory. Several different aspects of teaching were observed in the analysis:</p> <p>Forms of instruction, Teacher-pupil communication, Pupil activities at the blackboard, Pupil activity on PC or laptop, ICT involvement, Teacher activities, Phenomena in teaching using ICT, Used programs and applications and Testing. The results of this analysis were then compared with how teachers think about the use of ICT and how they characterize their own use of ICT in teaching.</p> <p>Even though all the monitored teachers characterized themselves as experienced users of ICT, the way they used technologies in their teaching was very different and often differed greatly from the positions they declared. As part of the paper, we present a comparison of the teaching styles of individual teachers and a comparison of their beliefs and proclamations with the reality that was observed in the lessons. Attention will also be paid to the impact of the actual use of ICT on the overall course of the lesson and the activity of the pupils. The results of the research show that the way in which the teacher's beliefs affect teaching is really crucial.</p> Katerina Jancarikova Antonin Jancarik Veronika Havelkova Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on e-Learning 2022-10-21 2022-10-21 21 1 137 142 10.34190/ecel.21.1.739 Artificial Intelligence Assistant for Mathematics Education <p>The paper presents the partial results of a research study conducted within the project AI Assistant for Pupils and Teachers. The university, non-profit sector and organization established by the Ministry of Education are cooperating on this project. The aim of the project is to prepare an AI assistant for communication with teachers and pupils. The output of the project should be a system that communicates with pupils and teachers. AI assistant will offer them appropriate teaching materials based on their needs. The system will use not only pre-prepared materials (which is the case presented in this paper), but will be able to independently search and evaluate materials in open databases. We primarily focus on supporting the teaching and learning of mathematics and Czech language.</p> <p>In this paper, we focus on one of the partial researches. The aim of this research was to prepare and experimentally test the possibility of using a series of pre-prepared math problems of an increasing difficulty for individual (partly pupil-managed) practice of algebraic expressions. The topic of algebraic expressions was chosen because it is relatively well-structured and is therefore suitable for this method of processing. At the same time, and this is very important, the topics include the so-called critical topics, i.e. topics that cause problems for pupils and where pupils very often seek help. The topic of algebraic expressions is divided into several subchapters, each of which contains about ten steps, consisting of three tasks, one of basic, one of standard and one of higher difficulty, and supporting materials for mastering them. The pupil can decide what difficulty of the task they want to solve and what supporting materials they want to use. The developed application is available to pupils online in the web environment as well as in the form of an app for the mobile phone. The application has already been published and is in a test regime.</p> Antonin Jancarik Jarmila Novotna Jakub Michal Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on e-Learning 2022-10-21 2022-10-21 21 1 143 148 10.34190/ecel.21.1.783 The Relationship Between Computer Gambling and Academic Performance of High School Students <p>While some sources say that playing video games has potential benefits whether in medicine or science, other sources take a different view and say that it can have various negative impacts. Video games are becoming more attractive thanks to their social, intellectual and emotional possibilities compared to television, movies or radio.</p> <p>The issue of gaming is increasingly discussed today mainly due to the large number of available platforms on which to play. Games are becoming more and more realistic both in terms of graphics and artificial intelligence. It is relatively difficult to avoid the influence of games with ever-improving mobile games or games on social networks. Playing games is no longer a home affair but it has become ubiquitous. All of these aspects can have a negative impact on pupils’ welfare across all age groups and may pose a risk of possible addiction.</p> <p>The aim of this paper is to describe the impact of computer gambling on school performance. The subject of this study was a group of 138 high school students studying to be computer science teachers. In addition, the authors also examined the latest gaming trends of the current generation of high school students and possible manifestations of addiction to playing video games in this group of individuals. The research was carried out using a questionnaire survey, projective methods (word association experiment and incomplete sentence test) and analysis of school documents. The aim of the questionnaire survey was to determine the player preferences of the examined individuals and their subjective perception of their own playing of games. Projective methods were used to determine the affective responses of individuals to stimuli related to playing games. School documentation was a source of records of a particular student.</p> <p>The study’s findings suggest a potential relationship between playing video games and academic performance of the individuals and the obvious signs of addiction in some of the individuals involved.</p> Tomas Javorcik Cenek Durian Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on e-Learning 2022-10-21 2022-10-21 21 1 149 155 10.34190/ecel.21.1.711 Supporting Learning Mobility with Student Data Harmonisation - A European Perspective <p>Digitalisation promotes online education, internationalisation and student mobility. Based on the Bologna process and the European higher education area, learning mobility has been successful under Erasmus and other similar initiatives. However, a key issue for students and universities is that a significant amount of time is spent on the manual labour involved in the process of applying to degree programs overseas. It is therefore essential for higher education institutions to better exploit the potential of technology and Web 2.0 to enable a secure exchange of evidence during application for degree programs and academic courses in foreign Higher Education Institutions, as well as applying for study grants and obtaining recognition for academic and other types of studies. Harmonisation of the student data is a key initial step for enabling such exchange. In this study, an approach to a secured exchange of education evidence is instrumented under the H2020 project Digital Europe for All (DE4A). Existing semantic standards for Web 2.0 applications, core vocabularies for public service data and semantic assets from existing best practices such as W3C, ISA<sup>2</sup> core vocabularies, and Europass data model are used to curate data models that allow the exchange of a higher education diploma, secondary education diploma and information of special needs (disability, large family), which is required by students when requesting study grants (waive of tuition fees). The semantic interoperability agreements are established cross-border through these data models called canonical evidences. The canonical evidences are tested with the national data services of three countries, Portugal, Slovenia, and Spain. The final data models are implemented in XML Schema format that could be used by any educational organisation intending to use trusted public service databases within Europe to automatically retrieve information on students’ degrees. The validity of the canonical evidences is tested on two pilot occasions within the DE4A project. The outcome of this study summarises the procedural requirements for evidences when applying for a higher degree program and seeking grants. Furthermore, it resulted in verified canonical evidence data models that fulfil the procedural requirements for applying for studying abroad.</p> Thashmee Karunaratne Efstratios Kontopoulos Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on e-Learning 2022-10-21 2022-10-21 21 1 156 164 10.34190/ecel.21.1.908 Universal Design and Language Teaching: Disrupting the Pedagogies of Realistic Mixed-ability Teaching <p>Although computer-assisted language learning and computer-assisted learning can be seen to be the precursors of if not simply the very backbone of E-learning, it is still rare to connect E-learning with special education needs (SEN) pedagogy. The full potential of cross-breeding computer-assisted language learning and Universal Design for Learning has been experimentally investigated by this author, but apparently not by others. Findings in the above-mentioned studies point to augmented learning opportunities for the whole classroom by aiming to offer comprehensive scaffolds design reaching out to SEN learners. The comprehensive SEN-compatible design, though, can be used, as the author has documented (Kasch 2019, 2020) by non-struggling average and above-average learners as well so as to virtually disrupt the classical language pedagogical ideas of having to face the limits of "realistic mixed-ability teaching". Rather, as a few studies also point to - e.g. , E-Learning pedagogy can be enlightened by Universal Design for Learning (UDL) and thus offer learners what they need, being offered scaffolds and support they did not think belonged in language learning materials. This presentation will look at struggling and non-struggling learners' experiences of using assistive universally designed E-learning materials in interview responses (n = 32) in English language learning and come up with a proposal for how UDL can inspire language learning in E-learning designs and pedagogy in general so as to disrupt pedagogical thinking underlying contemporary E-learning designs in language teaching.<br><br></p> Henrik Kasch Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on e-Learning 2022-10-21 2022-10-21 21 1 165 170 10.34190/ecel.21.1.902 An Educational Cultural Game for an Industrial Urban Landscape <p>This paper presents an educational game that aims to enhance students' logical, mathematical, linguistic, and other skills by introducing them to the landscape of Drapetsona, an area in the southern part of Piraeus, Greece, with rich labor history and many industrial monuments, highlighting its industrial heritage and its remains. This educational game is a point-and-click puzzle game with multiple character control. It is aimed at students between the ages of 8-18 years, with graded difficulty depending on the player's age, making it interesting and attractive for any child with moderate access to technology. Our educational structure incorporates inventory, map, and game. A modern platform has been selected for its development that does not require programming and can be easily used by anyone who wants to improve the design of the game. With those digital tools, designing the game is a creative, enabling experience that is accessible to all. The game is currently under construction and a way of evaluating it is proposed.</p> Dimitra Kassi Ioannis Sarlis Dimitrios Kotsifakos Christos Douligeris Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on e-Learning 2022-10-21 2022-10-21 21 1 171 180 10.34190/ecel.21.1.759 Problems and Opportunities of Distance Learning in The Context of The Pandemic: Case of One University in Kazakhstan <p>Distance education systems are being actively studied and developed in higher educational institutions of Kazakhstan, and have already passed the path from the distance learning system to Intelligent flexible learning model based on Web technologies. The advantages of online learning are classroom and platform independence. The goal of various intelligent learning systems is to use knowledge about the field of study, the learner, and learning strategies to provide flexible, individualized study and training. Many Kazakhstani universities were engaged in distance learning as part of the implementation of the second higher education. Obtaining a second higher education in Kazakhstan refers to studying in higher education programs after completing studies at the first higher education in the form of a bachelor's or specialist's degree. By obtaining a second higher education, you can get a degree or qualification in another educational program. The purpose of this empirical research is to study the attitudes of students regarding distance learning and to identify problems in the fulfillment of distance learning in an emergency transition. The study uses a quantitative research method based on a one-dimensional data analysis using descriptive statistics. In order to assess the level of distance learning organization process, the institutional study was initiated at the Kazakh National Women’s Teacher Training University and conducted by the Research Institute for Social and Gender Studies. Based on this study recommendations were developed to improve the educational, methodological, social and educational work of the university, including the use of library resources in the conditions of distance learning. The study was conducted during June - July 2020. The study involved 677 students from all faculties of the university, including bachelor and master degree students, doctoral students. The study was prompted by: the need to assess the quality and level of organization of distance learning at the university; the need to identify problems (issues) of educational and social adaptation of the first-year students; the need to establish the degree of satisfaction of students with the distance learning process. The survey also allows to determine: the most effective forms of distance learning; study the performance indicators of the services provided by the university; to study the indicators of adaptation of students, master degree and doctoral students (satisfaction with the results; deficit experienced by students); evaluate the effectiveness of the work of deans, teachers and advisors from among teachers from the point of view of students. This research identifies the problems in the transition from traditional to distance learning and difficulties that arise when students receive high-quality professional education. Recommendations are developed to optimize the work of university structures aimed at improving the efficiency of the institutes’ work and psychological services. The results obtained will make it possible to make managerial decisions based on information that considers the opinion of consumers of educational services.</p> Neilya Khibina Aizhan Salimzhanova Zada Khibina Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on e-Learning 2022-10-21 2022-10-21 21 1 181 191 10.34190/ecel.21.1.600 Backchannels: Covert Digital Backchannels in the Overt Classroom <p><strong>Abstract:</strong>&nbsp; A study of backchannel communication during lessons in higher education.</p> <p>This paper presents a study of how students utilise social media as backchannels for ‘reflection in action’, ‘reflections on action’, social banter and critique of the ongoing physical presence lesson with digital technologies. The research question was sparked by the overt ways in which the students communicated in the chat in videoconferences in online lessons during the first lock-down (March-June 2020). The students appeared to help each other and sort out practical and academic issues without involving the lecturer in the chat. This initial discovery led to an actual investigation of how the students communicate, digitally during physical presence lessons after the lock-down lifted. It became evident that most students engage in covert, digital communication during lessons. So, while the backchannel was overt and inclusive in online lessons, it turned into a covert exclusive practice in the physical, presence lessons. The paper introduces the notion of a ‘backchannel’ that carries undisclosed strands of student-initiated communication during a lesson. The study also identifies different types of backchannel communication that take place amongst students during lessons. Furthermore, the paper suggests a typological organisation of the different types of reflection the backchannels support. A backchannel is defined as a secondary, informal, unmanaged communication channel that happens simultaneously with a physical, presence lesson. The backchannel seems to be a process that either, covertly, support the students or, overtly, supports the lecturer and the students. The identified backchannels are divided into three different kinds of backchannels in the paper. The types found in the study include: ‘Rhizomatic, covert backchannels’, ‘Lecturer initiated backchannels’ and ‘hybrid joint contribution backchannels’. The paper investigates the pedagogical circumstances under which the backchannels emerge and how they are utilized. Furthermore, the article discusses the implications that covered, digital meta-communication during the lessons that may have on the relationship between lecturer and students. Lastly, the paper presents suggestions for how to use the covert backchannels as a constructive element in the lessons. Finally, the article suggests pedagogical practices that offer the students other possibilities to engage and express insecurities and general questions during lessons and presentations.</p> Thomas Kjaergaard Roland Hachmann Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on e-Learning 2022-10-21 2022-10-21 21 1 192 198 10.34190/ecel.21.1.599 Is the Synchronous Tutorial Still a Learning Activity in the 21st Century? <p>“Is the Synchronous Tutorial still a central learning activity in the 21<sup>st</sup> Century?”&nbsp;</p> <p>The Tutorial or seminar is a key aspect of many academic courses and provides opportunities for the student to ask questions and investigate ideas and theories on the theme of the module being studied. Prior to the COVID-19 Pandemic Universities were investing in Digital technologies to support student learning. This has involved using products such as managed learning environments to store learning materials and to record synchronous sessions. Evaluation of learning during the COVID-19 Pandemic is raising a number of questions regarding providing direction to students on a module. While some institutions have invested in technology to record in class sessions the move to online teaching during the COVID-19 pandemic made recording of synchronous sessions much easier. Scheduled classes are seen as key to establishing study patterns for students and provide focus at set points during the study week. The trend to record everything that is delivered to students may end up changing student study patterns with an implicit movement to asynchronous leaving activities. Why attend when a recording can be viewed? Alternatively, is recording just a natural progression that is supported by modern Educational Technology? This paper will explore the effects the record everything culture is having on learning in Higher Education and will seek to investigate if there is still a role for the synchronous Tutorial in the 21<sup>st</sup> Century.&nbsp;</p> Iain Lambie Bobby Law Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on e-Learning 2022-10-21 2022-10-21 21 1 199 207 10.34190/ecel.21.1.883 Reinforcement Measures for Sustaining the Integration of Innovative Teaching and Learning Technologies in Selected Tanzanian Universities <p>Whereas the integration of innovative technology in facilitating learning is crucial in higher education institutions (HEIs), its sustainability has been a challenge, especially in developing countries. This paper reports the findings of a qualitative study that explored academic leaders' views, perceptions, and experiences on sustainability strategies for the integration of innovative teaching and learning technologies (ITLTs). The paper contributes empirically to the educational discipline by developing a deeper understanding of specific strategies for the sustainability of the ITLTs integration in HIEs. Specifically, the study examined reinforcement measures related to rewards, culture, policies, and capacity building used by academic leaders for the integration of ITLTs in the selected Tanzanian universities. Secondly, the study looked into the perceived level of importance regarding attributes to effective integration of ITLTs in the respective universities. A semi-structured interview was used to collect data among 13 academic leaders from two public universities. Lewin’s change management model guided the study in theorising and analysis of the findings. Thematic-deductive analysis revealed that most participants favoured capacity-building strategy reinforcements. Meanwhile, implicit policies were reported to have a higher positive likelihood of enhancing the sustainability of effective integration of ITLTs. Concerning rewards, in-house training and recognition for what academics do were regarded as favourable strategies. Additionally, participants reported that the culture of offering directives and communication through online platforms has promoted the integration of ITLTs. Lastly, capacity building and policies were vital in enhancing the effective integration of ITLTs. There is a need to strengthen ITLTs policies development, rewards, and capacity-building strategies for more effective and sustainable integration of ITLTs. This further supports the cultural transformation of ITLTs usage among academics in universities.</p> Elizabeth Landa Chang Zhu Jennifer Sesabo Mustapha Almasi Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on e-Learning 2022-10-21 2022-10-21 21 1 208 214 10.34190/ecel.21.1.530 Technology in the Pandemic: Rupturing the Aura of Higher Education <p>Framed by Benjamin’s (2008) concepts of aura, technological reproduction, and miniaturization, this paper argues that technology provides students with greater opportunities to take control of their learning in ways that were not possible when education took place largely on-campus, in the higher education classroom. Post pandemic, digital technology has influenced, and will further impact, the way in which we teach and communicate with our students. Educators emerging from pandemic pedagogies need a deeper understanding, and more judicious and effective use of technologies for learning. By understanding and using technology in these ways, educators can help students become more empowered, collaborative, and critically reflective. A lack of readiness for emergency online learning has been replaced with a sense of acceptance that educators&nbsp; must incorporate digital tools into their practice for both educational and communicative purposes. This means that our intellectual and social attachment to the physical classroom as a place for learning and communicating is not as strong as before. Far from being a eulogy for the physical classroom, this paper aims to interrogate the proliferation of technology, and the broad implications for higher education. It argues that the use of technology may help diminish the historical power and aura of higher education and intellectual pursuits, thus undermining the traditional overt and covert control of the institution as an ideological state apparatus. Nevertheless, this shifting educational landscape brings new challenges and questions about the historical aura of higher education, and the concomitant evolution of teacher student relationships and power structures through technology implementation. While maintaining optimism about educational technology, this paper urges educators to consider the broader context of our educational settings, and argues for prioritising critical engagement with technology that aims to utilise its potential for collaboration, empowerment and critically reflective inquiry.</p> Graham Lean Wendy Barber Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on e-Learning 2022-10-21 2022-10-21 21 1 215 222 10.34190/ecel.21.1.912 Authentic Assessment in Higher Education: Applying a Habermasian Framework <p>The pursuit of authentic assessment has challenged educators to redesign and reformulate assessment and evaluation to better meet the needs of digital-era learners. Its primary goal has been to bring more accurate representations of “real world” situations and characteristics to education through assessment. However, these moves toward authentic assessment have too often limited notions of authenticity to an <em>external</em> real world, which itself is often limited to the world of work. This restricted view of authenticity in assessment risks neglecting key aspects of students’ ontological and epistemological subjectivity, and their ever-changing, evolving and <em>authentic</em> notions of self. Authentic assessment requires a holistic approach that underscores the student as an individual within a society. This means we must strike a balance between social expectations and individual autonomy because authentic assessment that aims to replicate the world of work risks neglecting student agency, self-determination and the desire to achieve subjective authenticity. This paper’s purpose is to critically interrogate authentic assessment and analyse theoretical frameworks upon which higher education can build and implement balanced and holistic approaches to authenticity in assessment. Resting on Jurgen Habermas’ <em>Knowledge Constitutive Interests</em>, the authors argue for a more balanced approach to authentic assessment that incorporates human drives for objectified knowledge, communicative rationality, and emancipatory learning. After establishing the relevance of Habermas’ theoretical framework to authentic assessment, this paper examines the value of self, peer and negotiated assessment and the potential of digital tools to aid these processes.</p> Graham Lean Wendy Barber Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on e-Learning 2022-10-21 2022-10-21 21 1 223 229 10.34190/ecel.21.1.913 The Impact of Emergency Online Learning and Teaching on Mature Part-Time Students <p>During the COVID-19 pandemic, most institutions of higher education in South Africa, following an international trend, embarked on a mission to save the academic project by resorting to emergency online teaching and learning (EOLTL). The pandemic resulted in mature, part-time, working students being even further marginalised by removing them from university life and the accompanying support services geared to facilitate social, academic and mental well-being.&nbsp; We assumed that the cohort of mature, part-time students (MPTS) would encounter technological and personal challenges that could limit their academic progress.</p> <p>Against this backdrop, the dual aim of this study explored the impact of EOLTL on MPTS during the COVID-19 pandemic; and the redesign or readjustment of the curriculum to accommodate and support this cohort of students. A previous, pre-pandemic study, revealed that this group of students experienced significant challenges with balancing work-and-home life in addition to the stress of studying part-time. Subsequently, a questionnaire was designed and piloted with a group of senior students from this cohort to explore the impact of EOLTL. As an ongoing study, this research will report on the findings from the pilot study and compare them to the results of the data obtained from the pre-pandemic study.</p> <p>A significant finding of the study indicated that the majority of the students from this cohort coped well with EOLTL and indicated a preference for a more hybrid approach for the future and the remainder of their studies.&nbsp; These findings now challenge universities to find ways to adapt, capitalise on and apply the lessons learnt from the COVID-19 pandemic to benefit MPTS.&nbsp;</p> <p>Based on lessons learnt and experiences during the pandemic, this research has the potential to provide insight into how higher education institutions could improve the provision of support, as well as the learning and teaching experiences of this unique student cohort of mature employed students studying part-time (and others), to ensure retention and academic success.</p> Ann Lourens RUTH CONNELLY RONELLE PLAATJES CURWYN MAPALING Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on e-Learning 2022-10-21 2022-10-21 21 1 230 239 10.34190/ecel.21.1.897 Preferences of Grade R-12 learners in South Africa for Digital Game-based Learning <p>Evidence from the literature suggests that Game-based Learning (GBL) can help students learn better. A gamified environment can provide a blend of serious learning and fun for students. Some researchers have observed that GBL could stimulate valuable educational outcomes and positively impact a child's life. However, evidence shows that students in poor communities in South Africa are performing poorly academically due to poor student engagement and lack of motivation. Although GBL platforms are being used widely in some developed countries, they have not been widely adopted in South African schools. This paper provides insight on the preferences of learners in South African schools with respect to GBL. We conducted a survey involving participants from four South African Schools (2 Primary schools and 2 Secondary schools) to determine the type and mode of GBL that Grade R-12 learners prefer. A total of 193 learners participated in the survey. The study found the learners' preferential order of type of games are puzzles, video games, simulation games, word games, and card games. The aspects of visual aesthetics, musical scores, and incentive appeal to most learners. At the same time, there is also a preference for games that involves a challenge, enable competition with peers, and promotes curiosity. Based on our findings, we argue that multiplayer game platforms that have rich social interaction features would suit learners in South African schools, while single-player game platforms that can stimulate logical thinking and reasoning will also be helpful to aid learners in identified difficult subjects like Mathematics, Mathematical Literacy, Pure Science, accounting, and Geography. The study provides a solid foundation for understanding the requirements for developing GBL solutions to support education in South Africa. Furthermore, the study's findings could guide government policy on the adoption of GBL and software developers in making design choices during the development of GBL platforms.</p> Makhasane Mamotheti Olawande Daramola Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on e-Learning 2022-10-21 2022-10-21 21 1 240 249 10.34190/ecel.21.1.909 Redefining Quality Assessment in Canadian K-12 Schools With Empathy, Critical Consciousness and Metacognition <p>Over the past decades, educational pedagogies have been shaped by many theorists and frameworks. For the purpose of this paper, the researchers define educational pedagogy through a lens that is influenced by Paulo Freire. For instance, educational pedagogy can be defined as seeking a balance within the tension between freedom and authority, while navigating the challenging structures that shape educational institutions (Freire, 2005, 2020). These structures include the impact of lived experiences and realities, the role of curricula, and the changing interactions within society that influence the pedagogical frameworks in education (Freire, 2020). This paper begins to consider a new framework for assessment and evaluation in Ontario, Canada’s K-12 schools, where educational pedagogy, empathy, metacognition, and critical consciousness may be posited as potential components moving forward. This paper deeply examines these three key elements of effective and authentic assessment: empathy, critical consciousness and metacognition. Each of these terms is defined and situated in a 21C digital learning context, and the authors suggest that new directions in assessment and evaluation must consider these three significant as fundamental to any redesign of assessment practices. Consideration may be given to the perspectives and experiences of educational leaders, educators, students, and their communities, and how these perspectives can shape the values and how we meet the challenges in education. Pedagogy in practice can often reflect the strategies and beliefs that influence educators’ values and choices, and the resulting impact on learning. Part of these pedagogical considerations may include the development of empathy, critical consciousness and metacognition throughout the assessment and evaluation process. Using a Canadian context, the authors argue that post-pandemic learners require a different set of tools to learn, and post-pandemic teachers need to reconfigure the ways in which that learning is measured, assessed and evaluated.</p> <p>, ,,,&nbsp;</p> Michael Marchione Wendy Barber Roland van Oosveen Joe Stokes Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on e-Learning 2022-10-21 2022-10-21 21 1 250 257 10.34190/ecel.21.1.925 Lessons Learnt From The Home Office: An Autoethnographic Case Study <p>The Corona pandemic has certainly acted as a catalyst for technology enabled and technology enhanced learning. In this paper technology enabled learning is defined as learning activities that are supported and made possible by technology, while technology enhanced learning refers to learning activities where technology has improved the quality. To what degree, and how teaching and learning activities and meetings have been transformed depends on the actual educational orchestration before the pandemic. This case story is based on experiences from courses and collaborations at a department of computer and system science. The question that guided this study was: "What are the lessons learnt from online activities at the home office during the pandemic?". This study was carried out as an autoethnographic case study with five case units: 1) A programming course 2) A course for Bachelor's thesis writing, 3) A course for system development by internship, and 4) Staff meetings and 5) Research collaborations. Results indicate that at a department where technology enabled blended synchronous learning was the standard mode already before the pandemic, the forced changes have not been that drastic. However, the course with internship and workplace learning has really suffered. The course where students have their Bachelor's thesis supervision has been much alike, while the other units show improvements that could be classified as technology enhancement. Ensemble programming online has worked very well, staff meetings have been more focused than in face-to-face mode, and the research collaborations have been efficient and with a high number of publications. Research methods seems to have changed with more literature reviews, more of email interviews and more of focus group interviews in video conference systems. The part of research that has suffered is the one with conferences, and as an example, networking at a virtual conference has been rather poor. Finally, many home offices seem to survive the pandemic due to the high and high-quality delivery from home, with the known risk of distance workers becoming workaholics. &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Peter Mozelius Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on e-Learning 2022-10-21 2022-10-21 21 1 258 263 10.34190/ecel.21.1.634 Educational Development - Challenges, Opportunities, Tools and Techniques <p><strong>: </strong>As pointed out by many researchers, the ongoing pandemic has been a catalyst for educational development. With the increasing need for reskilling and lifelong learning, the current model of technology-enhanced learning needs updating, and so does also the university programmes for bachelor's and master's students. This study is based on an online brainstorming session and submitted development plans in the HEaD (Higher Education and Digitalisation) project, a five-year initiative for technology-enhanced educational development. HEaD is a development project aimed at supporting university teachers to work with research and development in the field of technology-enhanced and lifelong learning. As the research strategy, an action research approach was used, with the purpose of improving the educational process where authors also have the roles of teachers and facilitators. The aim of the study is to describe and discuss pilot project members' perceptions of challenges, opportunities, tools and techniques in higher education development. Data gathered from workshop discussion summaries and project plans were thematically analysed. Ideas from the workshop sessions were written down and saved with the use of the digital notice board Padlet. Results from the thematic analysis have been grouped into the four predefined categories of challenges, opportunities, tools and techniques. Findings show that course participants and project members have interesting ideas that have the potential to reinforce the current educational model at the university. Several tools and techniques that could support synchronous as well as asynchronous online learning will be tested and evaluated. Both the workshop summaries and the project plans show a high degree of creativity, but on the other hand, the method descriptions were scarce and would need improvement. The conclusion is that the project has had a good start if seen as development, but that there is a need for improvement and more input to achieve the intended core idea of research and development.</p> Peter Mozelius Sebastian Bader Jimmy Jaldemark Patrik Urbansson Alexis Engström Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on e-Learning 2022-10-21 2022-10-21 21 1 264 271 10.34190/ecel.21.1.626 Offline and Online Practices for Assembly Language Programming with 8085 Microprocessor <p>The COVID-19 pandemic has meant that distance teaching and learning at educational institutions since 2020 has become common place. The Ministry of Education in Bhutan has taken the initiative to educate students using learning television and Internet-based online education instead of traditional classes. Thus, the Royal University of Bhutan (RUB) and its ten constituent colleges have been swift in transitioning to online teaching through Moodle and varieties of other applications such as ZOOM, Big Blue Button and Google classroom since March 2020. Since then, offline and online blended teaching began at the College of Science and Technology (CST) under RUB in January 2021. In this paper, we focus on offline and online teaching and learning practices for assembly language programming with the 8085 microprocessor. A Zoom meeting is used for the online practical. Firstly, a tutor gives an 8085 assembly program lesson, which is common to both offline and online teaching practices. In the case of the offline practice, students assemble the assembly program into Hexadecimal code, by looking up a table of the 8085 instruction set. Finally, the Hexadecimal code is input and executed on an 8085 microprocessor trainer, and students confirm the output from the trainer. Here, the trainer is a small computer composed of a microprocessor, peripheral/communication interfaces, timer, memory, input device and output device. In the case of the online practice, on the other hand, students input the assembly program directly on a Web-based 8085 microprocessor simulator. We developed an 8085 microprocessor simulator using JavaScript. Then, students confirm the output from the simulator on a Web browser. The students took 6 offline learning practices and 4 online out of a total of 10. According to a questionnaire survey about the comparison of the offline and online practices from the students, they say offline practices are much better than online ones, because direct communication is important to understand the learning contents. We conclude that there is room for improvement in the online teaching methods.</p> Kazuhiro Muramatsu Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on e-Learning 2022-10-21 2022-10-21 21 1 272 278 10.34190/ecel.21.1.850 A Framework for Transitioning to Virtual Classes During Life-Threatening Pandemics Like COVID-19 <p>This research explains the benefits and challenges of virtual classes as experienced by university students during the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic. The limited research on university students' experiences in virtual classrooms during the COVID-19 pandemic, which disrupted physical classes and forced educational institutions to blindly switch from physical classes to virtual classes, served as the inspiration for this study. The absence of a framework for smoothly transitioning from physical classes to virtual classes challenged this process. Furthermore, relatively few studies have been done on the empirical context of a developing nation with distinct social and economic circumstances, concerning university students' experiences of virtual classrooms during COVID-19. Thus a quantitative study using a single case study of a university in Southern Africa was guided by the duality of structure in Giddens Structuration Theory, which explains students' experiences by highlighting both positive aspects—such as flexibility, collaboration, accessibility, and availability of course materials—and negative aspects—such as high costs, boredom, and a lack of resources and training. Analysis was done using Microsoft Excel and the findings also showed how, during the COVID-19 epidemic, structures of dominance, signification, and legitimacy formed as a result of behaviors related to leadership, resources, empowerment, and adoption, which both facilitated and hampered the smooth transition to virtual classrooms. The paper concluded by proposing a framework for transitioning to virtual classes during life-threatening situations like the COVID-19 pandemic. Although not generalizable across all university contexts, these findings provide a foundation for understanding the university students’ experiences in virtual classes during COVID-19. These findings have both practical and theoretical implications since they both provide an explanation of experiences in virtual classes as well as propose a framework for guiding the process of moving away from physical classes towards virtual classes during life-threatening situations.</p> Belinda Mutunhu Sibusisiwe Dube Sinokubekezela Princess Dube Sharon Mpofu Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on e-Learning 2022-10-21 2022-10-21 21 1 279 287 10.34190/ecel.21.1.900 Reshaping academic ways of being and doing <p>After a critical review of the impact of change on people’s lives, we report on an empirical study highlighting three major aspects of academic life that the pandemic affected, providing supporting examples. The method used is first textual analysis for the critical review based on what the literature identifies as difficulties brought about by change (CBIA, 2022; Senge, 1990). The empirical study is of a qualitative nature (Creswell, &amp; Poth, 2018) based on the analysis of observations in a personal journal, and aims at uncovering academic concerns during the pandemic. The findings will be valuable to academics to reshape their ‘new normal’. Results include for the theoretical part of the literature review the fact that change impacts people and one cannot come back to prior positioning. Several findings from the analysis of the observational notes are centered around three main areas. The first issue was due to the short time span for new implementations and hence no time for foresight. This encompasses consequences of trial and error, more administrative control, and uncertainty of outcomes with contradictory discourses been held. Added to that there was a human cost that far exceeded what would normally be the case. For instance academic colleagues quitting or retiring early, unevenness in support provided, isolation in some cases compared to overabundance of support in others, perhaps even favoritism. The third major observation pointed to consequences on the instructional context. In this case, a number of positive outcomes were noted. More effort was placed on student engagement and learning, and it was all made visible. More activities were devised based on gaming strategies, and serious work was made more motivating. A better feel for knowledge integration was possible due to on-line learning for students who put some effort into it. Some observations however led to drawing conflicting conclusions. Finally, we discuss new future pathways. For instance, it is important to develop self-regulation in students and resilience for all concerned. There also appears to be a need to provide active support to everyone on an on-going basis as we move past the crisis.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Marie J. Myers Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on e-Learning 2022-10-21 2022-10-21 21 1 288 294 10.34190/ecel.21.1.886 Development of critical thinking disposition using an online discussion board during a fully online course <div><span lang="EN-GB">Online discussion is a key learning activity for developing literacy of critical thinking disposition (CTD). The effectiveness and activities of online discussion during a blended learning setting have been analysed. The aim of this paper is to extract student's characteristics during online discussions in a fully online course in order to invite more participants to join and to encourage discussion. The differences in student's characteristics and learning performance between online discussants and non-participants were statistically analysed. Key characteristics were extracted and discussed using regression analysis. Also, causal relationship of the development of literacy of CTD were extracted and the learning progress of online discussants was examined.</span></div> Minoru Nakayama Satoru Kikuchi Hiroh Yamamoto Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on e-Learning 2022-10-21 2022-10-21 21 1 295 301 10.34190/ecel.21.1.707 Improving Online Learning Design for Employed Adult Learners <p>With the growing need for developing competence at workplaces, the number of employed adult learners is increasing in higher education institutions to follow continuing education. Often they are educated and treated as traditional students. To satisfy the learning demands of employed learners, work-integrated education has emerged to spotlight the importance of the integration of work and education in contemporary education. Many studies show that employed adult learners have different and more complex ways of learning compared to traditional students. Furthermore, employed adult learners have lacked the attention of researchers and educators to enhance their learning in general and online learning in particular. Meanwhile, online learning is a preferred way for learners who work and study in tandem. This study aims to make the online learning design for employed adult learners more effective and adaptable to their circumstances by asking the research question “How can online learning design for employed adult learners be improved?”. The case study of a course for employed adult learners was examined with a mixed method approach including interview and learning analytics. The interview data laid the groundwork for developing assumptions and hypotheses for the examination of employed adult learners’ learning patterns. Learning analytics consist of data visualization, which revealed employed adult learners’ learning patterns, and statistical tests, which inspected the validity and reliability of the patterns revealed by the log data. The log data were extracted from the learning management system, which recorded the educational activities of the learners during the course. This study exposed the pitfalls of the learning design including average to low engagement not only in learning but also in the course. As a result, the indicators to improve the online learning design for employed adult learners comprise investing in learning materials and increasing online interaction to fortify learner engagement in the course, thereby enhancing course completion. The indicators are viewed as the first step in the process of developing a proper and effective online learning design for employed adult learners. Finally, the reflection on online interaction for employed adult learners is also discussed.</p> Ngoc Buu Cat Nguyen Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on e-Learning 2022-10-21 2022-10-21 21 1 302 309 10.34190/ecel.21.1.554 Exploring Hybrid Course Design in Promoting Active Engagement in extended curriculum and mainstream contexts <p>The current COVID 19 pandemic has propelled evidently all courses in Universities to be taught using online technologies within a hybrid mode. There has been a cry from the academic environment on how to make student responsive and engaged in a very lonely online environment as opposed to face-to-face classrooms that are seen as engaging and responsive. This study seeks to investigate in both extended curriculum programme and mainstream programmes how hybrid courses are designed such that they can promote active engagements. This is of interest in these programmes because of the approach to curriculum design in extended curriculum programmes versus mainstream programmes. The research design is that of an interpretative paradigm within case study design using a qualitative research approach. The sample for the study is made up of three faculties extended curriculum programmes and mainstream courses in a traditional University in South Africa. The main reason behind selecting three faculties with extended curriculum and mainstream is to understand the difference in how engagements are designed in the hybrid models in extended curriculum versus mainstream. This is to further enhance hybrid engagement between these two programmes. In each of these three faculties, two courses were selected because of their engagement in online learning and hybrid learning initiatives, making a total number of six courses. Activity Theory was used to analyse the hybrid/blended learning environments and focus group interviews were analysed to identify conditions, which enable and constrain engagement in these hybrid environments. The study concludes that it is imperative that academic development supports and enhances the development and agency of academics in creating active and engaging hybrid or online environments in both extended curriculum and mainstream programmes.</p> Siyanda Ntlabathi Nomakhaya Mashiyi Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on e-Learning 2022-10-21 2022-10-21 21 1 310 322 10.34190/ecel.21.1.911 Social Interaction in Virtual Teams – An Exploratory Study of Students Undertaking Business Simulation <p>In recent times, the usage of virtual teams has been accelerated, and virtual teams are being used exponentially in higher education and industry - driven by, and in response to, the Covid-19 pandemic - aided by developments in innovative technologies and globalisation. Teams have suddenly become an essential and necessary approach for collaborative learning as well as task completion. In examining the components of social interaction and its respective distinguished components, this paper positively points to virtual teams being an appropriate means for social interaction and team performance, albeit with some challenges. This qualitative study brings to the fore constructive and affirmative themes, along with various challenges that virtual teams present and also highlights areas for further research.</p> Michael O'Brien Yvonne Costin Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on e-Learning 2022-10-21 2022-10-21 21 1 323 330 10.34190/ecel.21.1.612 Engagement challenges in a hybrid classroom: Reflections of a higher education tutor <p>The Covid-19 pandemic required a shift that brought many hybrid classrooms to the doors of tutors. Online video tools were one method utilised in a way to keep classrooms safe due to the need for social distancing. This paper explores the term hybrid learning and how previous studies have implemented online tools within this mode of teaching. The paper will explore some of the common challenges a hybrid learning environment presents when considering student engagement and belonging. A clearer understanding of good practice in using online tools such as chat boxes to encourage student participation is discussed. The challenge of working with students both physically and remote is explored and reflected on.</p> <p>The benefits of a hybrid classroom environment are examined from previous studies and how utilising positive teaching methods can encourage students to stay connected. A holistic reflection on the quick movement towards hybrid is considered. The challenges of hybrid have been considered including how to keep students engaged as lockdowns were eased due to the pandemic.</p> Stefan Overton Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on e-Learning 2022-10-21 2022-10-21 21 1 331 337 10.34190/ecel.21.1.788 Comparing Student high and low Reading Performance with Differentiated Digital Reading Materials <p>The present study investigates eight Grade-4 classes (9- to 12-year-olds, 52.1% girls) who worked on at least 10 lessons using project RegioDiff material. The study focuses on one of these lessons (including nine text passages and corresponding tasks) and on students with low (19 students, percentile &lt;15) and high reading skills (29 students, percentile &gt; 70). While students were working with the material, screencasts were recorded (30h). The construct “task performance” (processing time, response accuracy, and task engagement) was then analysed using the screencasts.</p> <p>The analysis revealed that the two groups differed significantly in the processing time of two tasks, but not in the total time spent on all nine tasks. Significant differences were revealed also for general task engagement. Task engagement was highly correlated with processing time. Participants with higher reading skills spent more time on the tasks and were more engaged than participants with lower reading skills. However, we did not find any differences in terms of answer accuracy. This indicates that task difficulty and student reading skills were well matched.</p> <p>The study also shows how tasks may be adapted or augmented in order to match the learning environment more closely to student learning needs.</p> Lisa Paleczek Daniela Ender Andrea Kogler Susanne Seifert Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on e-Learning 2022-10-21 2022-10-21 21 1 338 347 10.34190/ecel.21.1.680 Investigating Teachers' Transition From Traditional to Online: A Case Study on Accounting Teacher Perspectives <p>The COVID-19 pandemic has significantly impacted online education, increasingly converting traditional classrooms to fully online platforms.&nbsp; Consequently, a progressing country in the global south, Sri Lanka, has undergone a challenging period during this transition due to various social, economic, and cultural influences. Focusing on the rapid change within Higher Education in Sri Lanka, this paper aims to empirically investigate teachers’ perceptions of online education provisions and challenges during the pandemic that can be utilised for effective and efficient technology-enhanced learning. The study was based on a thematic analysis of interview data from eight teachers in the subject area of accounting. Their experience regarding the transition from the traditional classroom to online education is captured under four main themes, students’ behaviour in the online setting, teachers' approach to handling the online environment, institutional support, and teachers’ perceived effectiveness of online education. The identified experiences are utilised to benefit future online teaching and learning of accounting in an effective and efficient, technologically enhanced environment.</p> Anne Pathiranage Thashmee Karunaratne Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on e-Learning 2022-10-21 2022-10-21 21 1 348 356 10.34190/ecel.21.1.615 Analysing reflections of academics through the framework of well-being <p>Although South Africa is a developing economy, the majority of its people live in poverty, exacerbated by load shedding, which leads to issues relating to connectivity and access to technology. This affects the teaching and learning modes of academics in the higher education sector. Academics have previously, and during the pandemic, shown efficiency and effectiveness in moving to various modalities as and when expected. The same was displayed when they were asked to prepare for online or remote teaching platforms that some of them had previously used. Consequently, in academia, this shift resulted in an escalation of the adoption of novel pedagogies accompanied by increased stress and anxiety-related illnesses. In this paper, the researcher reported on the findings of a survey conducted via focus group interviews with departments at a university of technology in South Africa to analyse its impact on their work and/or work-life balance. Ryff’s (1995) theory of well-being was used to analyse the qualitative data. The findings conclude that the lockdown and subsequent move to online teaching has had a negative impact on the well-being of academics. Significant outcomes of online teaching, along with positive outlooks, caring relationships, and support between management and colleagues, have been reported.</p> Sweta Patnaik Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on e-Learning 2022-10-21 2022-10-21 21 1 357 364 10.34190/ecel.21.1.693 A Conceptual Framework for Integrating TPB With Context-Relevant Variables to Predict e-Learning Success During the Covid -19 Pandemic <p>The COVID-19 pandemic has necessitated the digitalization of some aspects of our lives including education. However, as we witness a phenomenal rise in the demand for online learning, the decision to migrate to online learning platforms is dependent on the learner’s preparedness to embrace it. The objective of this study is to conceptualize a framework that measures the tendency of learners to adopt online learning in an era characterised by so many disruptions. To do this, we adopt document analysis on databases such as SCOPUS, Web of Science, EBSCO and Google Scholar using Boolean search engines; AND, OR, NOT, *, (), ‘’’’, +, -, &lt;,&gt;. &nbsp;mainly on current scientific manuscripts through the use of the keywords “e-learning”, “theory of planned behaviour”, “Covid 19”, “distance learning”, “environmental factors” and “academic technology adoption”. Subsequently, we integrate the theory of planned behaviour with other context-relevant variables as the bases of the study, and conceptualise a framework to predict e-learning success in the covid-19 era. This study contributes to the scientific body of knowledge on e-learning, particularly from the perspective of a forced mass adoption of e-learning occasioned by a global pandemic.</p> Diego Fernando Plata Lerma Eric Afful-Dadzie Michael Adu Kwarteng Fortune Nwaiwu Alex Ntsiful Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on e-Learning 2022-10-21 2022-10-21 21 1 365 372 10.34190/ecel.21.1.686 Effectiveness of the Capacity Development Programme on the Creation of IMFUNDO Modules by the University Teachers <p>Abstract: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of the capacity development programme on the creation of IMFUNDO modules during post-COVID-19 lockdown. The participants were 116 University teachers from the Faculty of A and B. Mixed-method research was used. Data were collected through open-ended and closed-ended questionnaires, and interviews. Quantitative data were analysed using SPSS frequency distribution. Atlas.ti was used to analyse the qualitative data. The results revealed that 109 (90.5%) of the teachers strongly agree and agree that, during the planning phase, the incorporation of IMFUNDO and technology in the curriculum was clearly stated on both the module descriptor and study guide. It was also found that 88 (76.9%) of the teachers strongly agree and agree that they constructed, scaffolded and chunked the learning content and activities based on the IMFUNDO structure for each learning unit of the module. It was further established that teachers were positive, felt great, and received excellent support during the training. It is recommended that further studies be conducted on the implementation and quality of the IMFUNDO modules during COVID-19 lockdown.</p> Sibongile Simelane-Mnisi Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on e-Learning 2022-10-21 2022-10-21 21 1 373 381 10.34190/ecel.21.1.721 Pre-service Mathematics Teachers’ lesson plans as a source of Information about their readiness to teach online <p>This paper presents a study of lesson plans created by pre-service mathematics teachers (PMTs) from two universities (Faculty of Education, Charles University in Prague, and Faculty of Mathematics, Physics and Informatics, Comenius University in Bratislava) in the course Didactics of Mathematics. The collaboration of the two research teams brought new perspectives on several questions that were come across in one or the other group of PMTs. The focus of the study was on lesson plans since the lesson plan is one of the significant parts of mathematics teacher education. The studied issues were the PMTs’ willingness to implement digital technologies (DT) in their lesson plans and the changes in their lesson plans that could be linked to the COVID-19 pandemic. For data processing, a mixed research design was used. In the qualitative part of the research, the thematic analysis resulted in identification of several codes related to the hybrid mode of teaching. In the quantitative part, Statistical Implicative Analysis (C.H.I.C) was applied. Relations inside the groups of PMTs and among them are presented and discussed in the paper by interpreting the results from the implicative trees and graphs. We concluded that (i) PMTs from our sample are, to a limited extent, prepared for using DT in their teaching, (ii) PMTs used DT in their teaching mainly for testing and feedback collection, (iii) PMTs in our sample focused on the content and the choice of software (or application, applet, etc.) when preparing a lesson plan. Besides that, we found (by using C.H.I.C.) that not all codes identified in thematic analysis were connected to the others. The findings are of interest to teacher educators in general, researchers interested in teachers’ lesson planning, and in-service teachers in general. In this paper we focus on PMTs’ lesson plans. We plan to do a similar analysis of in-service teachers’ lesson plans in order to gain a deeper insight into the role of experience in the studied domain.</p> Mária Slavíčková Jarmila Novotná Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on e-Learning 2022-10-21 2022-10-21 21 1 382 389 10.34190/ecel.21.1.764 Analysis of Individual Conversational Volatility in Tandem Telecollaboration for Second Language Learning <p>Second language (L2) learning can be enabled by tandem collaboration where students are grouped in video conference calls while learning the native language of other student(s) on the calls. This places students in an online environment where the more outgoing can actively contribute and engage in dialogue while those more shy and unsure of their second language language skills can sit back and coast through the calls. We have built and deployed the L2L system which records timings of conversational utterances from all participants in a call. We generate visualisations including participation rates and timelines for each student in each call and present these on a dashboard. Students can self-reflect and perhaps target improving their levels of engagement for subsequent calls. We have recently developed a measure called personal conversational volatility for how dynamic has been each student’s contribution to the dialogue in each call. This measures whether a student’s contribution was interactive with a mixture of interjections perhaps interrupting and agreeing with others combined with longer contributions, or whether it consisted of regular duration contributions with not much mixing. We present an analysis of conversational volatility measures of a sample of 19 individual English-speaking students from our University at lower intermediate-intermediate level (B1/B2) in their target language which was French, in each of 86 tandem telecollaboration calls over one teaching semester. Our analysis shows that students varied considerably in how their individual levels of engagement changed as their telecollaboration meetings progressed. Some students got more involved in the dialogue from one meeting to the next while others did not change their interaction levels at all.&nbsp;&nbsp; The reasons for this are not clear from the data we have and point to a need for further investigation into the nature of online tandem telecollaboration meetings. In particular there is a need to look into the nature of the interactions and see if the choices of discussion topics were too difficult for some lower intermediate students and that may have influenced their engagement in some way.</p> Alan Smeaton Aparajita Dey-Plissonneau Hyowon Lee Mingming Liu Michael Scriney Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on e-Learning 2022-10-21 2022-10-21 21 1 390 397 10.34190/ecel.21.1.590 The Benefits and Disadvantages of e-Learning During Covid-19 <p>The theme of the research is topical, there are changes in the e-learning during Covid-19 which changes set new tasks in the study process at the universities, as well as new communication links and the changes of the culture of pedagogical technologies. The aim of the research is to define the benefits and disadvantages of the e-learning in the study process at the universities and their correspondence with the needs of the students and academic staff during Covid-19. There are the following tasks to achieve the aim: to specify the functions of the meaning of the e-learning based on the changes in the e-environment during Covid-19; to investigate the adequacy of the contents of the university studies with the demand of e-learning nowadays; to find out the pedagogical instruments in the cognitive process which functions as a pedagogical form of the professional development and manifests itself in the benefits and disadvantages to the university education in the e-environment. In order to define the benefits and disadvantages of e-learning of the university education the authors take into account the theories of the science of pedagogy and education management. The following methods are used in the paper: abstract analysis, content analysis, systems analysis, interviews, surveys, questionnaires, economic experiment. The base of the research are the Universities of Latvia. The research is done in the period of 2019 - 2022.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Inese Spica Sarmite Jegere Iveta Linina Kalevs Kants Lada Kalinina Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on e-Learning 2022-10-21 2022-10-21 21 1 398 405 10.34190/ecel.21.1.793 What Previous Research Says About Virtual and Augmented Reality in Higher Education <p>Virtual reality is a computer-generated environment with scenes and objects that appear to be real, making the user feel they are immersed in their surroundings. It is not a recent technology, nor is its application to education. Despite its popularity, it is not widely used in education because of its limitations including required technologies, the cost and etc. In order to gain a better understanding of how it is used in higher education so far and what the trends regarding courses and teaching methods in which virtual and augmented realities are integrated are, it is thought that it may be helpful to conduct a systematic review of the use of virtual reality in higher education.</p> <p>This paper aims at contributing to an understanding of using virtual reality in higher education in the context of technology enhanced learning. So, it is designed as a systematic literature review with five steps. Those steps are description of research questions, searching for relevant published research, screening of those research, coding of them, and lastly analysing and mapping the data. Based on the data, it can be said that virtual and augmented realities in higher education have been mostly implemented in the medicine courses and simulations have been mostly implemented in virtual and augmented realities in higher education as teaching strategies.</p> Murat Sümer David Vaněček Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on e-Learning 2022-10-21 2022-10-21 21 1 406 409 10.34190/ecel.21.1.884 The Role of Mobile Technologies in the Development of Key Competencies – a Review Study <p>Modern education is based on the development of key competencies. By developing key competencies, we should prepare pupils and students for real life, i.e. for their beneficial integration into society and their professional life. At the same time, digital devices are penetrating education, of which mobile technologies have a strong position in education. Much research has looked at the impact of mobile technology on the learning process, motivation and learning fixation, but does this technology have an impact on the development of key competencies? These thoughts led the authors to produce a review study that maps the role of mobile technology in the development of key competencies. The paper aims to analyse the available literature and determine the current state of the art on the issue described above. In the theoretical part of the paper, the authors describe the theoretical background that formed the basis for the development of the review study. The theoretical part of the thesis deals with the area of mobile technologies in education, where the authors define the term mobile technologies and briefly outline their position in education. Another area discussed is key competencies, where the authors define the term, describe their role in the context of European education, and focus in detail on key competencies for learning, problem solving, communicative competencies, and digital competencies. The last theoretical area described is the the research methodology, in which the authors focus exclusively on defining the concept of a review study. The research part contains the methodology of the conducted research, where the specific procedure of the review study is described. 50 publications were selected and analysed in detail, and the information found was recorded in a table. The results of the research do not only contain conclusions about which key competencies are developed by mobile technologies but also look at, among other things, what level of education uses this technology or how different countries perceive this issue. The results of the research can serve as a basis for further research that can look at the relationship between mobile technology and specific key competencies.</p> Daniel Tran Kateřina Kostolányová Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on e-Learning 2022-10-21 2022-10-21 21 1 410 416 10.34190/ecel.21.1.550 Can MOOCs reskill and upskill the Indian Workforce for the Industrial Revolution 4.0? <p>Industrial Revolution 4.0 is blurring the boundaries between human intellect and technology. It is characterized by technologies like Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning, Blockchain Technology, Robotics, Internet of Things among others. The much-celebrated Industrial Revolution 4.0 will create massive job losses in developing countries including India due to the automation of jobs and processes. Thus, there is a dire need to reskill a vast majority of the workforce for the Industrial Revolution 4.0 which has already begun to be implemented due to its optimization and efficiency in resource usage. According to an estimate by OECD, the nature of 1/3<sup>rd</sup> of the jobs will transform due to technological interventions. Whereas World Economic Forum has set an ambitious target of reskilling at least 1 billion people by 2030. It believes that the world is undergoing a reskilling emergency. On the other hand, Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) were conceived as an online version of distance learning and are increasingly being seen as a medium for filling the skills gap. Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) are relying on the MOOCs courses along with utilizing the tools of Web 2.0 to cater to the demands of quality, affordable and accessible education to all. MOOCs also caters as a platform for the promotion of lifelong learning. COVID 19 has provided a spurt to the acceptability of MOOCs courses with most Edu Tech start-ups and MOOCs websites registering double-digit growth in the recent past. Coursera's 2020 impact report showcases that India has become the second-largest market for MOOCs with 9.84 million learners after the USA which has 14 million learners. The paper investigates the viability of the MOOCs courses in filling the skill gap as well as the reskilling of the Indian Workforce. It will also delve into whether the MOOCs courses can bridge the digital divide with the country having the world's largest unconnected population. It will critically engage with the question of whether Industrial Revolution 4.0 requires only highly specialized technology-based skills or soft skills or a combination of both for future jobs.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Industrial Revolution 4.0, Reskill, Indian Workforce, MOOCs, Youth</p> Durgesh Tripathi Surbhi Tandon Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on e-Learning 2022-10-21 2022-10-21 21 1 417 424 10.34190/ecel.21.1.881 inDICEs: a MOOC on Developing Digital Transition Strategies for Cultural Heritage Institutions <p>In the Horizon 2020 project inDICEs, a consortium of 14 interdisciplinary partners from research and industry set out to develop an approach on how to understand and measure the impact of digital cultural heritage. Synthesising the results of three years of research, the consortium produced a MOOC on the KULeuvenX edX platform, focused on the development of digital transition strategies for both non-profit business models in heritage institutions as well as broader cultural and creative industries. Built on KU Leuven’s experience in developing MOOCs derived from Horizon research, this particular online course is part of a specific segment of the university’s MOOC offerings targeting primarily a professional audience. It is the third MOOC in a series intended for current and future professionals in the GLAM sector. In this paper, we discuss the choices behind the development of such a MOOC, and the strategic role such MOOCs play in the business model of the university, particularly with regards to micro-credentials. It also highlights the opportunities that networking with industry stakeholders opens for higher education and research organisations, as a not-for-profit valorisation effort.&nbsp; The MOOC brings insights on data monitoring and trend watching, copyright and digital asset management and development of digital strategies. Most importantly, it positions these topics within the context of new digital value chains for heritage institutions fostered by open access and participatory engagement models. As such, this paper will be of interest both to communities of MOOC developers - to understand how stakeholder communities and professional networks can steer choices, formats and approaches - as well as university MOOC business plan developers. Furthermore, as this MOOC embodies the growing interest of teachers and scholars in digital collections, it will also provide insights into opportunities such formats provided to the education and research sectors. Finally, it will speak to anyone working on MOOCs on the topic of cultural production and heritage.</p> Roberta Pireddu Frederik Truyen Sofie Taes Rasa Bocyte Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on e-Learning 2022-10-21 2022-10-21 21 1 425 431 10.34190/ecel.21.1.904 New Kids on the Block? Exploring technological preferences of a new generation <p>Over the past decades, reported research have continuously alluded to the impact of “digital natives,” “millennials,” and a range of reported “generations,” and warned about the need to adapt across all spheres, including education, educational approaches and student support. Higher education akin to these demands. Contemporary trends in student styles indicate an ever-expanding preference in using digital options. In essence, the use and application of technology and expectations hereof are changing with the emergence of each new generation. This necessitates a deepening in understanding, of inter alia, developments and application of educational technology and instructional design. With the disruptive technological changes of the Fourth Industrial Revolution (4IR), a new entry-level student, characterised by an increased digital imprint and a marked preference to using only mobile technology, surfaced and is already coined in literature as “the phygital generation”. Phygital is the concept of using technology to bridge the digital world with the physical world with the purpose of providing a unique interactive experience for the user. The term has first been introduced by the marketing and consumer industries. Here, smart and mobile technologies enable interaction and experiences for increasingly daily needs such as online purchases, traveling, learning, communication. The question is: how does this new trend affect teaching and learning? Evidently, students from this generation prefers to learn from microcontent and they are averse to voluminous content. Is there an understanding of the nature of the phygital generation, with its focus on mobile technology? Will this exacerbate the digital divide in marginalised communities? Framed by Critical Pedagogy, this paper interrogates the knowledge that a group of lecturers and their support staff in a Higher Education Institution in South Africa must accommodate a new generation of students. Using an interpretive design, qualitative data were collected from a purposively selected group of educators and support staff. Semi-structured interviews were used in this case to gauge their awareness and readiness to accommodate this new generation in their teaching and learning ecosystem. Findings are that participants are aware of the change but are not prepared for contemporary trends. Informed by critical theory, the paper offers critical indicators to address the gap.</p> Brenda VAN WYK Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on e-Learning 2022-10-21 2022-10-21 21 1 432 437 10.34190/ecel.21.1.446 Applying low-cost sensors to improve students’ blended learning experience during the pandemic <p>The Covid-19 pandemic has caused unprecedented disruption to global education. In particular, the laboratory and field teaching has been heavily affected by the pandemic due to the implementation of lockdown and social distance. Schools and universities had to take urgent and necessary measures to transform traditional face-to-face education to online or blended mode. Most of the measures are concentrated on tool-based pedagogy, and instructors use nearly all available tools, primarily digital tools, for example, Zoom and MS Teams, to maintain the continuation of education. The online learning, through lecturing and supervising of some processes, can build up students’ theoretical aspect (knowledge), but students’ practical skills have been little developed. Given the advantage of the Internet-of-Things (IoT), low-cost sensors have been increasingly used for direct measurement without laboratory support, while their application in teaching and learning has been little explored. In this case study, a low-cost air quality sensor, PlumeLabs Flow 2, was applied in blended learning of undergraduate Environmental Science/Engineering programmes. With some lectures on environmental pollution knowledge, students studied in teams (Team-Based Learning) using low-cost sensors to measure air quality and developed projects (Project-Based Learning) to mitigate environmental pollution. Survey and interviews were conducted to understand students’ learning experience and identify suggestions for further improvement of this kind of blended learning. The survey and interviews indicate that more than 90% of students praised the positive effects of this new technology-enhanced learning, including improvements in skills and employability. Especially, students emphasized the advantage of learning knowledge and developing practical skills without relying on laboratory, which was very difficult or impossible during the pandemic. One of the concerns of low-cost sensors is the possible bias of the measurement data. Thanks to the rapid advance during the pandemic, online and blended learning will continue to develop in the post COVID-19 era. Using low-cost sensors will be an important approach to compensate for the lack of training of practical skills in blended and online education.</p> Hong Yang Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on e-Learning 2022-10-21 2022-10-21 21 1 438 447 10.34190/ecel.21.1.865