European Conference on e-Learning <p>The International Conference on Information Warfare and Security has been run on an annual basis since 2001. Conference Proceedings have been published each year and authors have been encouraged to upload their papers to university repositories. In addition the proceedings are indexed by a number of indexing bodies.</p> <p>From 2022 the publishers have decided to make all conference proceedings fully open access. Individual papers and full proceedings can be accessed via this system.</p> <p><strong>PLEASE NOTE THAT IF YOU WISH TO SUBMIT A PAPER TO THIS CONFERENCE YOU SHOULD VISIT THE CONFERENCE WEBSITE AT<a href=""></a> THIS PORTAL IS FOR AUTHORS OF ACCEPTED PAPERS ONLY.</strong></p> en-US (Louise Remenyi) (Sue Nugus) Thu, 19 Oct 2023 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 60 Edtech Startups: Determining the factors involved in internationalisation <p>In the last 10 years, the connectivity of the human being with technology has become evident all over the world, we are in times of high use of technology in everyday life, as evidenced by the use of an Uber to study an online class with colleagues from other countries. Technology has led to the growth of education in Peru during the Covid-19 pandemic, which has allowed entrepreneurs to have a global perspective by creating enterprises in the education sector with a vision of scaling up to the foreign market. These startups are startups known as edtech startups. In this context, this research aims to determine the factors involved in the internationalisation of startups. The qualitative approach was used with a cross-sectional design based on in-depth interviews with experts and founders of this ecosystem, and a group of founders shared a success story of two startups selected for convenience. Networking and financing. Through innovation, strategies are applied in the startup processes to retain the consumer and obtain high recognition; networking helps to have contacts in all target countries, easy access in the selected market and financing allows sustainability in the market. It is concluded that these most relevant factors cooperate in the entrepreneurial ecosystem achieving a business model with high innovation and technology focused on improving education and at the same time entering the international market.</p> Keila Malca-Ramirez, Linda Marita Cruz-Pupuche, Franklin Cordova-Buiza Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on e-Learning Tue, 31 Oct 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Learning with Moodle and Google Drive: instrumental conflicts in question <p>Learning management systems (LMSs) are still supporting artefacts by allowing higher education students to conduct learning activities using teaching resources. These artefacts are based on graphical interfaces that display modules and contents. The mediated contents force students to manage instrumental conflicts resulting of a poor integration between didactic, pedagogical and technical artefacts, during the learning activity (Marquet, 2005). This paper investigates the impact of using the LMS Moodle on the realisation of an activity carried out in this same environment, during a business intelligence (BI) course, according to the type of integration of the teaching resources used: resources integrated into the environment and resources external to the environment. After conducting a literature review on the information search task and on learning BI with LMSs, this empirical work (N = 69) examines the effects of the type of integration of said resources on the results obtained in the quiz. The results suggest that the implementation of external resources around an LMS and therefore not integrated into the environment paradoxically enables students to obtain better results on a score in a shorter time, thus improving their ability to act.</p> zeller arnaud, Marquet Pascal Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on e-Learning Wed, 01 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Empowering Deaf Learners: The Promise of Sign Language MOOCs <p>In the realm of education, deaf students face significant communication barriers that limit their integration and success within intellectual communities. Due to the use of distinct mother languages, a communication gap arises between deaf and non-deaf communities. This poses serious difficulties for deaf students, who communicate primarily in sign language and are unable to fluently read materials written in spoken language. As most didactic materials in higher education are available exclusively in spoken languages, this further limits the opportunities and chances for deaf students to succeed. While technological advancements have made it possible to create tools and services that translate between spoken and sign languages, they are often expensive and not widely available in educational settings. The proposal is a pedagogical model that seeks to overcome these obstacles and foster inclusivity by offering deaf students access to educational resources in their mother language – sign language. This is accomplished using Massive Online Open Courses (MOOCs) paired with automatic sign language translation technology. To demonstrate this model's effectiveness, a digital literacy course for schoolteachers was developed and evaluated within a group of users, including deaf students. The paper discusses the state-of-the-art of digital educational content available to the deaf, the process of translating digital learning materials into sign languages, the specifications needed to structure educational content for the deaf, and an example of the development methodology for creating multilingual learning objects for the deaf. The evaluation results indicate that MOOC is inclusive and positively impacts deaf students' learning outcomes. The proposed pedagogical model has significant implications for improving access to education and promoting inclusivity for deaf students worldwide. By utilizing technological advancements and creating inclusive digital educational materials, it is possible to bridge the communication gap between deaf and non-deaf individuals, thereby enabling deaf students to acquire, expand, and improve their knowledge in various subjects.</p> Paula Escudeiro Maria de Sá Escudeiro, Márcia Campos Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on e-Learning Tue, 31 Oct 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Technology-Based Strategies Predicated on Self-Regulated Learning in a Flipped Computer Programming Classroom <p>The lack of self-regulation is believed to be at the centre of learning difficulties experienced by novice programming students. The Flipped Classroom Model (FCM) is a constructivist pedagogical strategy that could be used to engage students in a programming classroom. While the traditional approach to learning remains a passive environment, the FCM enhances active learning, problem solving while facilitating an unlimited access to the learning content. However, the success of the FCM depends extensively on a student’s capability to self-regulate their learning process. As the FCM is a combination of face-to-face and online environments, Self-Regulated Learning (SRL) becomes more germane within the online dimension of the model. This study aims to identify the strategies for SRL that can improve the achievement of learners within a Flipped Programming classroom – specifically to reflect on the design features that should be considered for the adoption of technological tools to support SRL in a Flipped Programming classroom. This involved identifying relevant technological features to facilitate SRL strategies and the self-regulation phases leveraging a systematic review approach. The findings of this study could potentially maximise the student’s self-regulation capacity to learn programming within an FCM.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Simphiwe Dayimani, Keshnee Padayachee Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on e-Learning Thu, 19 Oct 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Student Notetaking media in Higher Education <p><em>This paper explores the evolution of research methodology in the study of student notetaking in higher education (HE) and its impact on pedagogic approaches. While acknowledging the importance of notetaking for student learning, the paper argues that the overreliance of randomized control trials (RCTs) has led to some potentially misleading conclusions about lectures in HE and the notes students make during them.</em></p> <p><em>The paper traces the historical development of research methodologies in student notetaking, highlighting the shift from early observational studies to experimental research focused on identifying effective notetaking styles. However, the paper contends that these experimental studies often failed to capture the complex real-world factors that influence student note taking behaviour and learning outcomes.</em></p> <p><em>Contradictory findings between experimental and observational research are presented, challenging the assumptions drawn from RCTs. Observational studies suggest that the quality and quantity of notes taken during lectures may have limited impact on long-term conceptual understanding and learning outcomes, while the revision and review process may play a more significant role.</em></p> <p><em>The paper also examines the issues of internal and external validity in experimental research on student notetaking. It argues that the experimental methodologies used in these studies often controlled for important contextual factors, resulting in misleading outcomes that do not translate well into real-world settings.</em></p> <p><em>Drawing on the concepts of holist underdetermination and auxiliary hypotheses, the paper emphasizes the need for mixed methodologies and a holistic approach to investigate and establish causation in the study of student notetaking. </em></p> <p><em>In conclusion, the paper suggests that a shift in focus from student notetaking to the lecture itself may be necessary. It highlights the importance of considering the broader context, individual differences, and the review and revision process in understanding the impact of notetaking on student learning outcomes. The paper calls for a re-evaluation of experimental methodologies and a more comprehensive approach to studying student notetaking in higher education.</em></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Colin Loughlin Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on e-Learning Thu, 19 Oct 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Towards a brain-compatible approach for online programming education through CHAT <p>During the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic, the majority of higher education institutions were faced with the challenge of adopting various online platforms as a means for teaching and learning. This added an additional level of complexity in teaching modules such as programming, which are difficult to teach even in traditional classroom environments. Teaching and learning programming is difficult since the teaching does not only focus on programming, but should also show the students how to solve complex programming problems. Also, many programming students struggle to understand programming since they would typically not put their programming knowledge into practice outside of the learning environment. Online learning adds additional challenges, since the teacher is not available to provide immediate feedback which is one of the critical aspects in programming education. This paper reports on a case which considers brain-compatible principles when creating online programming content for learning programming. Furthermore, it reflects on the use of the Cultural-Historical Activity Theory (CHAT) to delineate the various elements required for teaching and learning programming.</p> Vuyolwethu Mdunyelwa, Lynn Futcher, Johan van Nikerk Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on e-Learning Thu, 19 Oct 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Soft Skills Demand and Supply Through the Lens of Higher Education Students <p>Soft skills are becoming equally crucial as hard skills in today's labour market. In contrast to hard skills which are teachable typically through formal education, soft skills are non-technical and interpersonal, allowing individuals to be able to find and succeed in their studies, jobs, and professional life. Despite the increasing emphasis on soft skills, many university students are either unaware of or neglect enhancing them. Soft skills deficiency among university students has become a significant concern for employers, educators, and policymakers, as it negatively affects students' academic performance and future employment prospects. The purpose of this study is to investigate students’ perceptions of the demand for soft skills and the possibility and availability of learning opportunities. The expected outcomes intend to provide insights about awareness of soft skills among students and pathways to reduce the soft skills gap through training provisions in higher education settings. Furthermore, it aims to find out how the young generation (mainly Generation Z) would perceive digitalisation and specifically gamification as a solution to facilitate soft skills training. This is a mixed method study, in which, an open survey was the data collection media. The survey was conducted during the spring semester of 2023 and analysed using visualisation and summarisation methods. Based on the outcome of 66 master’s and bachelor's students attending the digitalisation courses in two classes in Sweden, over 50% of the students perceived a lack of soft skills in their curricula. They were also positive toward the use of gamification as an effective digital strategy, recognising it as a powerful tool to facilitate training and developing soft skills as a part of formal learning in higher education. As a suggested approach, gamifying soft skills training potentially creates simulations that mimic real-world situations to allow students to practice and develop their soft skills in a safe and low-stakes training environment. This facilitates training soft skills for better communication and collaboration during their academic journey and after their graduation and to prepare students for successful careers.</p> Naghmeh Aghaee, Thashmee Karunaratne Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on e-Learning Thu, 19 Oct 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Intelligent Adaptive E-Learning Systems: Current Approaches, Architectures, and Applications <p>Considering the weakness of traditional e-learning, a multiple of e-learning systems attempt to&nbsp; get&nbsp; individualization&nbsp; into the process&nbsp; of&nbsp; learning&nbsp; by&nbsp; offering&nbsp; learner-centered instruction, the adaptive E-learning system(AES)is seen as one of the more famous models. An AES can tailor its response to different circumstances. Various types and platforms in E-Learning systems have been discussed and explained such as blended, adaptive, and educational e-learning. Architectures, functions, and challenges also illustrated in details in this paper. Mostly focused on the Adaptive e-learning concept and importance for the learners.&nbsp; AES concentrates on adaptively delivering learning materials. This paper discusses some studies that approved the importance of adaption in the e-learning system in the years (2018-2023), and introduced some challenges faced by this system.</p> Abbas Fadhil Aljuboori, Hala Al-lawati Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on e-Learning Thu, 19 Oct 2023 00:00:00 +0000 A Framework for Assessing the Complexity of Auto Generated Questions from Ontologies <div><span lang="EN-GB">Automatic difficulty calibration (ADC) is the application of computational techniques to estimate the difficulty levels of assessment questions before administering them. Compared to traditional difficulty calibration approaches, ADC eliminates the need for pretesting, and minimises the time and efforts typically involved in manual calibration. In recent years, Ontology-based Automatic Question Generation (OAQG) has emerged as a powerful tool to generate assessment questions effortlessly and in massive numbers with minimal human intervention. Despite these benefits, not being able to control the characteristics of generated questions hinders their suitability to be used in pedagogical settings. However, much of the research up to now has tended to focus on the quantity of the questions rather than their quality. Indeed, most current automatic question generators produce simple questions which consist of a few facts, and simply test the recall of knowledge. Furthermore, the majority of existing frameworks are mostly technical and are not supported with a strong theoretical underpinning. In this paper, we propose a novel framework to assess the complexity of ontology-based, automatically generated questions. We discuss various aspects that are involved in determining the complexity of assessment questions, and attempt to quantify important characteristics of question complexity through the use of novel ontological metrics. To further support the plausibility of our computational framework, we shed light on its consistency with theories from education and cognitive psychology. This will provide us with a solid theoretical foundation which ensures that questions are generated according to principled methods that are grounded in theories of learning and cognition. The proposed approach is agnostic to different domains and independent of the question format, therefore, is highly general and applicable to a variety of contexts.</span></div> Samah Alkhuzaey, Floriana Grasso, Terry Payne, Valentina Tamma Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on e-Learning Thu, 19 Oct 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Redesigning Professional Development on Digital Transformation Using Andragogy as a Theoretical Lens <p>Regarding the ongoing digitalisation in the knowledge society, professional development seems more crucial than ever. The need for upskilling and reskilling is described as continuous lifelong learning, which must be combined and synchronised with the life of full-time working learners. Content, pedagogical models and instructional design in university courses are often created for students in Bachelor's and Master's programs instead of tailored for adults working full-time. This study describes and discusses andragogy as a potential knowledge base for redesigning professional development courses on digital transformation. Evaluations from two instances of a course for professionals on digital transformation showed that the course participants overall are satisfied with the course. However, only a few course participants take the exam to get credits. Therefore, the research question that guided this study was, "What redesign options for increased pass rates and learner satisfaction in professional development for adult learners can be identified using andragogy as a theoretical lens?" The course is on distance and contains four modules with synchronous and asynchronous learning activities, resulting in five European Credit Transfer System (ECTS). The empirical material consisted of course participants' check-in presentation before the course started, mid-term evaluation, final evaluations, and a learning diary containing 58 entries. The data was deductively analysed using the theory of andragogy as an analytical lens. The findings imply that instructors should put effort into how different parts of the course are connected, supporting learners' need to know. Further, to enhance the course participants' prior experience as a resource for learning by adding learning activities, they exchange experiences and examples with each other, adding to their learning process and networking. The pedagogic parts of understanding the theoretical course material could be split into pieces through exercises where the participants apply conceptual models and concepts to real-situation problems. The learning diary could help the participants align the new knowledge with their prior knowledge with a focus on professional roles and work situations. The identified redesign options create opportunities to increase pedagogical parts like readiness, orientation, and motivation to learn according to the current higher education system.</p> Linda Bergkvist, Karin Ahlin, Niklas Humble, Peter Mozelius, John Johansson Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on e-Learning Thu, 19 Oct 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Impact of Digital Literacy on Cyberloafing and Compulsive Social Media Use Post-Kahramanmaraş Earthquake <p>In recent years, mass disasters have begun to occur in the world and the business world has been greatly affected by these disasters. Especially during the COVID-19 pandemic period, many processes have shifted to digitalization and people have increased their technology usage levels. It can be said that a similar situation was experienced in the Kahramanmaraş earthquake. From this point of view, within the scope of the research, the effects of digital literacy on cyberloafing and compulsory social media use were tried to be examined. The research was carried out with 244 participants aged between 18-30 working in any business line, in a quantitative research design. The data were collected using the questionnaire technique. The obtained data were subjected to descriptive statistics, correlation analysis, reliability analysis and simple regression analysis. According to the research findings, the digital literacy scale and its sub-dimensions are in a moderately and highly significant positive relationship with the cyberloafing scale and its sub-dimensions. However, the scale of compulsive social media use has a low level of positive and significant relationship with the scale of digital literacy and cyberloafing. According to the results of the regression analysis, it was determined that digital literacy has a statistically significant and positive effect on cyberloafing. In addition, it has been determined that digital literacy has a statistically significant and positive effect on compulsive social media use.</p> Mehmet Ali Canbolat Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on e-Learning Thu, 19 Oct 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Preliminary Findings of the Needs Perceived and Expectations of Users of an Independent Learning Centre Survey in Hong Kong: What do They Tell Us? <p>The Independent Learning Centre (ILC) has a long history in the Chinese University of Hong Kong (CUHK).&nbsp; Being unique in many ways, both within the university and in Hong Kong as an independent support unit on campus, we support all students, namely undergrads and postgrads, in their academic pursuit, career preparation, as well as whole-person and global awareness development through non-formal education.&nbsp; In other words, the ILC does not touch students’ grade point average (GPA) directly, but has an undeniable and direct impact on CUHK students’ learning experiences and well-being by complementing their formal education and supporting their language and communication skills both in English and Chinese in the context of Hong Kong.&nbsp; We offer both academic and work-related workshops (2 hours long), conduct individual and group consultations, and we develop online learning resources on our own or in collaboration with colleagues from other units such as the University Library, and the Office of Student Affairs to address students’ diverse learning needs.&nbsp; Evaluation of our services and resources is conducted after every student encounter face-to-face, and through the online means.&nbsp; In general, students are very satisfied with what we have been offering, and think our Centre is an important piece of puzzle in their learning jigsaw. But despite this, no formal survey on students’ views about independent learning has been conducted since our inception.&nbsp; The ILC, therefore, conducted our very first survey in 2022 among all students in the CUHK on their perception of the learning needs, and their expectations of independent learning support that the university should provide in face of the challenges, both local and global, ahead of them.&nbsp; Our paper will present both our quantitative and qualitative survey results, students’ comments, as well as the implications for a centre like ours, and other similar centres in the region and across the world.&nbsp;</p> Felix Chao, Yvonne Loong, Ocean Siu, Sharon Wong, Parker Chan Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on e-Learning Thu, 19 Oct 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Lasting Effects: What the Post Pandemic Return to In-person Teaching Tells Us About the State of e-Learning and its Future Trajectory <p>An outpouring of studies on the forced move to distance learning during the COVID-19 pandemic has revealed deep concerns with teaching and learning online. Yet, now that most learning is returning to pre-pandemic environments, it seems naive to assume that teachers and learners in these settings, are, or will ever be, the same. A deeper understanding of the impact of those online experiences on teachers and learners before, during and immediately after the pandemic can provide insight into how to move forward in our educational systems, where technology is increasingly implicated. The conceptual framework of the study was based on the three key features of contemporary e-learning theory: learner-centred, community-based, constructivist-driven. &nbsp;We mapped this framework against course design, teaching approach and the use of technology to conceptualize the conditions that existed in returning to in-person teaching in a blended learning setting. This framework uncovers the developments, constraints, openness, and fears of a group of Higher Education (HE) EFL Chilean teachers in leading students into technology-enhanced, 21<sup>st</sup> century learning environments. A qualitative case study methodology was employed. Findings are based on written responses to an 8-item open questionnaire (<em>n=32</em>) and individual, oral-based (<em>n=13)</em> interviews along with field notes. Evidence of a significant advancement in digital literacy skills on the part of teachers, and indeed students was uncovered. Untypical in the Chilean educational context, a strong shift towards valuing more social constructivist teaching practices and an awareness of the importance of fostering relationship-building in learning ecologies, both in person and online, was also revealed. Changes attributed to both positive experiences online and reactions to negative ones, bode well for those long seeking a shift away from a traditional educational mindset that existed prior to the pandemic. At the same time, the findings that reveal hesitancy and in some cases fear of the rapidly encroaching new technologies, especially Artificial Intelligence (AI) tools, indicate that for some teachers the embrace of technology has its limits. We discuss both encouraging and more concerning results in terms of the insight they offer and their implications for further e-learning research and for educational stakeholders operating in increasingly technology-dependent learning spaces.</p> Paula Charbonneau-Gowdy, Mónica Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on e-Learning Thu, 19 Oct 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Analysing Gaming Behaviour: Insights on Personality Traits <p>Educational games have become an integral part of the educational process at various levels, with their usage rapidly increasing as innovative e-learning methods. These games have proven to be highly engaging and effective in knowledge retention. Previous research primarily focused on the impact of violent video games on behaviour and the correlation between game behaviour and personality. Traditionally personality assessment relies on psychometric questionnaires, with the Big Five Inventory (BFI) being a widely used tool. However, these approaches often have certain drawbacks as respondents tend to carefully consider their answers, prioritizing correctness over authenticity. To address these limitations, novel approaches are being developed that incorporate gaming elements to indirectly measure personality. Therefore, an intriguing question arises: Can the subconscious moves, choices, and behaviours exhibited during gameplay serve as indicators of players' personality? In this case study, we developed an educational game focused on Databases courses for university students. The game aims to capture everyday life experiences at the university such as social connections and curiosity or willingness to try new things, based on the Five-Factor Model (OCEAN). The educational content is presented in the form of a quiz with four possible answers, providing appropriate feedback based on the selected responses. The objectives were to strengthen the knowledge and comprehension of Databases subject and also to gather information about players' gaming behaviour and thus predict their scores on two personality traits: Extraversion and Openness to Experience, based on the Five-Factor Model. A total of 149 computer science students of the University of Macedonia participated in the study by playing the game and completing the BFI questionnaire. We utilized classification algorithms to develop a model to predict student’s personality. The goodness of the model was assessed using different metrics and the results showed that it is effective to model both the extraversion and openness personality dimensions using serious games instead of questionnaires. These findings can be used by educators and game designers to develop personalized educational games taking into account learner’s personality and thus provide valuable insights for future research in this domain.</p> Aikaterina Chatziavgeri, Maya Satratzemi Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on e-Learning Thu, 19 Oct 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Students’ Acceptance Of Digital Exams: A Case Study In A Swedish University <div><span lang="EN-GB">In this paper we present the results &nbsp;</span><span lang="EN-US">of a case study in a Swedish university regarding </span><span lang="EN-GB">students’ acceptance of digital exams. </span><span lang="EN-GB">Technology Acceptance Model (TAM), which has been widely used in research </span><span lang="EN-GB">concerning technology </span><span lang="EN-GB">acceptance, </span><span lang="EN-US">was used </span><span lang="EN-GB">to measure the level of </span><span lang="EN-GB">students’ acceptance of digital exams</span><span lang="EN-US">. </span><span lang="EN-GB">The aim of the study </span><span lang="EN-US">is </span>to investigate student<span lang="EN-US">s’ acceptance of digital exams and if there are any factors that are responsible for this behavior. A survey based on the two main factors of TAM, </span><span lang="EN-GB">perceived ease of use and perceived </span><span lang="EN-GB">usefulness</span><span lang="EN-GB">, </span><span lang="EN-US">was conducted. The survey was targeting the degree of acceptance along with students’ demographic characteristics. </span><span lang="EN-GB">The results showed that the students demonstrated a high degree of acceptance of digital exams, with students in their second </span><span lang="EN-US">and </span>third year having a more positive perception rather than students in their first year. However, other factors, such as gender, subject, and age did not appear to have a strong impact on the overall acceptance of digital exams but did show a moderate impact on external factors such as perceived accessibility and computer self-efficacy, which work as predictors for perceived ease of use for a system. Overall, the knowledge about the level of acceptance of the students is valuable since we can highlight strengths and weaknesses associated with digital exams. This can be a useful tool in deciding upon a suitable digital solution for digital exams, as well as in learning how to increase the level of acceptance among the students in the future.</div> Panagiota Chatzipetrou, Kristijan Majkic, Jonas Samuelsson, Oskar Åberg Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on e-Learning Thu, 19 Oct 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Are the Effects of COVID-19 on Inequality in Tertiary Education in Ghana Gendered? <p>Educational institutions around the world were hit hard by the COVID-19 pandemic as there were nationwide closures of educational institutions around the world to contain the spread of the virus, resulting in the migration of teaching and learning to online platforms. This study examines the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on inequality in tertiary education in Ghana, focusing on the gendered effects. Primary data were collected from 371 students from six selected public universities in Ghana mainly online using KoboCollect. Binary logistic regression was employed in the data analysis. The results show that the COVID-19-induced universities' closure and migration of teaching and learning to online platforms accentuated inequalities in learning opportunities by university students in Ghana, just that its effects are not gendered. Location significantly explained the observed inequalities experienced during the period of the universities’ closure and online teaching and learning. It is recommended that universities should embrace online systems as part of their teaching and learning practices.&nbsp;</p> Paul Nkegbe, Stanley Dary, Halidu Musah Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on e-Learning Thu, 19 Oct 2023 00:00:00 +0000 e-Learning Interactions and Academic Outcomes: an Analysis of Undergraduates in Sri Lanka <div> <p><span lang="EN-US">The shift to online teaching and learning following the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic resulted in a large increase in the usage of online learning platforms. Student interactions with these platforms provide an important source of information on student progress on a course during periods of distance learning. However, in resource constrained settings where students face difficulties in accessing stable and quality internet, it is unclear to what extent interactions with the learning platform influence academic outcomes, especially for programmes that were not originally intended to be delivered online. This study makes use of data on four cohorts of undergraduate students at the University of Moratuwa, where each cohort was exposed to different periods of online teaching and learning. The data covers interactions with Moodle course pages and assessment marks for multiple courses with diverse subject contents offered in two faculties. Interactions with the learning platform are measured using clicks on different types of objects on the course page as well as the distribution of clicks over the course of semester. To account for the confounding effect of prior ability on the relationship between learning platform interactions and academic outcomes, we also use results from courses that the students have taken a priori. We find that while the switch to online teaching and learning led to a dramatic increase in the level of student interactions with the learning platform, the level of interaction has remained above the pre-COVID levels even after resuming on-site, face-to-face delivery. While differences among the subjects and cohorts exist, results from a multiple regression model suggest that the association with certain types of learning platform interactions and academic outcomes are significant even after controlling for prior ability and differences in course design. Specifically, the volume and consistency of access both improve outcomes with the timing of clicks more strongly associated with the final examination mark whereas the type of content clicked on is more associated with continuous assessment marks. The findings have important implications for the continued adoption of blended learning methods and course design for the programmes under study.</span></p> </div> Tiloka de Silva, Buddhika Karunarathne, Vishaka Nanayakkara, Buddhika Karunarathne, Malik Ranasinghe, Eshana Ranasinghe Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on e-Learning Thu, 19 Oct 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Bridging contemporary theory with online practice: The sustained impact on student identities <p>Higher Education (HE) Institutions that offer online programs seek to connect their training promises with the kind of learning and learners 21st century workplaces demand. Fulfilling these objectives implies promoting empowered, collaborative, and self-directed identities in learners during their formal learning and beyond. While learning theories and societal demands might support such identity development in individuals, ensuring these goals are met and importantly sustained has been problematic for institutions. Putting theory into practice becomes a greater challenge when the training process is completely mediated online. This inquiry is one of a four-part longitudinal study aimed at aligning the instructional design, pedagogical practices, and use of social learning-based technology tools in all programs with 21st century goals and contemporary theory of e-learning at a fully online technical HE institution in Chile. In the first three studies, we examined the impact of this alignment across all programs on the learner identities of students: 1) at the outset of their programs (<em>n=2,300</em>), 2) after 5 months (<em>n=14</em>), and 3) through the perspectives of faculty (<em>n=82</em>). Findings in all three studies suggested that many students in the institution, most from socially and academically disadvantaged backgrounds, transitioned to clearly evident 21<sup>st</sup> century learner behaviours. In the present investigation, our aim was to gather a deeper understanding of these changes and the implications of the design/practice/technology alignment <em>after one year. </em>We focussed on the same students (<em>n=14)</em> to uncover evidence, if any, of<em> sustained</em> changes as they graduated and moved back full time to their respective workplaces. A qualitative methodology was employed where data collection involved individual interviews, field notes, observations, and online digital activity. Findings reveal student identities with significantly increased confidence in their abilities and skills, placing important value on life-long learning as a means to transform their present and future lives and positively influencing their workspaces. This study provides strong empirical evidence of sustained changes that an instructional design based on social learning and mediated by technology generated in our students. At the same time, it contributes valuable and practical answers for overcoming the challenges that still beset many online programs in higher education.</p> Caroline Galdames, Paula Charbonneau-Gowdy Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on e-Learning Thu, 19 Oct 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Is this an e-School? e-Learning Using Information Communication Technologies in South Africa <p>The study reported on in this paper reviewed the readiness of a specific high school in the township of Soweto to the south of Johannesburg, South Africa, to deliver the curriculum by using Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs), as well as to find the barriers and limitations thereto. For the empirical research, a quantitative mode of inquiry was adopted. A sample of learners and teachers was selected to answer the research questions, using two different questionnaires. The principal responded to a questionnaire on the ICT infrastructure available to establish what the school had in this regard, as well as the skills available to implement pedagogy using ICTs. Data analysis was carried out using a common spreadsheet application and multiple criteria, and the findings are discussed to provide value to, and should be of use to, the stakeholders involved for development purposes. The work discussed in this study covered curriculum topics, as well as lesson planning and reporting. In other words, it covered the process of teaching and learning up to reporting for teachers. A summary of the findings of the research conducted at the high school showed that the school does not have a stable internet connection and more technical support is needed from the government to strengthen the ICT infrastructure to enable the school to fully implement the curriculum using ICTs, compared to using traditional or hybrid methods. These strengthening recommendations include a stable internet connection, ICT staff, to support both e-teachers and e-learners with ICT problems, as well as software to deliver the curriculum. The findings also showed that learners are more comfortable with mobile devices and a little uncomfortable using computers for learning, which means that some aspects of e-learning requirements are not met, and it is very difficult to achieve some of the curriculum goals using mobile devices.</p> Mandlenkosi Thwala, Leila Goosen Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on e-Learning Thu, 19 Oct 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Digital Addiction and Financial Literacy: A Study on University Students <p>Addiction, basically two groups are examined. The first is piracy of individuals, and the second is psychological theft. Examination as the use bodies of substances related to external factors constantly get used to these substances, depending on external factors, and undesirable results may occur when these components cannot be taken into the body. Traditional habitual hacking, which is described as digital addiction, brings with it an interest in technological devices and a lack of access to them. Digital components guide the spirits that feed the conflict in case the higher units cannot access the relevant devices, and tolerance for guests and other children is observed. Financial literacy, which is the other variable of the research, defines the limits of being able to make effective decisions about the management of money. This concept, which can also be defined as the act of saving information, does not include intelligent action in details such as investment, budget, debt, portfolio diversification. Financial literacy can also be interpreted as making behavioral decisions such as making financial plans, saving and spending results. Financially literate people are well versed in money management and are well acquainted with the economic processes of saving. This concept, which is considered important of financial resources in crisis environments, is evaluated as individuals' correct interpretation of their financial resources and acting in this context. The increase in the concept of financial literacy has revealed economic fluctuations. As a matter of fact, it is seen that countries and societies with high financial information have high savings. These countries are generally the ones that have learned lessons from the financial crises.</p> <p>The aim of the research is to determine whether digital addiction has an effect on financial literacy. In this context, university students were selected as a sample in the study, and a face-to-face survey was applied to 372 university students. Digital addiction scale and financial literacy scale were used as data collection tools in the research. Both of the research scales are in five-point Likert type. The research data were analyzed by the SPSS 26 program, correlation and regression analyzes were carried out between the two related variables that constitute the subject of the study. When the results of the analysis were examined, it was determined that digital addiction did not have a significant relationship on financial literacy. At the same time, within the scope of testing the research hypothesis, it was determined that digital addiction did not have any significant effect on financial literacy.</p> ABDURRAHMAN GUMRAH, Hüseyin Karagöz Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on e-Learning Thu, 19 Oct 2023 00:00:00 +0000 ChatGPT-Proofing: Redesigning Assessment Practices for E-Learning <p>The 21st century has ushered in a profound transformation in the realm of education, fueled by the widespread integration of e-learning, fueled by technological advancements and the pursuit of adaptable and accessible learning modalities. As the e-learning landscape continues to evolve, a pertinent question emerges: Do conventional assessment methods align effectively with the exigencies of the digital era and the competencies imperative for thriving in the knowledge economy? This systematic literature review undertakes a comprehensive exploration of this significant question. Through a meticulous synthesis and analysis of a diverse body of existing research, this review effectively brings to light compelling evidence that underscores the pressing need for the redesign of assessment practices within the context of e-learning. In probing this multifaceted subject, the review critically examines how traditional assessment approaches may fall short in capturing the intricacies of modern-day skillsets, critical thinking proficiencies, and adaptability demanded by the swiftly evolving digital landscape. In its conclusion, this study serves as a pivotal catalyst for change, illuminating the urgency and potential benefits of reimagining assessment practices for the dynamic realm of 21st-century e-learning. Based on the findings, it provides stakeholders with prudent and actionable recommendations, empowering them to embark on a purposeful journey of redesigning assessment strategies. By proactively embracing these recommendations, educators, policymakers, and institutions can engender a learner-centric ecosystem that optimally nurtures and empowers learners for a future defined by innovation and adaptability.</p> Tapiwa Gundu Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on e-Learning Thu, 19 Oct 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Challenges of Using Social Media as a Teaching Tool in Secondary Schools <p>The COVID-19 pandemic resulted in a significant shift towards the use of social media platforms to support teaching with educators being responsible for integrating social media into their pedagogical practices. Yet its use has many challenges. This research aimed to describe the challenges secondary school teachers shared about using social media as a teaching tool. This descriptive multiple case study followed an interpretive, inductive, and qualitative approach. Four secondary schools were selected as cases and teachers who used social media as a teaching tool were interviewed. Multiple challenges are described that impact teachers and students. Many are due to the features of social media, and some are due to school infrastructure and policies. Practically this research can help teachers have a better understanding of these challenges before using social media for their own teaching. Policies, curricula, applications, and pedagogies can also be adapted and changed based on the finding of this research.</p> Rafeeq Jaffer, Zane Davids, Lisa Seymour Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on e-Learning Thu, 19 Oct 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Analysis of the factors affecting successful completion of asynchronous online learning programs <p>Within a year of its launch, the University of Moratuwa's open learning platform ( has over 180,000 registered participants, providing free and open access to a series of asynchronous online courses in software development. Nearly 17,000 people have completed the two foundation courses: Python for Beginners and Web Development for Beginners. Considering the low overall completion rate compared to the total number of registered users, it is important to study the factors contributing to successful completion while promoting meaningful learning. To support the learning process, there are multiple activities like lecture videos, lecture notes, coding playgrounds, lecture slides, assessments, and discussion forums. Thus, this study investigates student behaviour to understand activities that are high in cognitive load and promote active engagement. The study is carried out using learning management system (LMS) user logs and feedback from completed and ongoing students. The elaborative logs with user activities and time stamps help identify the pace of completion by students with different capabilities and learning patterns. The study's findings will be useful to educators because they will be able to design similar LMS platforms that optimise student performance and promote effective learning outcomes. Furthermore, it would be useful to evaluate how students would manage the load in asynchronous online learning programs. Understanding how the learning and assessment activities are related to the completion of the course would enable predicting completion rates and times to properly plan for the employment opportunities for the successful learners.</p> Buddhika Karunarathne, Vishaka Nanayakkara, Eshana Ranasinghe, Malik Ranasinghe, Supunmali Ahangama, Sandareka Wickramanayake, Chathuranga Hettiarachchi Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on e-Learning Thu, 19 Oct 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Is it the new Google: Impact of ChatGPT on Students' Information Search Habits <p>The traditional subject of information search and retrieval (IR) paradigm shifted to an entirely new era since artificial intelligence (AI) techniques were introduced into the field. Browser-based IR solutions powered by AI for personalised recommendations-based information retrieval, such as the Google search engine, were one of the early examples. The IR field has advanced to its next level with the newest conversational applications based on large language model (LLM) techniques. It is becoming clear that Generative Pretrained Transformer (GPT) applications such as ChatGPT will significantly impact information retrieval behaviour in the education sector. Though this application has become widespread in acclaim, no previous study has shown its impact on information seeking and retrieval. However, based on the observation of the fast penetration of this technology and the growth of public interest, a pre-assumption was built that it is essential to investigate if students may also be showing a similar interest in this new tool. Hence, this study is set up to systematically and empirically explore how ChatGPT influences the IR behaviour of students in HEIs. A survey approach is utilised to collect the perceived IR behaviour through a questionnaire administered to 60 students in HEIs. The findings reveal that the tool is already widely known among HEI students. They also perceived the use of the tool in the context of information retrieval and proclaimed its usefulness, acknowledging its efficiency (reduced time) in finding information. Furthermore, the technology has considerably affected the typical use of other conventional information retrieval and search engine tools. On the contrary, 10% of the respondents are less likely to use ChatGPT during information seeking for various reasons, from credibility and relevance to technology infrastructure issues such as connectivity. Although a deeper analysis is required to establish a general conclusion on how and in which ways GPT-based models will override contemporary IR practices, the study outcome provides evidence for a possible behavioural change among HEI students in their IR habits in the future.</p> Thashmee Karunaratne, Adenike Adesina Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on e-Learning Thu, 19 Oct 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Exploring the Student Perspective: Assessing Technology Readiness and Acceptance for Adopting Large Language Models in Higher Education <p>Digital technologies are changing and will continue to change how we learn and teach today and in the future. With the latest developments in the field of generative artificial intelligence (AI), particularly large language models (LLMs), the question of using AI-based tools in academic education is ruling the current discussions about the transformative impact of AI in higher education (HE).</p> <p>These discussions range from banning these technologies for learning and teaching in HE to guided study support. This study avoids taking up these multifarious and partly controversial debates. Instead, we show how students perceive using AI-based tools for automated text generation for their studies. Drawing on a synthesis of two theories: the 'Technology Readiness Index' (TRI) and 'Technology Acceptance Model' (TAM). The model is validated based on survey data collected among undergraduate first-semester students (<em>N</em>=111) of a computer science-related study programme in Germany in winter 2022/23. The students had to evaluate their relationship to that new technology focusing on their readiness for technology adoption and acceptance. By analysing the collected data with a partial least squares model, we find that the optimism toward the new technology positively influences technology acceptance, while discomfort with the technology negatively influences perceived ease of use. The paper concludes with recommendations for action for adopting LLMs in HE. A proper investment in building AI skills in academic teaching plays a valuable role in fostering the students' positive attitude and innovativeness towards this new technology. Additionally, there is a need for more education about the risks and challenges of using this technology to reduce the impact of factors such as discomfort on ease of use. This requires a factual discourse, away from the current hype-induced exaggerated and hyperbolic statements, for instance, in developing formal guidance for universities.</p> Claudia Lemke, Kathrin Kirchner, Liadan Anandarajah, Florian Herfurth Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on e-Learning Thu, 19 Oct 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Assessment of Academic ESL Writing in an Online Tutorial for Graduate Students <p>English-as-a-second language (L2) graduate students often face challenges in developing academic writing skills, which can be exacerbated by a lack of timely support at institutional level. To help address this concern, an original set of online academic writing tutorials with a focus on the genre of Literature Review was designed by the authors to assist international graduate students enrolled in graduate programs in Canada. This paper introduces and compares multiple assessment tools employed in the online tutorial set for international English L2 graduate students. Our project pursues two major goals: First, to address the above-identified gap in Academic Writing support to English L2 graduate students with minimal costs and faculty involvement through designing the online tutorial set; second, to contribute to the research on e-learning of Academic English as a second language (ESL) writing in terms of developing integrated tools for online tutorial building, analysis of texts produced by learners, and assessment of learners’ writing progress. The research questions are: 1. What resources can be combined to develop an online tutorial set for graduate students at minimal costs?&nbsp; 2. How can the learners’ progress in academic ESL writing be assessed with different assessment tools? First, the paper describes the tools employed in the tutorial construction: MoodleCloud platform, H5P interactive e-book designed by the authors, surveys, and assessment tools. Second, we present and compare assessment tools employed to evaluate learners’ writing progress: Expert assessment with an analytic rubric, self-assessments of progress by the participants, and automated text analysis with corpus-based tools as reported in Li, Makarova, and Wang (2023). A comparison of the scores across the three assessment tools shows some discrepancies, which seems to suggest that combined tools yield a more comprehensive picture. The expert assessments and self-assessments demonstrate improvement in the writing quality over the course of the tutorial series, which are partially supported with the findings from corpus-based analysis of participants’ texts. The findings are of relevance to e-learning scholars, faculty, and administrators of English-medium universities with substantial intakes of international graduate students in Social Sciences and Education whose native languages are other than English.</p> Zhi Li, Veronika Makarova, Zhengxiang Wang Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on e-Learning Thu, 19 Oct 2023 00:00:00 +0000 A Systematic Review: criteria and dimensions of learning experience <p>There has been an increased interest in evaluating students’ learning experiences in various academic domains. Some authors consider it an important aspect of education to assess the effectiveness of instructional methods, while others aim to enhance the quality of teaching and learning. Various perspectives can be highlighted, as many articles refer to the learning experience and its evaluation differently. However, few studies provide an explicit dimension to characterize it. Therefore, this study investigates how the learning experience is described in scientific literature, and what criteria are used to characterise learners’ learning experiences. This work aims to answer the following questions: Are there any theories used to examine the learning experience? What are the principal dimensions of a learning experience? How did the studies evaluate the learning experience? This literature review aims to provide an overview of research related to the learning experience and its evaluation. The study includes journal articles published in <em>ScienceDirect</em>, <em>Springe</em>r, <em>Wiley, IEEE Xplore Digital Library</em>, and <em>Google Scholar</em> from January 2012 to November 2022. The PRISMA method was used to conduct a systematic review for this work. After identifying, screening, and synthesising relevant literature&nbsp;(Moher et al., 2009), 68 articles were selected, of which 20 will be addressed in this research stage.&nbsp;The selected studies employ various methods to evaluate the learning experience, including questionnaires, surveys, and scales, and they are conducted in various educational contexts, such as medical education, biology, language teaching, etc. The review analysis shows three principal dimensions of learning experience: the learner's perception of the learning environment, their attitudes and behavior in learning, and the learning activities. The study’s findings also highlighted that “learning experience” is used as a broad concept to describe specific teaching and learning scenarios or activities. Furthermore, few references from educational sciences have been identified to characterise it. This article delineates the dimensions characterising the learning experience, which helps develop and design new teaching and learning solutions.</p> Ying-Dong LIU, Simon MORARD, Dina ADINDA, Eric SANCHEZ, Marc TRESTINI Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on e-Learning Thu, 19 Oct 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Online Modules Discussion Forums: A Pedagogical Platform Facilitating Learning in DE Environments <p>Student support in an open distance e-learning (ODeL) institution takes different forms and shapes. These forms and shapes are used in defining the nature of ODeL institutions. Bridging the distance gap between students in ODeL institutions, different platforms to facilitate interaction among students, students and their instructors are developed and made available. These interactions assist students by reducing the feeling of loneliness in the learning process. Loneliness is one of the experiences associated with dropout rates that negatively impact students’ success rate. The question is, are students making use of these platforms as they were designed for, which is to facilitate the process of learning by interacting with other stakeholders such as with fellow students, students and instructors, students and content? The other question, given that students are from diverse backgrounds, is whether the platform is equally usable and accessible to all students. Are the other social challenges, such as poverty, low technological skills, inequality, network coverage, and loadshedding among factors, considered when introducing and rolling out these platforms to students? Leading the pack in these platforms is the online discussion forum, which is embedded in learning management systems (LMS), available on each online or blended or hybrid module registered for. For example, if a student has registered for two modules, each module has its own discussion forum. There is a concern whether participation in online discussion forums is related to students’ success. The study determines whether participation in online discussion forums is related to a student’s success in the module. Two modules were conveniently selected and used for meeting the purpose of study. The modules were offered using the blended or online pedagogy. The students’ posting on the discussion forum was extracted and statistically analysed to determine whether it relates to success or performance in the modules. The study reported mixed results, where either participation or non-participation is related to student success. Student success comprises a variety of activities, for which participation by posting in online discussion forums forms part, however, it is not the only solution. &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Dumisani Godfrey Mabasa Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on e-Learning Thu, 19 Oct 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Implementation of a Multilingual Booklet to Accommodate First-Year Students with Academic Work <p>Academic writing is a major challenge within Higher Education. Poor writing skills and low academic literacy increase the chances of dropout among students from disadvantaged backgrounds and communities. A multilingual booklet was developed as a tool for improvement among first-year students. The multilingual booklet aims to allow students to engage their study material in their mother tongue. As an academic literacy lecturer, the researcher will be sharing what has inspired her to suggest such a project. This paper follows an educational approach through personal reflections. Availing and promoting multilingual reading material to students may reduce failure rates. Students may be equipped to understand their academic work when it is presented in their home language. Another advantage of the translated open resource material is that multilingual education provides monolingual students with the opportunity to learn a second language and become bilingual. The booklet can be accessed by other institutions as they are loaded on the university website. The booklet aims to contribute towards the decolonization of tertiary curricula– a notion to which first-generation students have no reference. The booklet is in line with the vision of enabling a smart university, rooted in the spirit of Ubuntu. Recommendation: South African universities should adopt multilingual tools in their curricula to accommodate the students who are not English, or first language speakers to do better in their academic work</p> Vuyokazi Mntuyedwa, Moeketsi Letseka, Johannes Cronje Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on e-Learning Thu, 19 Oct 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Robot-Assisted Language Education and Speech Therapy for Children with Cleft Lip and Palate <p>Cleft lip and palate (CLP) is a congenital anomaly that can have detrimental effects on an individual's ability to produce certain sounds, including bilabial sounds such as /m/ and alveolar sounds such as /n/, as well as sounds that require closure between the nasal and oral cavities, such as sounds ending in /-ɪŋ/. While surgical intervention can assist in correcting anatomical irregularities, consistent speech and language therapy sessions are often necessary to overcome obstacles associated with speech production. The research problem addressed in this study is the interruption of regular therapy, as evidenced by the discontinuation of services during the COVID-19 pandemic, which can lead to setbacks in progress and an increase in the risk of developmental delays in children. To explore the potential of educational robots to address this problem, this paper <em>(i) investigates the user requirements, usability considerations, and attitudes to speech therapy robots, from the perspective of parents and carers of children with CLP, (ii) presents an experimental prototype for CLP language education and speech therapy using a humanoid robot, named Robot Lily, based on input from prospective users; and (iii) evaluates the prototype Robot Lily on a subject with CLP. </em>The robot has been programmed to interact with the child in a naturalistic manner, using the same language and gestures employed by human speech and language therapists. The robot can respond to inquiries, practice articulation and pronunciation, aid the child with speech fluency, provide feedback, and encourage continued speech exercises. The primary interactions between a child with CLP and Robot Lily were observed and evaluated, with the robot shown to provide a unique opportunity to acquire speech and language abilities in a captivating and interactive manner. Compared to web-based applications, speech education assistant robots like Robot Lily may offer children a more appealing, engaging, and practical solution; and be remotely controlled by humans for specialized interventions at home, thereby circumventing the challenges encountered during COVID-19. These findings and methods have been used to develop an integrated model for ethical robotic speech therapy utilizing machine learning, which is expected to help meet the growing demand for speech therapy services.</p> Aveen Najm, Esyin Chew, Barry Bentley Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on e-Learning Thu, 19 Oct 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Characteristics promoted in order to develop student's critical thinking disposition in online discussions during a fully online course <div><span lang="EN-GB">Online discussion boards were organised to develop the critical thinking disposition of students and their attitude toward disaster mitigation during a fully online course. In order to promote participation in the discussions, an incentive was provided to all discussants. Assessment of the effectiveness of the lecturer’s invitation to join the discussion was conducted to extract which participants posted once, and the learning activity and characteristics of these students was evaluated. In the results, the levels of participation in online discussions affected some factor scores for personality and learning performance.&nbsp; Also, the causal relationships of the development of literacy of critical thinking disposition were analysed, and the factor of participation level in online discussions was examined.</span></div> Minoru Nakayama, Satoru Kikuchi, Hiroh Yamamoto Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on e-Learning Thu, 19 Oct 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Student Perspectives on WhatsApp Support for Developing School Experience e-Portfolios on Google Sites <p>This paper sought to reflect on the task of putting together an e-Portfolio of evidence under conditions of imposed emergency remote online teaching and learning with WhatsApp support. Student teachers in one institution had to undergo their school experience and practice teaching under emergency remote online teaching and learning. Further, these students had to produce and submit portfolios of evidence in an electronic format. Given that there were no contact lectures and tutorials during this period, WhatsApp support had to be relied on to assist these students with the development of their school experience portfolios. Informed by the e-learning ecologies framework, this study analysed the affordances of WhatsApp support in the development of e-Portfolios by student teachers in one university. First and fourth-year education students on school experience provided data through a qualitative survey in which their accounts and evaluations of interactions and support through WhatsApp were expressed narratively. Meaning units were extracted through content analysis and allotted to themes and categories suggested by the affordances framework. This study reports on the usefulness of the framework to evaluate WhatsApp support as well as the affordances that are most and least served by WhatsApp support on the development of an e-Portfolio of evidence on practice teaching. Recommendations on the efficacious use of WhatsApp support for e-Portfolio development, the practices that would foster the realisation of all the affordances, and enhancement of e-Portfolio development for the school experience are furnished.<br><br></p> Professor Nkonki, Ms Tsipa-Booi , Ms Bongo Mqukuse Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on e-Learning Thu, 19 Oct 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Using Gamification to Develop Students As Strategic Thinkers – A Qualitative Perspective <p>The use of gamification as an instructional strategy has gained significant attention in recent years as a way of increasing student engagement and motivation. Gamification involves the application of game design principles to non-game contexts, such as higher education. One area in which gamification has shown particular promise is in developing students' strategic thinking abilities. This qualitative study explores university students' post-module reflections on their experience of working in teams over the course of a seven-week intensive postgraduate business analytics simulation module. Reflections were analysed using thematic analysis to identify common themes and patterns with respect to students’ strategic thinking in terms of decision-making. The study findings strongly suggests that gamification, particularly the use of business simulations, can be an effective tool for developing students' strategic mindsets, in terms of the process for decision-making, impact of critical incidents, the lessons they learned and corrective action taken, along with the role of the team itself.</p> Michael O'Brien, Yvonne Costin Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on e-Learning Thu, 19 Oct 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Challenges for implementing design thinking for social innovation: Case study during online learning <p>Students can play a meaningful role in solving developmental challenges. Through online learning, Third-year Information Systems students were taught Stanford’s five-phase design thinking (empathise, define, ideate, prototype and test). The process helps students develop solutions to assist with the South African electricity crisis. The case study identified the challenges of implementing design thinking to build mobile application prototypes to assist with Sustainable Development Goal 7: affordable and clean energy challenges during the COVID-19 pandemic. The case study used mixed methods. Qualitative and quantitative data were collected from 28 Information Systems students using an online survey. Quantitative data were analysed using descriptive statistics. Qualitative data were analysed using content analysis. During the empathise phase, challenges were due to a lack of meaningful communication: 57% of students indicated that defining the problem was a challenge. During the ideate phase, 68% of the students stated that they struggled to create a solution. Students were required to use the Justinmind tool to develop their prototypes. However, 91% of students indicated that they struggled using Justinmind. During the final testing phase, 49% of students indicated that obtaining and incorporating user feedback was problematic. The research will provide insights and recommendations for improving the use of design thinking for social innovation during online learning.</p> Fazlyn Petersen, Matthew Liam Killian Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on e-Learning Thu, 19 Oct 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Boosting Digital Entrepreneurship in European Union Higher Education <p>Digital entrepreneurship creates varied options and new development perspectives for entrepreneurs, connects entrepreneurship with technological development, creativity, innovation, the ac-cumulation of digital skills and more. Within it, e-business represents one of the fastest growing phenomena in the business world. Digital entrepreneurial education represents a new important challenge in education to prepare youth for technological changes, new requirements and digital skills necessary for choosing a career and finding a job. Nowadays, the development of technology-based entrepreneurship education programs is essential. To face new challenges, students must use digital tools to accumulate entrepreneurial skills. Starting from the priorities of The Digital Education Action Plan (2021-2027) of the European Commission, the article aims to investigate whether digital entrepreneurship education keeps pace with the pace of development of digital entrepreneurship. It presents the current state of the academic educational offer in the EU in the field of e-business and e-commerce and proposes a conceptual model of driving forces for boosting digital entrepreneurship education. This study can be of interest both for decision-makers in the field of education, researchers, teaching staff in the sense of proposing and developing new educational programs, as well as for youth who want to know the academic options for choosing a career in the context of the digital economy.</p> Ioana-Crina Pop-Cohuț, Anca-Otilia Dodescu Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on e-Learning Thu, 19 Oct 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Curriculum design in higher education: A reflection <p>The ideology of curriculum design is believed to be the core of teaching and learning, yet it is in direct opposition to current notions of curriculum development. The contextual factors that underpin teaching and learning are derived from curriculum design. The principal factors that influence what is being taught may be categorised into three levels: the macro, meso and micro. At the macro level, there are national and international influences such as globalisation, massification, and marketization. Also, socio-economic, and political influence may be included. At the meso-level the Department of Higher Education and Training (DHET) and institutional level influence is forthcoming. Issues such as policies, culture, location, student profile and so forth are examined. Also, external influence from employers, professional bodies, accreditation bodies, quality agencies as well as political redress is evaluated. The micro-level examines individual academics and support staff concerning personal theories, beliefs, and professional knowledge. Systems theory in the educational context views the institution as a system where there is an interaction of variables of input, process and output that enable learning to take place. Because of the complexity and nature of curriculum design, there is limited change in this critical sphere of the education system. This paper reflects on the design and development of a curriculum in an open distance learning higher education institution.</p> Kemlall Ramsaroop Ramdass, Kgabo Mokgohloa Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on e-Learning Thu, 19 Oct 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Knowledge building through academic development <p>In order to counter-act obsolescence, an important aspect of organisational well-being in turbulent times, is the collective responsibility and capability of all workers to co-create organisational knowing -- in other words, what constitutes quality in the open distance learning (ODL) context. This implies a culture of innovation in an environment that is continuously changing. In this context where social change is the norm the organisation cannot depend on existing practices. Rather, it requires the ability to re-invent the collective understanding of the organisation; this is known as contextual knowledge building. Knowledge building is the creation of ideas and the improvement of ideas that have a life out in the world where they are subject to social processes of evaluation, revision and application. Within such an organisational culture, learning refers to ongoing reflective work which brings innovation closer to the central work of the organisation. This, in turn, leads to a shared community in which an individual contributes to the shared intellectual property of the organisation as a whole. Therefore, learning is necessitated by this process and integral to it. The resulting community knowledge is a form of new information that other community members can all build on together. There is continual movement beyond current understanding and best practice toward “lifelong innovativeness”. Thus, capacity development and knowledge building involve everyone in the institution, not only the academic staff. The paper reflects the importance of academic development in a continuously changing environment through a reflective case study analysis.</p> Kemlall Ramsaroop Ramdass Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on e-Learning Thu, 19 Oct 2023 00:00:00 +0000 A Comprehensive Analysis on the Student Behaviour in A Large-scale Asynchronous Open Online Platform <p>The open learning platform ( of the University of Moratuwa, Sri Lanka has attracted over 180,000 registered students in just over one year of its launch. This platform offers the Trainee Full Stack Developer (TFSD) programme, enabling the participants to enter the Information Technology (IT) industry to address the much needed human resources for the growing IT industry of the country. The programme consists of six courses related to IT covering Python Programming, Web Development and Professional Practice in Software Development. The platform operates with minimal restrictions for registrants and has students from all parts of the country with some foreign students with an equitable gender distribution. The steady growth of the registration numbers shows a high level of enthusiasm from the community to explore the potential opportunities in the IT industry. While the platform is being used actively by thousands of participants and new users are registered on a daily basis, it is also observed that some of the participants have shown slow progress at different stages. This study presents analyses performed at different stages of the programme to study the student behaviour and identify the possible causes for the participants not being able to achieve steady progress. The findings of the study indicate that the participants generally find it difficult to get through the programming exercises and assignments. Correlating learning patterns of the students help understanding the overall learning strategies which can be adopted by developers of similar asynchronous learning programmes.&nbsp; Furthermore, the study goes on to suggest and discuss possible solutions to clear the bottlenecks identified at different stages of the programme. The subsequent analyses allow the prediction of completions by participants leading to a machine learning based model for predictive analytics.&nbsp;</p> Eshana Ranasinghe, Vishaka Nanayakkara, Buddhika Karunarathne, Malik Ranasinghe, Buddhini Gunarathna, Sumudu Jayathissa, Tiloka de Silva Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on e-Learning Thu, 19 Oct 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Does “one size” fit all? Comparing video-feedback in different courses <p>Several surveys show that students appreciate feedback on their assignments in order to learn more, and to understand more about their academic progress. In order to personalize the feedback, this has been recorded on video and distributed to the students. In video-feedback, we as lecturers can stress certain messages in a different way than in written feedback. It is also possible to communicate a lot more in a 3-5-minute video. In this paper, we compare the students’ opinions about video-feedback. In one course, the students received both video-feedback and written feedback as a follow up on the same assignment, and in two other courses they only received video-feedback. Through interviews, we have investigated two different approaches. This has allowed us to look into two different approaches, and how students perceive this. In the course with the video-feedback and the written feedback, the students prefer the written feedback, and in the two courses with video-feedback only, the students are very positive and report on learning outcomes from the feedback in addition to them also wanting video-feedback in other courses as well. The results were surprising, as theory explains why video-feedback should be preferred.</p> Tone Vold, Ole Jørgen Ranglund, Monica Lervik Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on e-Learning Thu, 19 Oct 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Impacts of COVID-19 on Higher Education in Developing Countries and the Strategy of Using ICTs for e-Teaching from Catholic University of Mozambique <div><span lang="EN-GB">COVID-19 </span>has&nbsp;<span lang="EN-GB">tested the organizational capacity of the education system in Mozambique, including the higher education level when it became mandatory to close all face-to-face teaching activities. To respond to this challenge and continue with the noble mission of teaching, the Catholic University of Mozambique implemented a hybrid model, specifically through digital platforms, even though it was aware of the various resource limitations on the part of teachers and students. This strategy would be determinant for a successful path to the purpose of "never stop teaching and learning." This paper attempts to answer questions that arose at&nbsp;</span>introducing this new teaching model during the C<span lang="EN-US">OVID-19</span><span lang="EN-GB">: (i) What skills did teachers have to respond to ICT-mediated teaching? (ii) What strategies were used to circumvent the difficulties arising from COVID-19 for Teaching and Learning? (iii) What kind of skills, difficulty, and behaviour characterized the students to correspond to a 100% online teaching system? and (iv) What platforms and instruments were used to respond to this teaching model? The paper first seeks answers from exploratory interviews with teachers about the use of ICTs in teaching and learning and subsequently presents some challenges in three dimensions (institutions, teachers, and students) of which their consideration can lead to a path in the immersion of the technologization of teaching. In methodological terms, a qualitative approach was used, where interviews were conducted with a sample of teachers from this university who were part of the frontline of the process. The results show that for the case study&nbsp;</span>it was possible, to teach and learn through Moodle platforms, Google Classroom, interacting through Zoom, Google Meet, and using Skype as a communication tool with students.</div> Domingos Rhongo, Bianca Gerente Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on e-Learning Thu, 19 Oct 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Can Academic Librarians as Data Scientists Revolutionise User-Centric E-learning? <p>This investigation illuminates the vital contributions of academic librarians (ALs) functioning as data scientists (DSs) within the e-learning landscapes of Malaysian public universities. Derived from comprehensive interviews with ten experience ALs, this study distinguishes three key areas of contribution towards user-centric and effective e-learning: bolstering user experience and usability; endorsing continuous improvement and professional development; and stimulating interdepartmental collaboration and innovation. Despite the significant progress made by ALs, the study acknowledges the formidable challenges faced by these professionals in their capacity as DSs, specifically in areas of professional growth and evaluation. The paper presents strategic recommendations to overcome these obstacles, such as amplifying ALs' data science competencies, advocating for ongoing professional development, and endorsing the validation of their expertise through accreditation. By highlighting the essential role and proactive contributions of ALs as DSs, this study offers valuable insights and guidelines towards cultivating a robust and influential e-learning environment. Concluding with suggestions for future research, this study aims to propel the progression of academic librarianship and the enhancement of e-learning outcomes.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Hazia Sa'ari, Anne Goulding, Mohd Dasuki Sahak Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on e-Learning Thu, 19 Oct 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Meeting the demands of industry: A study on identifying and teaching emerging technologies in Engineering Education <p>As technology advances at an unprecedented pace, it is crucial for engineering faculties at contemporary universities and higher education institutions to continuously update their curricula. This is to ensure that graduates are equipped with the skills and knowledge required to design, develop, and implement emerging technologies in various industries (Wahyuningsih et al., 2020). However, there is a lack of consensus on which emerging technologies should be included in the engineering curriculum and how they should be taught. This study aims to identify the emerging technologies that should be included in the engineering curriculum and the best practices for teaching these technologies to engineering students. By addressing this gap in knowledge, this study contributes to the development of a comprehensive and up-to-date engineering curriculum that prepares graduates for the challenges and opportunities of the 21st century. The objective of this research was to identify the most relevant emerging technologies, assess the current teaching practices and identify areas for improvement, and identify the key skills and knowledge that engineering students need to develop to prepare them for the challenges and opportunities of the 21<sup>st</sup> century. There were two phases to this study. An online survey was done in phase one to gather quantitative data from engineering educators on attitudes and perceptions on the emerging technologies that are most relevant to the engineering field, the current practices for teaching these technologies, and the key skills and knowledge that engineering students need to develop. In the second phase, a focus group interview was conducted to gather more in-depth qualitative data on how emerging technologies can be integrated into the curriculum. This research study found a comprehensive understanding of the emerging technologies that should be included in the engineering curriculum and the best practices for teaching these technologies to engineering students.</p> Bronwyn Claudia Swartz, Sweta Patnaik Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on e-Learning Thu, 19 Oct 2023 00:00:00 +0000 What Have People Discussed about ChatGPT in Malaysian Education? A Qualitative Content Analysis of News Articles <p>ChatGPT became a top trending news topic in late 2022. People were astounded by the artificial intelligence (AI) chatbot’s ability to write emails, essays and computer codes; edit and correct grammar; provide suggestions; and so on in a human-like conversational manner. Many months after its official launch, people are still debating whether and how the chatbot might transform the way people do things in various sectors. One such sector is education. Academics and educational institutions have been seeking to figure out how to effectively adapt teaching and learning in response to ChatGPT. This study examined what has been discussed in the news about ChatGPT in Malaysian education during the first few months following its launch. This study first searched for articles in three major Malaysian English newspapers using the search terms "ChatGPT" and "education". Then, qualitative content analysis was employed to classify discussions about ChatGPT in Malaysian education published in 16 articles into categories and subcategories. The findings show that the discussions in the news could be coded into five level-one categories and 14 level-two subcategories. The findings of this study could help academics and educational institutions gain a better understanding of people's attitudes, concerns, and sentiments towards ChatGPT in Malaysian education to adapt learning design and delivery as well as point to future research directions.</p> Chun Meng Tang, Lee Yen Chaw Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on e-Learning Thu, 19 Oct 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Asynchronous e-learning: A collaborative, process-based solution for design and development challenges <p>This paper presents a case study of an asynchronous online learning program, ‘Project Management Skills’, benchmarked to the Exam Content Outline (ECO) that was released in October 2022 for the Certified Associate in Project Management (CAPM) qualification of the Project Management Institute (PMI), USA. It investigates how the design and development processes have incorporated contemporary research findings and practices in online course design and development. Key challenges of the program include supporting resource persons with traditional, face-to-face teaching experiences to effectively deliver content in online asynchronous mode, as well as producing content in the English language in a manner that can be easily digested by students who are not native English speakers. The study presents an analysis of data gathered from key informant interviews with Content Developers, as well as project documentation such as meeting minutes and reviewer comments. The findings indicate that the multiple review model employed in the design and development process complements best practices in asynchronous online education and enables a high level of collaboration which reduces the burden on the Content Developer to take on multiple roles. Additionally, it facilitates the input and support of a diverse group of team members with specialist knowledge.</p> Dilini Lakma Thoradeniya, Malik Ranasinghe, Vishaka Nanayakkara, Buddhika Karunarathne, Eshana Ranasinghe, Gaindu Saranga Jayathilaka, Niranjan Gunawardena Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on e-Learning Thu, 19 Oct 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Investigating Effective Ways to Use Artificial Intelligence in Teacher Education <p>The current advancements in natural language processing (NLP) have paved the way for the development of highly effective AI-powered language models. These models can produce human-like writing, making them valuable in various domains, including education. Given the importance of preparing pre-service teachers who can effectively facilitate student learning in the ever-evolving digital landscape, it becomes crucial to explore innovative approaches. This study focuses on investigating the potential integration of ChatGPT, an NLP model, in teacher training programs. The qualitative research involved 2nd and 3rd-year pre-service teachers enrolled in ICTs in the Education curriculum. Data collection was done through a questionnaire and class discussions to gain insights into the pre-service teachers' experiences with using ChatGPT. The findings shed light on the potential strategies for leveraging ChatGPT to enhance lesson planning and classroom activities, as it generates text that closely resembles human communication and exhibits independent learning capabilities. Implementing ChatGPT in teacher training programs holds promise for empowering pre-service instructors in creating engaging educational materials.</p> Nyarai Tunjera, Agnes Chigona Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on e-Learning Thu, 19 Oct 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Exploring the Validity of Continuous Assessment in a First-Year Programming Course at a Comprehensive Open Distance e-Learning University <p>Continuous assessments are commonly used to determine students’ level of understanding to implement measures to address any shortcomings. Assessment practices of programming courses at distance universities have always had numerous drawbacks due to large student bodies and time constraints. The large student body, in most instances, creates questions related to the validity and authenticity of the assessments. Time constraints in grading large numbers of assessments create questions related to the validity and authenticity of the feedback on assessments. The assumption is that the more assessments required for programming courses in a distance learning environment, the more chances there are for cheating and the less time there is to provide feedback for learning. This paper will investigate and report on assessment practices that were adopted in a first-year programming course to ensure valid authentic continuous assessment. Experiences shared in this paper offer programming instructors and the e-learning community, in general, an opportunity to make decisions on the extent to which they can use the continuous assessment strategies employed in their own settings.</p> Dalize van Heerden, Mmafani Serote Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on e-Learning Thu, 19 Oct 2023 00:00:00 +0000 School Reading Lists and Understanding Written Information for Life and Work <p>School reading lists are an essential factor influencing understanding the content and form of various types of texts: artistic, non-artistic, and electronic texts of an everyday nature among Czech technical secondary school pupils. The research aims to determine by analysing eight key school documents whether recommended school lists of texts for study at secondary technical schools are published electronically on schools' websites in the Moravian-Bohemian and Olomouc Regions of the Czech Republic. A partial goal is to determine whether school reading lists contain different types of texts and whether pupils at technical secondary schools understand information with a professional, artistic, media, etc., focus. A quantitatively oriented questionnaire survey through the lens of 523 pupils from 5 Czech secondary technical schools investigated what factors influence the reader's understanding of printed and electronic texts. The research results showed that Czech secondary school pupils like working with informal texts on social networks, frequently require help understanding texts of an administrative nature, and rarely work with texts from everyday life at school. The average to below-average level of reading and digital literacy among Czech 15-year-old pupils was also highlighted by the PISA 2018 international research.</p> Dana Vicherková, Veronika Murinová, Nela Nováková Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on e-Learning Thu, 19 Oct 2023 00:00:00 +0000 HyFlex learning as support for lifelong learning <p>Since the COVID-19 pandemic, the courses in a study programme in Knowledge Management have been offered as a hybrid version, serving students at both a campus and online. The official policy from the universities is that the students are wanted back at the campuses. However, students in a work-life lifelong learning situation do not always have the opportunity of travelling to a campus. Hence, the possibility of taking part digitally in a class with a mix of online and physically present students has been the right solution for many working students. This paper presents results from a survey among students enrolled in four different courses in the study programme of Knowledge Management at the Inland Norway University of Applied Sciences, Norway, where the physical classroom is based in Kongsvinger, and the students are either present at the campus or online simultaneously. The preliminary results show that the students in this lifelong learning situation are depending on this hybridity in order maintain their learning opportunities, as this enables them to stay in an often-demanding work situation, as well as being able to stay as learners at a university. This implies that the hybridity, first boosted by the COVID-19 pandemic, now, independently of the pandemic, is a demand within the segment of lifelong learners, as this will support access to higher education independent of place of residence, family situation or work situation. The students in this segment claim to attend physically if and when they have the opportunity to travel due to the above-mentioned situations. Hence, online only is not always the best option.</p> Tone Vold, Linda V. Kiønig Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on e-Learning Thu, 19 Oct 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Using Video-Feedback to Support Learning Outcome and Work-life Relevance <p>With students having the opportunity of choosing to take part in courses online rather than attend physically, they may lose the personal contact with the lecturers. One way of inducing a personal touch is by providing personalized video-feedback on the students’ assignments to maintain or establish a connection with the students. Video-feedback is tested out in blended learning, and thus far, the results have been positive. The students claim that this is a more personal and direct way of obtaining feedback on their work. The students in this research project are students in the study programme of Knowledge Management at the Business School at the Inland Norway University of Applied Sciences. The courses consist of three full-day seminars per semester, in addition to streaming video of the curriculum. There is also a mandatory assignment that the students need to pass in order to proceed and take their exam. The courses, both in the autumn semester and the spring semester, have been delivered as a hybrid version, meaning that the students have been able to follow the courses, either online or present in a (physical) classroom. The video-feedback on their assignments has been developed from only being feedback on their assignment and issues for improvement, to where in this semester, the focus has been on tying the feedback to the learning objectives of the course. In this paper, the focus has been on the students who have only been able to follow the courses on an online basis. Via in-depth interviews, such as via Zoom with online students, the impact of the video-feedback has been compared for these particular students to the generic students who have also attended in person. Our investigations have revealed that the impact on the online students were positive, as they do find this type of feedback more personal compared to the students who had also been present in the classroom.&nbsp;</p> Tone Vold, Ole Jørgen Ranglund, Linda V. Kiønig Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on e-Learning Thu, 19 Oct 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Facilitating Lifelong Learning for Mature Part-time Students: Findings from South Africa and Norway <p>When the COVID-19 pandemic spread, governments worldwide ordered most of the population to stay at home. From one day to the other all lecturing in higher education institutions (HEIs) had to be online. For many this resulted in solitude and isolation, something that in turn ad an effect on students’ well-being and academic achievements. The situation was somewhat different for mature part-time students (MPTS). They had struggled with being able to attend classes (at a campus), sometimes feeling alienated and left “on their own”. During the pandemic, they were able to attend more lectures as they were offered online. After the pandemic, most courses were offered as a hybrid version; they could return to campus or follow the courses online. Some students returned to campus, but not as many as one hoped. Hence, the student well-being and the academic achievements did not improve as much as hoped and expected. There have been several discourses regarding “forcing” students back to campus in order to improve the students’ situation and to regain the personal contact with the students. However, for one growing group of students, the MPTS’, the hybridity is what has brought them closer to the campus. For these students, the academic achievements have not deteriorated nor their well-being. In fact, investigations show that the hybrid education enables a life-long education situation. In this paper we present investigations from two universities from two very different parts of the world; The Inland Norway University of Applied Sciences, Norway and Nelson Mandela University, South Africa. Our joint research has focussed on looking at how hybridity can be adapted in order to better facilitate for the MPTS to maintain in a life-ling learning situation supporting academic success and ensuring retention, as this group is now no longer in a home office, but back in a work-life.</p> Tone Vold, Ann Lourens, Linda V. Kiønig, Curwyn Mapaling Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on e-Learning Thu, 19 Oct 2023 00:00:00 +0000 A Review of Tools for the Design and Development of Online Interactive Gamified Content : A Simulation Study <p>Nowadays on-line education has become extremely popular, mainly due to COVID-19 and social distancing. While more and more companies already offer on-line courses, a vast group of institutions stay away from such methods, mostly due to the belief that on-line learning may not be as effective as classroom training, the infrastructure required to deliver on-line courses is costly, the transformation of course content into digital interactive content is time consuming, and so forth. But the reality is that more and more learners find a lot of advantages in on-line learning. They wish to attend courses anytime, anywhere. There are thousands of pieces of open-source software and tools to choose from in order to create interactive content without the need of costly software, and infrastructure or coding. Even so, converting course materials to on-line digital interactive courses can be time consuming since a trainer needs to research for the appropriate tool in a vast market of free or low-cost open-source software, evaluate them, master their usage and then transform the content into digital interactive content. Time and human resources can be considerably minimised if organisations have access to a complete framework for the development of interactive, gamified courses by using open-source or low-cost software. The objective of this paper is to present and compare a set of selected digital tools which can be successfully used for the development of on-line interactive content in different types of institutions e.g., educational organisations, but also in companies during the process of organising training or courses for employees. Such a review is useful especially for the staff who teach the students using digital tools in order to improve the interest of the students and the effectiveness of their work i.e.: teachers, adult educators, VET educators, trainers, mentors or coaches. The paper offers them the opportunity to select the most appropriate tools for the teaching process. On the other hand, the target audience can also be the students who decide for self-learning. In this case, they can choose the tools which seem to be the most interesting and effective in their learning process. The identified tools were assessed by the VET trainers/educators in five European countries: Poland, Italy, Greece, Cyprus, and the United Kingdom (n=172). The research results indicate the most appropriate, friendly and free of charge open-source software used for the development of the interactive content. The originality of this paper comes from the fact that so far there has been no complex comparative analysis of the tools which can be supportive in the process of the development of the on-line training content with the use of interactive elements.</p> Ludmila Walaszczyk Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on e-Learning Thu, 19 Oct 2023 00:00:00 +0000