Integrating the 4cs into Creating Games by Visual Programming and Project Based Learning


  • Vasiliki Choleva School of Education, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens
  • Stelios Stagakis Faculty of Science, Engineering and Computing, Kingston University
  • Eutuxia Choleva School of Mathematics, University of the Aegean
  • Charalampos Patrikakis Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University of West Attica



ICT literacy, 21st century skills, Visual programming, Games Based Learning, Project Based Learning


In recent years teaching methods and tools have changed due to the development of IT information technologies. The Teaching Learning Process is guided and supported by the use of technological and pedagogical drivers in a holistic way.

This paper presents a teaching framework for the development of technologically supported learning environments, through the utilization of visual programming tools, such as Kodu and Scratch, proposed by the current and supplementary National Curriculum. Also, it proposes a framework of educational scenarios as a part of Games Based Learning practices within a Project Based Learning project that will be implemented during languages courses to K-6 students.

Seventy-five Greek-speaking children of the fifth year of various primary schools of Athens participated in this study. The aim of the study was not only to examine how the creation of educational digital games with Kodu and Scratch can introduce primary school students to programming but also to investigate the developmental path of 21st century skills such as critical thinking, creativity, collaboration, communication (4Cs) and virtual/digital skills. A mixed method approach was adopted to explore the educational value of using these programming tools in the teaching-learning process. The research data was collected using observations, worksheets and questionnaires. The result of this study shows that the students were excited about the creation of their game by visual programming environments and project implementation, which was reflected by their active involvement in the learning process.

The positive results of the research suggest that, in the proposed framework, the visual programming environments Kodu and Scratch can be dynamic learning tools during the teaching of language courses that support the development of students’ expression and collaboration skills. Also, the above findings provide an approach for future teaching to K-6 students on developing narrative skills.