European Conference on Games Based Learning 2023-10-16T12:04:49+00:00 Louise Remenyi Open Journal Systems <p>The European Conference on Game-Based Learning has been run on an annual basis since 2006. Conference Proceedings have been published each year and authors have been encouraged to upload their papers to university repositories. In addition the proceedings are indexed by a number of indexing bodies.</p> <p>From 2022 the publishers have decided to make all conference proceedings fully open access. Individual papers and full proceedings can be accessed via this system.</p> <p><strong>PLEASE NOTE THAT IF YOU WISH TO SUBMIT A PAPER TO THIS CONFERENCE YOU SHOULD VISIT THE CONFERENCE WEBSITE AT<a href=""></a> THIS PORTAL IS FOR AUTHORS OF ACCEPTED PAPERS ONLY.</strong></p> Science4Exitschool: Escape Games for Chemistry Classes 2023-07-07T13:43:16+00:00 Rebekka Hesser Isabel Rubner Sarah Lukas <p style="font-weight: 400;">Chemistry can often be very abstract. For this reason, different learning environments and methods are increasingly being developed to make it more accessible to learners at school or university. One such method is the use of educational escape games (Avargil, Shwartz and Zemel, 2021). This term refers to live-action, team-based games. In these escape games, clues must be followed, puzzles and tasks must be solved within a certain time frame in order to reach a certain goal (Tercanli, Martina and Ferreira Dias, 2021). This concept offers new opportunities for the educational sector. Learning pedagogy categorises this as game-based learning. The game serves as a medium for learning and achieving specific learning goals (Hu <em>et al.</em>, 2022). Entertainment is not the main focus, but should be used in a targeted way to convey knowledge or elicit certain behaviours (Sailer, 2016). Through experimental escape games with digital enrichment, previously acquired knowledge can also be applied and consolidated. As not only the popularity of the subjects of chemistry and physics has declined, but also scientific competences (Dohrmann, 2019), it is particularly relevant for the STEM field to introduce students to these topics in a playful way (Veldkamp <em>et al.</em>, 2020) and thus increase their interest in dealing with scientific topics. Escape games have already been shown to promote teamwork, problem-solving skills and creativity (Hacke, Przybylla and Schwill, 2019). These skills are part of the 21st century skills.&nbsp;In the context of the Science4Exit<sub>school</sub> project, this concept will be applied to the teaching of chemistry in schools. In addition to the technical background, the paper will also describe how this innovation can be implemented as an example.</p> 2023-09-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on Games Based Learning Tierschutz erLeben. Devising a “Comic Automaton” to Innovate Learning 2023-07-20T11:12:12+00:00 Jana Mariella Kalb Ido Iurgel Anabela Parente Steffi Wiedemann <p><strong>Abstract: </strong>The ongoing German R&amp;D project Tierschutz erLeben aims to improve the animal welfare learning experience, primarily for agricultural students. The knowledge domain is shaped by many interrelated facts, often about informed decision-making under specific circumstances and the possible consequences. Unsatisfactory frontal teaching prevails in the current praxis. In contrast, the abstraction level and the complexity are less demanding.&nbsp;</p> <p>An interactive simulation close to reality is not necessarily a solution as it can be inefficient and incomplete, failing to cover all necessary facts. We are working on an innovative gamified approach based on the concept of interactive comics, which shall be more efficient than realistic simulations potentially encompassing all necessary facts.&nbsp;</p> <p>In our sense, an interactive comic is a form of a simulation with a comic’s feel and look. We call it a Comic Automaton. As with every comic, our system presents only relevant story events, thus promoting efficiency. Textual descriptions, diagrams, and other means that help attain completeness are easily incorporated. A Comic Automaton is highly interactive. The immediate goal of the learner is to interactively and iteratively create a story about management in animal husbandry, where every decision is correct and substantiated. Accomplishing a complete, correct comic is an indicator of learning success and shall be an experience of fun and satisfaction. Decisions of the learner, including mistakes and lacuna of knowledge, will trigger automatic continuation of the comic. For example, a comic frame where the user decides not to feed enough milk to a calf will trigger an automatic new frame where the calf becomes weak and possibly even dies.&nbsp;</p> <p>Especially in the field of animal husbandry, virtual exercises that might also have a bad outcome for the animals are very important. Without real animals coming to harm, important lessons can be learned from these mistakes. The details of the Comic Automaton are ongoing work. Two user-centred workshops were held so far to unfold further and test the ideas.&nbsp;</p> 2023-09-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on Games Based Learning Virtual Chemistry Exam Preparations Designed as Escape Rooms 2023-07-25T07:48:35+00:00 Michaela Kröppl Georg Yvon <p>Chemistry is a very interesting but sometimes for students too theoretical and therefore strenuous topic with a lot of theoretic basic knowledge to be memorized. This can lead to lacking fascination during lectures. In laboratory work chemistry often seems more tangible. In order to enhance the student´s interest for chemistry already for the theoretical basis, new ways for teaching but also exam preparations are being designed. In our work we want to focus on an innovative way for exam preparations combining the theoretical knowledge from the lecture and the practical experience from chemistry laboratory work in a game-based elearning setup. The idea is that in a game-based way students are more motivated to activate their knowledge by solving different tasks. They can combine information and try out various possibilities to find the solution or use additional help (e.g. links to theoretical input). On top, they get direct feedback if their answers are correct. The exam questions are found in a virtual chemistry laboratory. Not only theory questions have to be answered (e.g. by using multiple choice, drag and drop, …), for other tasks virtual chemical experiments (without any danger!) will lead to an answer. Usually a code (numbers, letters, signs, …) has to be obtained which is necessary for continuation. By solving different questions and chemistry tasks, the participants will be able to complete the exam preparation test and to exit the designed Chemistry Escape room with the planned name “ChemScape”. Right now, a virtual chemistry laboratory is designed and already some chemistry questions from lecture exams are inserted and implemented in the escape room game. First tests with students will follow until summer. As already another chemistry Escape room station with real materials (solutions, instruments, …) has been tried in different settings – always receiving good marks and enthusiasm for fun, entertaining and good imparting of knowledge, also a virtual Chemistry Escape room game is expected to be well accepted. Gamification is often a very good way for motivation – it can even convert boring seeming topics into real fun and interest and the will to learn more!</p> 2023-09-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on Games Based Learning Serious Game For Training To Escape From Disasters And Deal With Accidents 2023-08-21T11:47:44+00:00 Yantao Meng <p>The purpose of this study is to consider training methods to increase the ability to respond to disasters and accidents, conduct experiments, and verify their effectiveness. Based on this method, we decided to develop a serious game. The serious game developed in this project focuses on learning how to respond to disasters and accidents. Players encounter disasters and accidents in their daily lives. Consequently, the protagonist is portrayed as having bad luck and experiencing various unfortunate events. To facilitate learning, a time limit is set, and the time limit is extended to encourage players to continue playing. Specifically, the game begins with a fortune teller informing the protagonist that they will face an unfortunate event, and if they do not successfully navigate it, they will die within a month. If the protagonist overcomes the event, they will receive a lucky item. Collecting ten lucky items will extend their life by one month. To motivate players, unique and numerous lucky items are provided to encourage continued play.<br>To give players an incentive to play the game, we decided to provide unusual lucky items and numerous lucky items to encourage them to continue playing.<br>To verify the effectiveness of this game, a control group experiment will be conducted at the end of the game development.</p> 2023-09-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on Games Based Learning Challenges in Designing a Game for the Prevention of Intimate Partner Violence 2023-08-31T22:05:58+00:00 Lorena Müller Ulrike Spierling Jessica L. Bitter Stephan Schwarz <p>In this report on our ongoing work, we present initial findings from the development of a serious game to support primary prevention of intimate partner violence (IPV). We discuss educational goals and game mechanics ideas to address specific challenges that arise from conflicting implications for design of this issue.</p> 2023-09-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on Games Based Learning Fostering Self-regulation, Motivation, and Creativity through Gamification Software iWrite 2023-09-12T13:36:48+00:00 Christian Stein Zhitian Skylor Zhang <p style="font-weight: 400;">Students and academics face a range of challenges when writing, including a lack of motivation, self-regulatory skills, and creativity. To address these difficulties, the Cluster of Excellence Image Knowledge Gestaltung at Humboldt University has developed a gamification writing software called iWrite. In this article, we introduce the development process of the software and its features – including gamification features such as progress bars, points, a planner, streaks, visualization, and levels – as well as additional practical writing-supportive features such as proofreading and time and activity tracking. iWrite provides valuable game features that promote the development of efficient and enjoyable writing habits. Research indicates that gamification features like these can be a powerful tool in enhancing writers' motivation and self-regulation when engaging in creative tasks like writing. While the software development is finished, a systematic evaluation of it is planned within the EU-FairPlay project beginning 2024. The study aims to evaluate consistency of usage and impact on writing progress on students testing the software over several weeks. The result is expected to show, which game mechanics are working well in context of academic writing.</p> 2023-09-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on Games Based Learning Discovering Educational Game Design Through ‘Conversation Starters’: Teachers’ and Game Designers’ Perspectives 2023-07-25T07:59:01+00:00 Mifrah Ahmad <p>Educational game (EG) design process has its complexities which are recognised differently at player-end. The need to understand teachers’ perspectives and views about identifying what makes games educational (whether they use or prefer EGs or digital games), the problems and barriers encountered in their practice while using EGs, any design challenges that hinder their use and the ‘pains and gains’ of using EGs in their classroom is crucial.&nbsp; In parallel, these inquiries should also be investigated from game designers’ perspectives to visualize both stakeholders’ needs. Therefore, this paper presents the data of six teachers’ and six game designers’ views during the co-discovering design thinking workshop method on the above inquiries, based in the Australian context.&nbsp; This paper presents the first co-discovering technique called the ‘conversation starters’, where both stakeholders discussed their current practices relevant to EGs along with the probes listed above.&nbsp; The data is thematically categorized, coded, and analysed using NVivo. The results are presented through the constructivism paradigm, which is grounded by theory of experience (Dewey, 1938) and the participatory design method. The intentions are to provide insights for game designers in designing EGs, this can enable teachers and game designers designing EGs towards understanding some issues and expectations from teachers to help their designing process of EGs.&nbsp;</p> 2023-09-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on Games Based Learning Integrating Reinforcement AI into the Design of Educational Games 2023-08-04T17:49:37+00:00 Ashish Amresh <p>The emergence of reinforcement-based AI for text generation (Chat-GPT) and image creation (Dall-E) has opened a wide range of possibilities for changing the game design and development process. While game development researchers have mostly focused on integrating these technologies to improve production workflow and demonstrate their use in the creation of content for entertainment purposes (intelligent NPCS), there is very little knowledge on how to integrate this technology into the design of educational games. In this paper, we present the results of integrating reinforcement AI (text and image generation) into educational gaming experiences by graduate students enrolled in a game-based learning course. The students were given a core set of requirements that enable the integration into their project with some flexibility on the desired educational outcome. The produced experiences were then evaluated by a small sample of experts (gaming and learning sciences) and their observations were compiled. Specifically, we describe the wide range of experiences developed by the students and the results of a qualitative study with a small group of experts that evaluated these experiences. Our results indicate that reinforcement AI-based integrations into educational game design and development helps enrich the user experience and has the potential to improve learning outcomes.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2023-09-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on Games Based Learning The need for game-based learning methods to address cyber threats 2023-06-13T13:05:13+00:00 George Andrews Chitra Balakrishna Alexander Mikroyannidis <p>Cyber security threats are increasingly a serious concern to organisations, with an annual worldwide cost of a trillion dollars in 2021. Potentially the most significant contributor to cyber security threats is the human element, yet this has typically been insufficiently addressed in proposed solutions. Significant resources have been allocated to software, training and other solutions designed to tackle this threat, yet existing methods to improve cyber security have failed to deliver the desired results. Commonly cited issues include the lack of engagement in training, leading to disinterest and a ‘one size fits all’ approach, meaning some groups benefit from training more than others. This study will examine the need for game-based training methods in addressing cyber security threats caused by human error. Game-based training methods have previously been proposed to improve engagement in training and this study will discuss other potential benefits of game-based training. The aim of this work is to justify the use of game-based training methods in cyber security and begin to determine which aspects of games may be most effective at causing long-term positive behaviour change. Following an extensive literature review, a pilot study was run in which a survey was presented to 37 individuals who have taken cyber security training in the past, to query opinions and perceptions regarding cyber security training participants had previously taken, and how they feel they would behave when faced with certain cyber security threats. Upon analysis in SPSS, the results of this work indicate that factors such as training frequency and exposure to cyber security attacks have a significant impact on cyber security behaviour. A correlation between engaging training and impact of training on behaviour also serves to justify the development of such training methods. When combined with previous results on cyber security training this highlights the need for training to be engaging, regular, and relevant, and shows that the realistic simulation of cyber security threats (such as in game-based training) is of significant benefit. These results will help inform future development of effective game-based training methods and encourage their use more widely.</p> 2023-09-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on Games Based Learning Media Convergence and Game-Based Learning: Developing a Hypothesis of Film Education for the Post-Media Age 2023-09-04T07:34:37+00:00 Massimo Atzori <p>The purpose of this paper is to develop a hypothesis of film education built on a theoretical speculation concerning media convergence between cinema and video games, game-based learning and participatory culture, in the interest of schools willing to introduce the subject in their curricula and try out new educational approaches, embracing the inclusive definition of ‘film’ adopted by British Film Institute (2015).</p> 2023-09-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on Games Based Learning UnlockArt: Cultural Mediation at the Museum Through an Augmented Reality Escape Room 2023-07-25T08:35:18+00:00 Masiar Babazadeh <p>In the context of a museum, cultural mediation facilitates access to the works of art for the visitors which not always share the culture the pieces of art come from. Tools and resources such as catalogs, guided tours, or the work of the curators are all part of the museum's cultural mediation, which highlights and informs the visitors of the works on display. In this case study we present the game design process and results of UnlockArt, a project developed as a cultural mediation tool at the Museo delle Culture (MUSEC) in Lugano, Switzerland. The project studied and applied the educational escape room format to enhance the museum experience for visitors, and to encourage the younger ones to approach the collection through a ludic activity. By the means of the Star Model (Botturi and Babazadeh, 2020), the project designed an educational escape room for the "JAPAN. Arts and Life. The Montgomery Collection" exhibition, a collection of Japanese objects from the period between the 12th and the 20th century. Educational escape rooms are a format that works well in class, but may be burdensome to apply in a museum, which intrinsically imposes many constraints. Players should be silent, the escape room should always be ready to be played and easy to be rebooted, and it should not impact the exhibition for visitors that wish not to engage in the experience. For this reason, we opted for an augmented reality educational escape room (AR EER) which can be played on tablets. Such approach only requires QR codes placed around the exhibition, which hide puzzles and hints tied to the works exhibited in the museum, and does not need any rebooting phase as the puzzles are to be solved in augmented reality.</p> 2023-09-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on Games Based Learning A Model for Balancing Clarity and Appeal in Serious Game Visuals 2023-07-22T15:33:01+00:00 Hua Bai Björn Berg Marklund Ulf Wilhelmsson <p>In serious game development, graphic design needs to be eye-catching, while also depicting subject matter content in a responsible, accurate, and clear way. Previous research has shown that abstract and symbolic game visuals seem to be preferable for learning and providing an engaging experience. Our research focuses on describing the challenges involved in creating effective visual communication through game graphics in cross cultures. In particular, we’re interested in examining if certain styles of visual communication are more or less effective between different cultural demographics. To examine this, we have created a serious game which aims to promote healthy food and nutrition habits to teenagers in both Nepalese and Swedish schools and by doing so also motivate behavioral changes toward healthier eating habits. We are currently conducting studies to see whether preferences and image recognition differ between the two demographical spheres. This paper will only discuss the exploratory study done in Nepal. Ultimately, this paper aims to contribute development guidelines that can aid developers in creating more effective visual communication in their serious games, and we primarily focus on exploring what we call the compromise of ‘clarity’ and ‘appeal’ in the creation of game graphics. We present an initial model for choosing at what level in terms of realism/abstraction and taxonomic hierarchy the graphical components of serious games optimally should be produced in order to solve the dilemma of precise, unmistakable, yet appealing visuals in serious games. It all comes down to two primary decisions: defining the taxonomic hierarchy of the items to depict, and choosing the style in which to depict them. With a better understanding of when different game visuals are more or less appropriate, both in terms of style and in which objects are represented, game developers will be able to balance production costs better while also creating something that strikes the compromise between clarity and appeal.</p> 2023-09-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on Games Based Learning Informal Game Play in the Classroom: Utilisation and Integration of the Metalanguage of Games 2023-09-27T12:20:17+00:00 Kim Balnaves <p>This paper discusses a case study of a 28 children in a middle years (11-15 year old) classroom and the use of the "third space" between the classroom and the home as an area of play for consolidation of both the learning at school and the informal learning of the games played at home. The research aims to look at whether the third space could be a vehicle to enable participants who have identified themselves as competent in the gaming world to link those learning strategies to classroom learning and therefore transfer that success to the classroom. The research took place at an International Baccalaureate school in Perth, Western Australia and utilises the third space as a gaming server and Discord chatrooms. Data was collected from the servers, questionnaires, researcher observations, game walkthrough videos and through interviews with the participants. Being an International Baccalaureate school the children take part in a “cognitive curriculum” which is part of the metacognitive learning of the International Baccalaureate. The participants were applying these strategies to their reflections on their action within the server and these reflections then informed their further participation within the “informal” game. In this way it could be theorised that children who were skilled “shapeshifters” could be at an advantage both communicating within the collaborative group work and moving between the informal and formal spaces. The analysis of the data focuses on the ways in which the students unpacked, utilised and discussed the formal classroom learning whilst participating in the Java Minecraft server game space. The metalanguage of learning and building competence in digital games informally through play outside of the school appears to link well to the metalanguage of the International Baccalaureate curriculum. The paper investigates whether linking children’s understanding and use of the gaming metalanguage to the International Baccalaureate metalanguage enables children to traverse the metalanguage of the classroom more successfully. The analysis of the data is utilised threefold in this presentation to: Identify that there is a linkage between gaming language and International Baccalaureate curriculum elements make these links apparent and show how they would apply in the classroom.</p> 2023-09-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on Games Based Learning Designing a 3D Serious Game about Career Pathways in the Games Industry 2023-08-07T19:09:32+00:00 Gavin Baxter Thomas Hainey Alan Williams Julie Black <p>The aim of this paper is to give a detailed overview of the development of a 3D serious game that informs game students about career pathways in the games industry. The paper provides a scoping review on the key principles related to serious game design. These core design issues are reiterated in relation to how the development of the game has adhered to them. The paper illustrates the game’s audit trail in terms of implementation providing a development blueprint for other educators to follow when developing an educational game. The learning outcomes of the game are also accentuated and how the implementation of the game has catered for them. An important aspect of the paper is to highlight how the underlying aspects of game design can accommodate intrinsic content and motivation whilst accommodating the various pedagogical frameworks embedded in the gameplay. The characterising goals of the game have adopted a linear and cyclical approach that allows the player to progress through the gameplay completing formative and summative assessment challenges. The serious game was developed using the Unity game engine adopting a hub and spoke design. A key challenge when designing the game was how to ensure that the game remained endogenous when designing the game’s levels. The design considerations presented in this paper provide a solid implementational framework about how to implement principles of learning and assessment associated with employability skill sets with a specific focus to the games industry. &nbsp;&nbsp;</p> 2023-09-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on Games Based Learning Vocabulary Acquisition in New and Learned Contexts Using Immersive Virtual Reality 2023-06-27T15:07:49+00:00 Thérèse Bergsma Mariët Theune Robby van Delden <p class="western" style="line-height: 100%; margin-bottom: 0cm;"><span style="font-size: xx-small;"><span style="font-size: small;">Vocabulary acquisition is important for learning a language. Language learners need multiple encounters with a word to add unknown word aspects to their word knowledge or to strengthen their knowledge of previously learned word aspects. Combining vocabulary acquisition with immersive virtual reality (IVR) makes it possible to have such multiple encounters. In IVR, objects representing target words can be shown in the same virtual environment as they were first encountered (</span></span><span style="font-size: xx-small;"><span style="font-size: small;"><em>learned context</em></span></span><span style="font-size: xx-small;"><span style="font-size: small;">), but also in a new virtual environment (</span></span><span style="font-size: xx-small;"><span style="font-size: small;"><em>new context</em></span></span><span style="font-size: xx-small;"><span style="font-size: small;">). To investigate learning words in either a new or learned context in IVR we built Wics (words in context system). We used Wics to carry out an experiment in which participants could learn 32 Japanese words, represented by 3D objects, in three sessions. In the second and third learning session all words were shown in either a new context, with a changed environment and a changed visual representation of the word objects, or a learned context, where only the placement of the objects was changed. Performance scores for an immediate and a delayed post-test (one week later) revealed no significant differences in performance between conditions. However, there was a tendency towards participants spending more time on learning the words in the learned context condition. We believe Wics to be the first IVR system to provide learners with multiple learning sessions to provide multiple encounters with the same words in different contexts, where learners have control over their own explorative learning, and where the post-tests are inside IVR.</span></span></p> 2023-09-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on Games Based Learning Maestro Martino: designing a historic escape room with primary school children 2023-05-30T12:15:43+00:00 Luca Botturi <p>Educational escape rooms are being used in all school sectors and in many different subjects across the globe. In most documented cases, escape rooms are designed by teachers and played by students. This paper presents the case study of a primary school class that designed and developed an escape room for both adult and young players in connection with a regional event connected to a historical celebration. The project spanned over the whole school year and included a learning phase, the production of support materials (as comics) and eventually the design and development of the escape room, which was finalized by a local association. After its installation in the ancient local prison, the escape room enjoyed the visit of over 600 players, including tourists, families, groups of friends, and school classes, representing a successful example of open school game design project. The paper presents the key phases of the project: requirement analysis, escape room design (including narrative, puzzles, game-flow and props), escape room implementation, and assessment, with a focus on how to manage complex game design with young children.</p> 2023-09-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on Games Based Learning Design Experiments in Game-Based Learning of Metacognition 2023-06-12T09:20:35+00:00 Eelco Braad Nick Degens Wijnand IJsselsteijn Wolmet Barendregt <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong>Learner metacognition is one of the most influential factors that positively affects learning. Previous work shows that game-based learning can contribute to supporting and developing metacognitive knowledge and skills of learners. While there are many specific examples of such games, it remains unclear how to effectively design game-based learning environments to achieve this in an effective way. In other words: there is sufficient case-specific evidence, but limited design knowledge derived from such cases. In this paper, we attempt to identify such intermediary design knowledge that resides between specific games and generalized theory. We present three design experiments where game-based metacognitive training is evaluated in real-world educational settings. We collected insights regarding usefulness, motivation, usage, effort, and metacognition among participating students. From these experiments we identify what was learned in the form of design recommendations and, as such, contribute to collecting intermediary design knowledge for designing game-based metacognitive training.</p> 2023-09-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on Games Based Learning Entrepreneurship and game-based learning in Higher Education: a systematic review 2023-08-21T13:14:21+00:00 Margarida Casau Marta Ferreira Dias Marlene Amorim <p>Game based learning and entrepreneurship education are two topics that have been gaining attention in recent years. This is due to the importance of entrepreneurship for economic growth, employment, and innovation. As such, researchers have begun exploring how game-based learning may be used to foster entrepreneurial skills, both in students and young graduates. Entrepreneurship education has become increasingly important in higher education as it equips students with the skills necessary to become successful in the business world. Even though many entrepreneurship education programs still use traditional teaching methods, it is now known that game-based learning can be a very effective way to develop entrepreneurship competences. In addition, research has shown there may exist potential benefits beyond just improving entrepreneurial knowledge. In fact, studies suggest that playing certain types of games may improve problem solving abilities by teaching players how to break down complex problems into smaller component parts as well as helping them to develop better communication skills needed when working with others on projects or collaborations outside one’s own venture. All these findings make it even more important for us to understand why people enjoy playing different kinds of games so that educators can create experiences that will not only help grow businesses and to develop entrepreneur’s mindset in youngsters but also provide enjoyable experiences along the way too. This systematic review aims to examine the current literature on the use of game-based learning approaches in higher education to develop entrepreneurship competences.</p> 2023-09-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on Games Based Learning The Language of Life: A Game-Based Workshop for Introducing Protein Biosynthesis 2023-07-14T16:12:29+00:00 Fabio Chiarello Daniela Fioretti Tiziano Antognozzi Francesca Romana Bertani Ennio Bilancini Matteo Bisanti Leonardo Boncinelli Luca Businaro Roberto Di Paolo Annamaria Gerardino Sandra Iurescia <p>Protein biosynthesis is a complex process that involves the transcription of DNA into mRNA and the subsequent translation of mRNA into proteins according to the genetic code. To introduce this fundamental process to a broad audience, we developed "The Language of Life", a game-based workshop that was presented at the Genoa Science Festival 2022, the largest science communication event in Italy. The game-based workshop employed jigsaw puzzle-like elements to represent DNA, mRNA, and aminoacyl transfer RNAs, enabling participants to pair them through codon combinations. The game-based workshop lasted for an hour and the framing was a "special mission" inside a cell. It consisted of an initial training phase that incorporated videos, models, and explanations, followed by practical "missions'' in which participants reproduce transcription and translation mechanisms by moving inside the cell and using the provided materials. The workshop was attended by 1,505 participants, primarily students aged 6-18, and received positive feedback. In this paper, we present our experience conducting this workshop and discuss its impact and potential for future use.</p> 2023-09-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on Games Based Learning Applying design research for cross-disciplinary collaboration: Experiences from a gamification process 2023-07-10T09:31:03+00:00 Younjung Choi Cornelis Willem Klok Sharif Khaleghparast Swapnil Shekhar <p>This study explores applying design science research (DSR) frameworks to facilitate cross-disciplinary collaboration towards game development. It uses a DSR framework proposed by Peffers et al (2014) to integrate the knowledge and experiences of a cross-disciplinary research team and develop a game which gamifies the investment decision-making process of energy communities. The framework employed for this paper constituted five phases around problem identification, definition of solution objectives, artefact design and development, demonstration and evaluation. The iterative process of the framework allowed for gradual but incremental improvement in the outcome and the associated artefacts and sustained researcher collaboration. The resultant interactive in-person game required the participants (or their teams) to navigate through the complexities of the decision-making process in a community while considering factors such as information asymmetry, uncertain return on investments, time constraints, etc. The game was instantiated twice and was able to engage players effectively. Moreover, the post-game evaluation indicated that the players acquired learning about energy communities. The participants developed an understanding of the game only gradually and their engagement in the later rounds of the game. Three distinct investment strategies emerged from the two instantiations (diversification, focus on centralised options, or focus on decentralised options). The participants preferred to maintain a strategy rather than reacting situationally. This gamification experience, albeit applicable to this specific research context, shows that DSR frameworks can be successfully applied to facilitate cross-disciplinary collaboration because they allow for more flexible and iterative knowledge exchange. The post-game evaluation helped identify avenues for further improvements, such as focusing on incremental-iterative development of the output, expanding the flexibility and visibility of the game, involving a more balanced research team, etc. The contribution of this study lies in extending the discourse on cross-disciplinary collaboration by incorporating DSR frameworks and demonstrating the application of game-based learning beyond end-user application.</p> 2023-09-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on Games Based Learning A Simulation Game for Anti-money Laundering (AML) Using Unity 2023-06-29T12:00:40+00:00 Long Kiu Chu Sui Leung Fung <p>With increasing demand of anti-money laundering (AML) regulation in Fintech, AML is one of the key factors in FinTech and its regulatory technologies (RegTech). Presently, as research and education on AML focus on financial institutions and authority, the individual is vulnerable to money laundering (ML) by being money mules with lack of awareness. Therefore, this paper illustrates the design of a 2-player simulation game for AML, which integrates the game-based learning model with plots including introduction stories, player actions and ending stories. In the game, a player role-plays either a money launderer or AML specialist. Within 6 in-game months, the former needs to perform ML with a target goal while the latter needs to identify the former’s actions and restrict him to achieve his goal.</p> <p>For actions of the money launderer, this paper integrates the criminal order with the PLI model (placement, layering and integration) to simulate the full ML circle. The criminal order provides return to the attacker if he completes it within the time limit. Each layer in the PLI model is expanded with middle processes for the methodology. The attacker uses shell companies to hide his identity and support each transaction for ML with apparently legitimate reasons.</p> <p>For actions of the AML specialist, this paper integrates the AML transaction monitoring with the Financial Action Task Force (FATF)’s Forty Recommendation. The defender needs to perform AML transaction monitoring with identifying suspicious financial activities based on money flow. Then, he needs to identify the actual beneficial owner of suspected companies with their share distributions. Both money flows and share distributions are visualized in data charts. Later, the defender shall report suspicious companies to the Financial Intelligence Unit (FIU), which will return the investigation result at the beginning of the next in-game month.</p> 2023-09-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on Games Based Learning When design gets in the way: student learning and digital escape game 2023-06-09T09:15:53+00:00 Caroline Cruaud <p>Escape games are known for their potential to engage students and are becoming a popular way to teach content in a variation of subjects, e.g., chemistry (Peleg et al., 2019), music (Babazadeh et al., 2022), and financial literacy (Bisanti et al., 2022). It is also a rapidly developing field of research (Veldkamp et al., 2020, Taraldsen et al., 2022). The importance of the debrief stage after playing and its role in ensuring learning outcomes has been discussed (Babazadeh et al., 2022). However, investigating students’ learning while playing the game is needed to understand how they can be used in the classroom and continue improving the design of future escape games. In addition, there is still little research on escape games used online, in a digital format. This study explores the students’ experience of learning when playing the digital escape game <em>Radioaktiv</em> over video conference. Video data of six pairs of students playing the game were collected at a Norwegian University. Interaction analysis was conducted on representative data extracts to answer the following research question: <em>How did the students’ experience of learning unfold while playing the digital escape game Radioaktiv?</em> Findings show that design choices came in the way of students’ learning and reveal the importance of just-in-time and adapted feedback. Implications for this study are the importance of playtesting the escape game, especially when it comes to designing the puzzles and feedback loops. The present study also shows the necessity of the teacher: the automatised feedback system from the digital escape game cannot replace the role of the teacher during gameplay. This is especially true in the context of online learning where students can more easily feel left alone. Digital escape games as a learning activity should always be implemented within a clear pedagogical design.</p> 2023-09-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on Games Based Learning Design of an Educational Escape Room by Future Teachers 2023-07-20T13:46:54+00:00 Mária Čujdíková Peter Vankúš <p>As educators seek innovative ways to engage students in the learning process, educational escape rooms have emerged as a promising motivational learning strategy. This paper presents a study on the design and playing of such escape rooms by pre-service secondary mathematics and informatics teachers using online tools. The study involved students collaboratively creating their escape rooms and introducing them to their peers. We gathered data through observation, questionnaires, evaluation cards, and their webpages regarding their opinions on the potential of these rooms as a teaching tool. Results indicate that most students found the educational escape rooms to be highly engaging and useful in promoting collaboration, and problem-solving skills. Therefore, they are open to using educational escape rooms in their future teaching. The study sheds light on the potential of student-led design of educational escape rooms as a means of preparing future teachers to incorporate this motivational tool into their teaching practice, with implications for teacher education programs and classroom practice.</p> 2023-09-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on Games Based Learning Microgames and Language Learning: Performance Before Competence? 2023-08-16T20:39:17+00:00 Suzanne de Castell Nora Perry Lorea Bailey Jen Jenson <p><em><span style="font-weight: 400;">This paper reports on a study in which pairs of first-graders played microgames on small-screen handheld devices every day for 9 weeks. Its purpose was to find out whether, and if so how, adding digital games into classroom communications could ‘fast-track’ learning, accelerate language and literacy development, and whether it could also help bridge communication barriers for ELL learners, who may be shy, intimidated, or simply linguistically unable to interact as equals with their classmates. The “microgames” students played together were fast-paced, high engagement games that feature almost entirely one-word, verb-based instructions: “Rock”, “Hide”, “Pick”, “Protect”, and so on. Videos, fieldnotes and teacher reports note that social and linguistic interaction between children as and after they played demonstrably increased. Students’ language learning appeared to be accelerated by the game’s imperative to quickly decode and follow written instructions, even though many of these 6- and 7-year-olds did not yet read well enough to do that. The vocabulary which they were, in a matter of days, effectively recognizing and acting on was often far advanced from their usual first grade language arts lexicon, with words like “disguise”, “hypnotize”, “escape” and so on, presumed and treated, from a curricular standpoint, as exceeding their linguistic competence. Equally noteworthy was the technical competence the children displayed in mastering game controls, along with an array of different game mechanics. Using video documentation throughout the study provided both empirical evidence and persuasive examples of how playful interaction with more capable peers can support linguistic development as well as, or even more effectively than, conventional language curriculum and instruction, suggesting that when learning is scaffolded by play, our reach can so often exceed our grasp.</span></em></p> 2023-09-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on Games Based Learning Science4Exit Project - Experimental Escape Games with Digital Enrichment in an Extracurricular Learning Venue 2023-07-20T06:43:21+00:00 David Ditter Isabel Rubner Sarah Lukas David Weiser <p style="font-weight: 400;">Exit games, escape games or escape rooms are innovative formats for teaching chemistry and for learning and applying scientific content. In the project "Science4Exit" experimental escape games with digital enrichment are developed, tested and evaluated. They will be carried out in the teaching and learning laboratory of chemistry at the University of Education in Weingarten.</p> <p style="font-weight: 400;">One of the project's goals is to increase pupil’s motivation for science topics and interest in STEM subjects, as well as to improve the application of knowledge acquired in school. It also promotes 21st century skills (creativity, collaboration, communication, critical thinking and problem-solving) by embedding them in a game-based context. When playing escape games in the chemistry teaching and learning laboratory Ex³lab, experimental ways of knowing and solving are essential to reach the goal. As in classical or combinatorial puzzles, the result of an experiment is needed to unlock the next challenge. Escape games are partly digitally guided (e.g. by Actionbound, H5P) or digitally enriched with different technologies as needed (AR, explanatory videos, etc.). The Escape Games developed are used so that pupils can deal with scientific content in a playful and experimental way during a visit to the teaching and learning laboratory. They are supervised by student teachers as part of their studies. An escape game on energy supply and climate protection as well as building blocks for further developed escape games are presented below.</p> 2023-09-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on Games Based Learning Exploring Movement-Modifier Facilitation in Movement-based Sports, Health, and Game Design 2023-06-15T12:24:51+00:00 Lars Elbæk Rasmus Vestergaard Andersen Lærke Schjødt Rasmussen Maximus Kaos <p>It can be daunting to ensure a movement flow that unleashes creativity when facilitating movement-based design activities that aim for play, games, sports, and technology domains. When incorporating movement in game design, it is vital to understand game and learning elements but equally movement and play elements because these are important motivational factors. To fully understand the play, sport, and physical activity aspects of movement-game design, we must investigate the world of physical activity and performance. As a part of the Erasmus+ project, MeCaMInD, the innovative design of Movement-Modifier cards was developed, intended as a tool in the facilitation process to engage participants in physical exploration, supporting, modifying, or tweaking movement-based design practices for an inclusive game and physical activity and performance design. The Movement-Modifiers is grounded in sports and health theories, creative design tools and methods. To harvest the Movement-Modifier’s tweaking creative potential, it is crucial to understand when and how to use them in the generative parts of a movement-based design process. Grounded in a phenomenological approach and based on a multiple case study, this paper explores how eight facilitators used the Movement-Modifiers to challenge and tweak the generative processes. The cases are 1) A two-day sports innovation camp for 80 K12 high school students, 2) A workshop on Inclusive exergame design with 15 participants at the Nordic Innovation Summit 2022, 3) A course teaching 65 sport bachelor students the creative acrobatic body performance design. Empirical data were generated using a combination of observations, video recordings, and interviews, and the phenomenological analysis was condensed into written facilitator narratives. We present Movement-Modifier facilitation strategies in three phases of movement-based design facilitation, illustrated on a continuum with the facilitator’s level of involvement on one axis and participation structure on the other. The facilitator’s role is multifaceted, and effective Movement-Modifier facilitation requires sensitivity, adaptability, and careful planning. The Movement-Modifiers should be seen as a tool to support the design process rather than the essence of it.</p> 2023-09-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on Games Based Learning Using and facilitating social videogames as warm-ups for embodied design 2023-06-08T07:20:27+00:00 Jose Font Mats Johnsson Søren Lekbo Rasmus Vestergaard Andersen Maximus D. Kaos Lars Elbæk <p>Warm-ups, as preliminary activities to physical training, are an inherent part of any physical exercise and sports practice. Rooted in the concept of embodied cognition, embodied design is a paradigm that shifts the focus of interaction design from external artefacts and devices to the human body (Svanæs &amp; Barkhuus, 2020). A body-centred design emphasises the importance of having the human body at the centre of the entire design cycle, conveying movement, physical expressivity, feelings, and aesthetics, in a design process that uses the body as both a resource and target. Designing with the body is, therefore, a physically demanding activity that requires a specific set of warm-ups to educate and prepare designers mentally, socially, and physically for the act of embodied design. We propose social videogames as a resourceful framework for creating such a set of warm-up exercises. This paper presents a methodology comprising off-the-shelf commercial videogames whose rules have been adapted for embodied design. Three studies have been executed to validate the game's capacity as warm-up activity and icebreaker for embodied creativity and to study the conditions for an optimal method facilitation to external instructors in preparation for an applied session. The method applied is qualitative and quantitative feedback data gathered from the three studies using questionnaires, tests, observation, and open interviews. The results of the series of studies showed the potential of the proposed methodology as warm-ups for teaching, training, and practising embodied design, as well as giving insights on how to facilitate it. Overall, the game-based warm-ups for embodied design preparation using off-the-shelf movement games have a social and playful nature. The proposed twisted gameplays make them suitable to exert body moves and get ready to think and design with their bodies. The study on facilitation shows the need for a preparation session supported by an experienced person. However, one introductory session is enough for the toolbox to become an easily configurable resource that adapts to the facilitator's needs and goals. We suggest including sample implementation cases along with instruction cards of the embodied games. Further, the warm-up games are customisable using the toolbox's modifier cards.</p> 2023-09-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on Games Based Learning Designing Educational Escape Rooms with Generative AI: A Framework and ChatGPT Prompt Engineering Guide 2023-09-14T00:23:06+00:00 Panagiotis Fotaris Theodoros Mastoras Petros Lameras <p>Generative Artificial Intelligence (GenAI) holds the transformative potential to reshape education, particularly in the domain of content creation. One promising application lies in the development of educational escape rooms (EERs) which are increasingly adopted to foster active, experiential learning, critical thinking, and collaboration. Nevertheless, crafting effective EERs tailored to specific learning contexts often poses a daunting and time-consuming challenge. This paper explores the dynamic synergy between Room2Educ8, a framework rooted in Design Thinking principles, and the publicly accessible AI tool ChatGPT. Room2Educ8 provides a structured methodology encompassing vital steps like empathising with learners, defining learning objectives, weaving narratives, devising puzzles, briefing and debriefing participants, prototyping, and evaluating the EER experience. Complementing this framework, the paper presents a collection of sample prompts that illustrate ChatGPT's pivotal role within the EER creation process. By offering innovative ideas, suggestions, and content, these prompts not only expedite ideation and concept development but also simplify prototype creation for testing and refinement. This streamlining process reduces cognitive load, freeing educators to focus on higher-level considerations. The primary contribution of this paper lies in its harmonious fusion of ChatGPT with a structured design framework, effectively demystifying the EER creation process. With its practical guidance, including a prompt engineering guide, it extends the accessibility of EER design to a wide spectrum of educators, encompassing those with limited prior exposure to the intricacies of escape room formats. Beyond its immediate benefits, this paper serves as a gateway to future research prospects within the domain of AI-powered educational experiences, marking a step towards realising the potential of AI in the field of game-based learning.</p> 2023-09-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on Games Based Learning Teaching GBL Principles to Japanese Students of Education in an EFL Setting 2023-09-21T10:29:50+00:00 Andrew Gallacher Stephen Case Jay Palarino <p>A growing body of evidence shows that game-based learning (GBL) has become an invaluable tool for educators. Despite this fact, Japanese teacher training programs routinely ignore its inclusion. Aiming to address this issue, an innovative content language and integrated learning (CLIL) curriculum was developed in order to teach Japanese students of education the basics of GBL within their English communication classes. This paper presents a comprehensive account of the curriculum's development, the rationale behind it, and explores preliminary evidence regarding students' attitudes towards using GBL principles in their prospective teaching careers following course completion. A total of 147 students with English communication classes were included in the study, ranging from Common European Framework of Reference (CEFR) levels B2 to C1. Although exploratory in nature, early evidence suggests that after having undergone the course, students recognized the value of GBL principles and considered them useful for their future careers as educators. From an English as a Foreign Language (EFL) perspective, instructors observed that the method of teaching described herein fostered a livelier, more enthusiastic, and interactive learning environment compared to traditional EFL classrooms. These findings imply that GBL and game design principles might be useful to include in teacher-training programs, both in Japan and elsewhere.</p> 2023-09-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on Games Based Learning Literature Review for the Design Methods of Serious Games 2023-05-26T00:50:49+00:00 lanlangao Gao <p>This study emphasises the primary designing characteristics of serious games that make a balance between entertainment and education. The method description was utilised as a tool based on the analysis of serious game structure, strategies, model application, and factors of games supporting entertainment and the learning process in the literature. Through Summon system (a systematic digital library that includes various popular digital libraries), 52 potential studies were collected within the recent five years (from 2018 to 2023). The result shows that 13 methods are utilised to design serious games in reviewed papers. These methods involve a diversity of design theories proposed in these papers selected and some potential dimensions that impact the design of serious games to create the balance between entertainment and education.</p> 2023-09-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on Games Based Learning Game design as reflective pedagogy in entrepreneurship education 2023-07-17T18:21:58+00:00 Wilian Gatti Junior Beaumie Kim Laleh Behjat Emily Marasco Marjan Eggermont <p>The relationship between business education and games, primarily simulation games, dates to the 1930s in Europe and the 1950s in the US and continues to grow today. These games are often used to teach action-oriented disciplines, such as marketing, strategy, and entrepreneurship, providing situations in which decision-making under risky circumstances can be practiced. Our research shifts the focus from playing games to designing them for learning. Our game design activity brings the ambiguity and uncertainty from the entrepreneurial environment into the classroom, where risks can be taken, and failure is part of the experience. Students dive into an iterative design process grounded in inquiries and investigations. This requires communication and negotiation skills, aiming to construct dynamic business representations in constant conversation with the situation. Although students' lack of professional experience and game design knowledge poses challenges, the design activity uncovers many learning possibilities and discoveries. Our pedagogical approach attempts to embrace constructionists’ learning characteristics by using a board game to mediate the design process, besides the gameplay. Students' designs should not only reflect their problem-solving experiences, identities, and understandings, but also construct meaning through conceptualizing business interpretations as game elements, mechanics, and rules. Through observations in university classroom settings (Canada, France, and Brazil), we present examples of students' game designs and how they interpreted entrepreneurial challenges through their designs. By employing design thinking to create conceptual representations in a meaningful game, they showed their understanding of entrepreneurship, worldviews, and contextual knowledge grounded in their sociocultural contexts. A board game became a tool that embodied design possibilities based on low-cost resources and was used in classrooms without computers, internet access, or other technical devices. A board game provides an inclusive and immersive learning experience that supports better conceptual understandings of systems, such as entrepreneurial activity. This research contributes not only to understanding the role of board games in business education (in contrast with prevalent digital simulation games) but also motivates the next generation of entrepreneurial educators to experiment with novel teaching methods.</p> 2023-09-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on Games Based Learning Computer Games as a Pedagogical Tool for Creating Cyber Security Awareness 2023-06-09T10:02:47+00:00 Per Arne Godejord Beata Joanna Godejord <p>Cyberattacks are increasing world-wide, both on corporate networks and public institutions network. During 2022 hackers were widening their aim to target business collaboration tools such as Slack, Teams, OneDrive, and Google Drive with phishing exploits, making for a rich harvest of sensitive data given that most organizations’ employees continued to work remotely. In the later years we have also seen academic institutions becoming more frequent targets for both cybercriminals and state sponsored hackers. In 2022 the education/research sector was most attacked industry globally, seeing a 43% increase compared to 2021, with an average of 2,314 attacks per organisation every week. Schools and universities have the unique challenge of dealing with children or young adults, many of which use their own devices, work from shared locations, and often connect to public Wi-Fi without thinking of the security concerns. Additionally, Russia’s war on Ukraine has led to an increase in spear-phishing activity targeting educational institutions in NATO countries. This situation calls attention to the need for awareness raising about personal cyber security. In Norway, Nord University is one of a few universities with specific focus on security and preparedness, including cyber security awareness. The university has two information security courses: one belonging to furthering education and one within the MBA-study program in Security and Preparedness Management. This paper examines the question whether serious games and online quizzes can create heighten cyber security awareness and motivate individual students to change their cyber security behaviour. The paper reports on the findings based on written reflection notes from students belonging to both courses. The technique of examination and interpretation applied to the data was qualitative thematic content analysis supported by computer-assisted qualitative data analysis software NVivo. Theoretical analysis was guided by social constructionist perspective on knowledge creation. While many advantages of the use of online quizzes and computer games were specified by students, challenges were identified as well. However, the findings show that the use of serious games and online quizzes can be an efficient approach to raising security awareness among participating students.</p> 2023-09-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on Games Based Learning Development of a 3D Immersive Game for Games and Systems Requirements Capture 2023-08-21T16:07:16+00:00 Thomas Hainey <p>Requirements collection and elicitation is generally recognised as an&nbsp;abstract&nbsp;and complicated area with a reputation of being underdeveloped in computing and games development graduates. It is a necessary component of computing programmes on all sides of the curriculum including software engineering, information systems and games development. One highly problematic factor is the differences between general functional software and a serious game for educational purposes and while both can be classed as software, they have entirely different purposes. Games-based learning applications have been developed for teaching requirements collection where the focus has been on gathering requirements for a software system and this has proven to be effective in some respects. This paper will focus on the development of a 3D immersive serious game for gathering the requirements for a game for entertainment and for learning. The development of the game will be informed by the creation of a serious games’ development model taking into account: learning outcomes, pedagogical content integration, general content integration in relation to graphical assets for appropriate realism and immersion, scaffolding and support mechanisms and assessment integration in relation to assessment mechanisms. Case studies will be discussed for the 3D immersive game in relation to fitness for purpose in relation to an entertainment and a serious game and compared and contrasted. The developed game will be evaluated by subject matter experts to ascertain its levels of effectiveness for gathering requirements for an entertainment game and for a serious game.</p> 2023-09-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on Games Based Learning Students as educational board game designers: Learning opportunities and design dilemmas 2023-08-13T16:08:08+00:00 Thorkild Hanghøj <p>Even though there is a long tradition for letting students play and design board games in the classroom, there exist relatively few studies, which conceptualise how students can learn through designing educational board games. In this paper, I present a theoretical model, which can be used to understand and inform how students work with board game design activities, and how this may require them to address specific dilemmas and complexities in their design processes. The presented GEC model (Games as Educational Challenge) builds on earlier studies, but is presented here in an adapted version, which focuses specifically on students’ game design processes. The GEC model is exemplified with empirical data from the large-scale intervention project GBL21: Game-Based Learning in the 21st Century (2017-2022), where Danish students (grades 5-8, age 11-14) across 19 schools worked with a design thinking approach to designing game tools that address specific challenges within the school subjects mathematics, Danish and science. The current study focuses specifically on a teaching unit with a 5th grade class, who had to design a board game that addressed challenges with toxicity in online communication. By using the GEC model as a framework for the analysis, the current study highlights three analytical themes concerning: 1) the students’ ownership of their presented game design challenges, 2) balancing of game elements versus subject-specific aims, and 3) the legitimacy of creating board games within the context of specific school subjects. By stressing both design dilemmas and learning opportunities, the paper contributes to creating a more nuanced understanding of how students address and deal with different complexities, when creating educational board games.</p> 2023-09-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on Games Based Learning Facilitating an Educational Board Game Jam: Analysing Different Game Design Strategies 2023-08-15T12:59:39+00:00 Heidi Hautopp Thorkild Hanghøj Vici Daphne Händel Anders Simmelkiær Laraignou Erik Ottar Jensen Peter Gundersen <p>There is a long tradition of using board games for educational purposes. Moreover, the growth of the game jam events where participants typically gather at physical locations with an aim of creating new games, has expanded over the last decades. This paper is based on an exploratory study, where we wanted to create a game jam for teachers, student teachers, facilitators, and consultants interested in designing and redesigning board games to enhance learning for different target groups. With a point of departure in design thinking, the game jam was framed through three phases: ideation, build a board, and playtesting. The participants were given the challenge of designing a board game incorporating co-op elements such as collaboration, problem-solving in teams, collective efforts towards a mutual enemy, etc. The game jam was held in a university college where the participants had access to a variety of materials such as pens, papers, cardboards, and discarded board games. The empirical data consisted of observations of participants, who were divided into groups of 2-4 persons based on their prior game experiences and game interests. The analysis presents preliminary findings in relation to the participants’ different strategies for developing board games. The empirical data showed how the groups struggled to balance simplicity vs. complexity in their designs in relation to both time frame and target group of their board games. The playtesting session fostered discussions around the essential game mechanics and elements of each board game prototype. Furthermore, the ongoing feedback and playtesting created a joyful and curious bridge between the groups. Based on the analysis, the paper presents a series of design principles aimed at facilitating educational board game jams.&nbsp;</p> 2023-09-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on Games Based Learning Enter the Paraverse: Challenging Assumptions of Live Music in the Metaverse 2023-07-23T00:56:20+00:00 Pat Healy Hannah Standiford <p>The Metaverse, a concept and buzzword echoing throughout industry and academic spaces, does not exist. In this paper we theorize about the object that does exist: the Paraverse, the global set of disconnected virtual worlds and virtual world platforms working independently to advance virtual world technology and culture. We present a novel system within the Paraverse named a multi-user virtual world where participants explore concert spaces containing pre-recorded, synchronous performances by independent musicians during the early stages of the COVID-19 pandemic. Through its design and implementation, we demonstrate how small teams of independent developers may quickly contribute to the fringes of the Paraverse, and thus play an essential role in driving innovation. We assessed the platform’s ability to foster communal listening experience through virtual ethnography, in-game data collection, and interviews with attendees and performers. was successful at preventing abusive behaviour despite anonymous communication, respecting participant privacy through minimal in-game data collection, modelling anarchic community through a performance format that challenged hierarchical structures of listening, and fostering a novel understanding of liveness through listener autonomy and a novel asynchronous communication feature of interest we name "virtual graffiti." We further discuss opportunities for future work developing technologies that aid developers looking to create independent Paraverse applications, contributing to the future of virtual worlds and, perhaps, the Metaverse.</p> 2023-09-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on Games Based Learning Unpacking student perceptions of board game mechanics 2023-08-15T09:16:02+00:00 Suzaan Hughes <p>The boardroom challenge is a custom developed board game used as a formative assessment in an undergraduate business management course. The course forms part of an Accountancy degree which culminates in the professional designation of members to the South African Institute of Chartered Accountants (SAICA). Students are required to develop skills and competencies towards future membership of their professions professional body. To this end an industry employer and training company partnered with the University to develop students’ business acumen utilizing gamified learning in the form of a custom developed board game. The boardroom challenge has taken place annually from 2015-2019 and commenced again in 2022 when Covid-19 regulations permitted. On game day students compete in randomly assigned groups of six with an industry game master at each table as a facilitator. Students and facilitators complete questionnaires after the boardroom challenge providing feedback and suggestions. Open ended feedback from 2015-2019 has been thematically analysed to evaluate perceptions on game mechanics. Game mechanics include rolling the dice to determine which scenario students need to address. During the game students have to answer theory questions or address scenarios, depending on what the dice causes their game piece to land on. Correct answers earn currency in the game and students display their new rank in the organisation with each correct answer. Moving up the salary scale tops out at CEO after which students can begin to earn shares. Turn taking is regulated by a timer, to ensure everyone has sufficient turns while industry based game masters make the final call on the appropriateness of answers to open ended scenario type questions. The board game generates great excitement and engagement from students with several preparatory activities scaffolded into tutorials before game day. Students’ perception of the various game elements and mechanics indicate their evaluation is dependent on how they have conceptualized the impact of specific mechanics on their marks. As a mitigating factor, the data was gathered and analysed over many years.</p> 2023-09-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on Games Based Learning Need-Based Game Design: Developing a CT Game Based on Educational Needs 2023-06-26T07:11:04+00:00 Niklas Humble Peter Mozelius Lisa Sällvin <p>According to reports and previous research, present and future society show a high need for citizens with technical skills, such as computer programming. The need for technical competent citizens can however be challenging for higher education institutions to accommodate due to low numbers of students in higher education computer science. But also due to the high drop-out rates and low pass rates in introductory programming courses. With that said, it is important to both recruit new students to computer science and to support those who already study the subject, to meet the demands of the present and the future. An approach that has shown great promise in motivating students while still keeping focus on the learning aspects in education, is game-based learning (GBL). To facilitate support in higher education computer science, more specifically courses in fundamental programming, this study had the aim of identifying important design concepts in the development of a need-based educational game on computational thinking (CT). Skills related to programming have commonly been organized as part of the CT concept.&nbsp; To identify the educational needs, e-mail interviews were conducted with teachers that teach higher education courses on computer programming in Swedish universities. Based in an on-going design science project to create a learning game on computational thinking for higher education, the study discusses and compare the identified needs with design theories, such as affordances, emotional design, and sustainable design. The conclusion is a conceptual design of the educational game with a set of recommendations for a need-based game design in educational context.</p> 2023-09-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on Games Based Learning PIXEL: Challenges of Designing a Professional Board Game for Astronomy Education 2023-06-23T12:45:59+00:00 Giannandrea Inchingolo Rachele Toniolo Stefania Varano Andrea Ligabue Sara Ricciardi <p class="p1">PIXEL - Picture (of) the Universe is a board game developed by INAF - Italian National Institute for Astrophysics in collaboration with GAME Science Research Center. The game simulates the astrophysics research environment, particularly emphasising the observation and study of cosmic bodies at different resolutions. ​​Image resolution is a crucial element in astrophysics, but the intrinsic complexity and challenges of making high-resolution images of the distant Universe are not easily and generally perceivable. We envisioned PIXEL driven by this challenge. Games intended to engage students with science either concentrate on the contents to foster the learning process or focus on life skills solicited by scientific practices. Game mechanics are then either a leverage of scientific knowledge or a science-like behavioural model, depending on the expected outcome of the game-based learning process. <span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp; </span>In addition to that, game-based learning in STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, Mathematics) generally is designed by science practitioners and science communication and education experts.<span class="Apple-converted-space"> &nbsp;</span>The design process of PIXEL has been a novel joint effort between scientists, science communicators, professional game designers, and game-market and award advisors. We produced a game in which the mechanics are the core of scientific learning, implicitly telling about science while making the player experience it. The innovation of this process is to obtain a game that encountered positive feedback both from the community of game experts and the educational context. The final output is a professional board game suitable for STEM education that promotes scientific citizenship in the audience.<br>In this work, we discuss the game design process and describe how we included our scientific educational messages of image resolution and research dynamics as processes within the game mechanics without making them explicit during the gameplay. We also present a preliminary engagement evaluation of PIXEL and its efficacy in delivering implicit scientific messages through its mechanics.</p> 2023-09-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on Games Based Learning Enhancing Mathematical Reasoning in Primary School with the Strategic Board Game Othello 2023-07-03T08:37:30+00:00 Erik Ottar Jensen Emilie Madeline Hersaa Nehammer Anna Louise Eriksen <p>This study explores how the board game Othello can enhance primary school students' mathematical reasoning. Mathematical reasoning is increasingly emphasized in international mathematics curricula, yet both teachers and students face challenges in teaching and learning this important skill. Research shows that strategic games, like Othello, can develop thinking abilities related to mathematical reasoning by providing a context for students to engage in reflective thinking, anticipate future moves, and develop reasoning strategies. However, there is a need to understand how teachers can effectively utilize these games in the classroom to foster mathematical reasoning. We address this, through a design-based research approach consisting of a hermeneutic literature study and the development of design principles for a teaching intervention in a fifth-grade classroom. Data from the intervention is collected through participant observations and group interviews. The findings suggest that Othello can serve as a context for students to engage in mathematical reasoning by making and justifying claims and presenting logical arguments. The study proposes three design principles to scaffold mathematical reasoning during Othello gameplay. These principles focus on introducing and reinforcing the use of the "if...then" formulation, promoting exploratory talk, encouraging reflection on strategies, and fostering collaborative reasoning. The results indicate that the design principles positively impacted students' ability to reason mathematically. This paper contributes to the field of mathematics education and game-based learning by providing a practice-oriented perspective on designing mathematical instruction for reasoning using a specific board game in a primary school setting. The findings offer insights into the potential of strategic board games like Othello to enhance students' mathematical reasoning skills. The design principles proposed in this study can guide teachers in developing effective instructional approaches to support students' mathematical reasoning development.</p> 2023-09-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on Games Based Learning Researching Game-Based Learning: A Brief Synthesis Project 2023-07-25T17:27:49+00:00 Jenifer Jenson Suzanne de Castell <p style="font-weight: 400;">The purpose of this research synthesis project is to survey existing digital game-based learning (DGBL) research in order to generate preliminary categories that articulate analytically distinguishable cognitive competencies. These include orientations, attitudes, interactions, and dispositions that enable cognitive development through playing games. We compile an initial literature scan, limiting the language to English, then search via keyword “game-based learning” through the following educational research databases: Eric, Education Source, Communication &amp; Mass Media Complete, Education Index Retrospective, and Teach Reference Center. This returned over 1,500 results, which we refined by filtering out papers focused on gamification, those researching populations outside of educational contexts (e.g., private business and healthcare), systematic and scoping reviews, and papers published before 2010. This focused the results closer to 1,300 papers, which we divided into two categories, research focused on learning ecologies, and research using “motivation” in its key words and/or abstract. One clear and unexpected result was the way in which DGBL research inconsistently discusses motivation, and how it mainly seems to be used as a catch-all for measuring GBL outcomes. This brief synthesis reveals that much more attention needs to be paid to whether and how potentially pat constructs like motivation are being deployed in GBL studies.</p> 2023-09-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on Games Based Learning Assessing Creative Awareness and Literary Writing Games in the Norwegian Context 2023-06-06T07:40:19+00:00 Allen Jones <p>This paper reports on a survey and teaching intervention done with Norwegian students in their first (VG1), second (VG2), and third year (VG3) of high school English (16-19 years old). The goals of the project: 1. To examine Norwegian student/teacher attitudes toward creativity; 2. To design, play-test, and asses creative reading games. The study found students surprisingly open to creativity and games in education, however, there was a general wariness of assessment. As the students progressed through high school, they increasingly saw writing as something one is forced to do, and resisted sharing their writing. Almost all students saw themselves as outside the community of writers. While the novel nature of the games made for initial difficulties, this was also a motivator. The key to effectiveness was pairing theory with practice to give students a clear sense of the pedagogical goal: to develop and experience the use of creativity (divergent thinking). The use of multimodality in games (drawing) was immensely effective for student engagement and collaboration; however, it was less effective in terms of maintaining clear pedagogical goals in the time given. Finally, the most effective approach in terms of engagement was to involve students as game designers. This paper will focus on a presentation of student views on creativity followed by an assessment of the game results in light of these views.</p> 2023-09-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on Games Based Learning Implementation of Game-Based Learning in a Tertiary General Education Course 2023-06-30T02:03:26+00:00 Kai Ming Kiang David Ka Chun KOO <p>Game-based learning can be an entertaining, engaging, and effective way of learning if both the game-play experience and educational content were carefully designed and balanced. By modifying an existing commercially available game rather than developing a game from scratch, the technical side and entertainment aspect of the game can be guaranteed so that educators can spend less effort in the technologies and game design but focus more on the educational and pedagogical aspect of designing and implementing game-based learning. We have enhanced a popular commercial computer game, Civilization, for use in a general education course that aims to nurture scientific literacy for tertiary students. The game has been used as a learning and assessment tool for this course along with other traditional course activities. The enhanced game includes scenarios which simulate world history and requires the players to lead a civilization and compete in these scenarios. Playing this ‘mod’ allows students to reflect upon, among many interesting issues, the dependency of scientific development on the political, economic, cultural, and geographical factors in history, which is one of the important intended learning outcomes in our course. The game has been used for 5 consecutive academic years. Survey responses and academic grades have been collected and analysed. The result is positive in both the rating on enjoyment and indicators of effectiveness of learning. Students who played the game are more engaged in course content, more willing to attend lectures and received a better course grade at the end as compared to those who didn’t. While we cannot simply conclude with a causal relationship based on our reported analysis, we believe that playing this game is useful and suitable in complementing our traditional pedagogy. The engagement in game playing will increase, not decrease, students’ effort spent on other traditional course activities.</p> 2023-09-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on Games Based Learning The Effects of Gamifying Mathematics Lessons at High School Level 2023-07-17T05:54:11+00:00 Michael Kickmeier-Rust Corsin Niggli <p>Gamification encompasses the utilization of "playful" or "game-like" elements within non-gaming contexts. It finds diverse applications, primarily within the realms of education/training and the workplace, with the aim of enhancing teamwork and productivity. Nonetheless, the concept of gamification remains a topic of significant debate. Several authors caution that gamification may undermine intrinsic motivation to learn or perform, particularly among younger audiences. Furthermore, the research community increasingly emphasizes potential negative consequences resulting from specific gamification mechanics, such as competition. In this article, we present an approach to gamification that combines competitive elements, albeit at the level of student groups rather than individuals. The idea is to minimize the exposure of underperforming individuals while capitalizing on collaborative group dynamics, wherein stronger students provide support to weaker ones. We conducted a quasi-experiment, comparing motivation and performance between a gamified classroom scenario and a conventional, non-gamified scenario. The results indicate that the proposed gamification approach boosts motivation and performance in contrast to the non-gamified condition. These findings contribute to a deeper comprehension of the effects of gamification and offer a realistic perspective on its beneficial impacts within educational settings.</p> 2023-09-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on Games Based Learning Evaluating the Impact of Serious Games on Study Skills and Habits 2023-06-28T21:35:18+00:00 Nafisul Kiron Mehnuma Tabassum Omar Julita Vassileva <p>Learning is a constructive process that requires dedication and motivation. Learning games can be used to en-gage learners, by providing opportunities to apply knowledge in a safe and fun environment. We created a peer-quizzing game that allows students to quiz each other on the course material and to playfully engage in good study habits. We set out to explore if learners with better learning skills and habits would be more en-gaged in the game in the context of a first-year computer science university class. We used the "Study Skills and Habits Questionnaire" to study the relationship between study skills and habits (especially time management, concentration, goal setting, and comprehension) and engagement in a competitive version of a peer-quizzing game including a leaderboard. We collected and analysed gameplay data of the students (n=34), such as creating quiz questions and solving the questions created by their peers. The results of the data analysis showed a moderate positive correlation between study skills and habits (time management, concentration, goal setting, and comprehension) and the number of questions answered and a moderate negative correlation with the number of questions created in the game. However, the regression model was not statistically significant in explaining the variation in the dependent variable (questions created). Among the individual predictor variables, only goal setting had a statistically significant positive effect on the number of questions created. Other variables, such as time management, concentration, and comprehension, did not show significant effects on the number of questions created by students.</p> 2023-09-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on Games Based Learning First Steps to Improve Cybersecurity Behaviour – a Virtual Reality Experience 2023-08-09T10:14:14+00:00 Lara Klooster Robby van Delden Jan-Willem Bullée <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong>Internet is completely integrated and absorbed in our life. Facilitating transfer of files across the world or wiring money from the couch, we could not imagine a world without it anymore. With these benefits, as with any new technology, there is also the introduction of risks and threats, for internet primarily in the form of cybercrime and online fraud. To reduce victimisation of this cybercrime, interventions are used to teach people to not perform risky behaviour. To overcome criticisms of current training materials, such as being tedious and boring, we created an Immersive Virtual Reality experience. By using a 4-step design process (i.e. ideation, specification, realisation, and evaluation), we designed a playful VR environment with simplistic non player characters to train the user to perform basic cybersecurity tasks in the right way. In the simulation, the participants are exposed to the challenge of creating a new password and a potential ransomware attack using USB storage device. The program allows for monitoring the user’s cybersecurity knowledge and behaviour and provides feedback. An evaluation of the VR environment among 16 respondents using a pretest-posttest evaluation with the Human Aspect Information Security Questionnaire (HAIS-Q) showed a statistically significant increase in scores after exposure to the VR environment. The system showed an above average SUS score. These initial findings indicate that a VR environment can be an alternative to consider for future development of cybersecurity interventions. Future research could expand our social VR environment with additional cybersecurity challenges, real-time actors, and running simulations among a broader audience to also investigate the retention of knowledge and skills.</p> 2023-09-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on Games Based Learning An Eye-Tracking Study of GBL Motivators and Learner Behavior 2023-09-28T10:19:21+00:00 Maria Koutroumani Stefanos Balaskas Angeliki Leonardou Maria Rigou <p>Despite the significant positive characteristics game-based learning offers to pupil learning and assessment, preserving pupils’ interest and keeping them engaged in an educational game is still a challenge. To this end, the study and implementation of motivation mechanisms in educational games are considered crucial. Typical examples of motivators in electronic games include points (coins), avatar icons, visualization of achievement levels, NPCs (non-player characters) giving helpful information to users, children-friendly graphics and sound effects, comparison with classmates, and leaderboards. In this paper, we conduct a preliminary study of the effectiveness of these GBL motivators in MG, an educational game for practicing and assessing multiplication skills. The study combined eye-tracking with a short, semi-structured interview session with the four elementary school students that took part in the experiment. Eye-tracking provides detailed monitoring and visualization of gaze behavior in the form of fixation (point and duration of visual focus) and saccade sequences. Given that the way users allocate their visual focus is spontaneous, the data collected and analyzed by eye-tracking are unbiased and give a new spectrum of insight into how users perceive a visual stimulus. In this study, we investigate how users visually respond to the implemented motivators and their visual behavior when deciding between two or more available answers and when given feedback after a wrong answer. The paper discusses useful eye-tracking metrics, provides adequate visualizations of the main findings, and concludes with the ways eye-tracking can help education scientists and practitioners gain a better understanding of the behavior of users of GBL applications and the motivation mechanisms they support.</p> 2023-09-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on Games Based Learning The Race to Nuclear Supremacy: Classroom Games as Motivation for Student Learning 2023-07-04T16:47:09+00:00 Elsa Catalina Olivas Castellanos Abraham Ramsés Velázquez Kraff David Alejandro Duarte Moroyoqui <p style="font-weight: 400;">The use of games in education is applied in classroom settings from all academic levels. More importantly, games can motivate student learning in courses that depend heavily on evaluation and comprehension. The number of digital games available to enhance learning outcomes while motivating student-learning are overwhelming. Nonetheless, access to such content can be costly and limited to academic institutions that lack funds and technology. In this paper, we analyzed how a set of magnetic spheres paired with games motivated student learning in courses across 2 multicultural classrooms (Physics and Social Studies). By designing a session about the atomic bomb in a history course, professors from both History and Physics used a set of small magnetic spheres and Albert Einstein’s equation E=mc2 to complement student learning in a history classroom to comprehend a topic, by using components of the magnetic spheres as an analogy of the nucleus of an atom, where the magnetic force between spheres represents the weak nuclear force. We explained the nuclear fission phenomenon and the history behind this discovery in a more hands-on approach. With this analogy, a game was designed, in which students after having taken a lecture on the history of nuclear fission and an overall explanation of Albert Einstein’s formula, simulated building the atomic nuclei of radioactive elements by adding a pair of neutrons to quantify the energy released when separated as individual particles. After completing the game-based activity, we conducted a series of surveys among students to 1) analyze students’ perception of the learning process during multidisciplinary classes with classroom games and 2) identify attitudes towards subject comprehension through classroom games. The experiment was carried out in sessions of 50 minutes per group. The participants of the case study were students from a private education institution in the northwestern region of Mexico (State of Sonora). We examined how these game-based activities were perceived by the students regarding their motivation to learn. In order to enhance the motivation for student learning, multidisciplinary collaboration should be included in the design process of the curriculum the school offers to its students.</p> 2023-09-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on Games Based Learning Turning Grey to Green: Engaging Gamification in Sustainability Education with Augmented Reality Technology 2023-06-06T05:36:59+00:00 Yujun Ma Nga Yin Dik Sui Leung Walter Fung <p>In recent decades, topics of sustainability and carbon neutrality are getting more attention from society and academia in the sense of urbanization and social innovation. Scholars have been proposing methods to achieve sustainability and they emphasize the importance of educating citizens about the ethics of sustainability. Also, in the educational context, there is a trend in applying gamification concepts to promote sustainability. Previous studies have demonstrated that gamification can engage students through interactive content and reward systems, so that they can be motivated to learn and apply knowledge. Nevertheless, limited articles can be found to propose methods for developing technological applications for green innovation education. In addition, scant interest has been shown to include gamification in sustainability education, especially in Hong Kong. Knowing that simulation games may raise students’ curiosity to learn, we designed an augmented-reality-based educational mobile application to investigate their perception of engaging technologies and gamification in the learning process of sustainability education. In this application, there are three major components to be presented. First, various simulation games are included to educate learners with practical skills to nurture sustainable living habits. Cartoons and animations are added to better explain abstract ecological theories, and learners can interact with game characters / elements in real-time motion for an advanced gaming experience. Second, to motivate students to learn the content, digital achievement badges can be earned after winning the mini-games and they can be shared on social media platforms. It is expected that the reward system can attract students to participate actively. Last but not least, the application is hoped to engage Hong Kong citizens and the globe in the Green Deck project of Hong Kong and encourage more social involvement. With reference to the application structure, this study is expected to explore the effects of implementing games and augmented reality on education for sustainable development. Two surveys (pre- and post-surveys) would be established to evaluate the students’ learning experience and knowledge acquisition on sustainability.</p> 2023-09-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on Games Based Learning Guidelines for Playful Learning Design in VR/AR: Insights from Student Productions 2023-06-28T11:16:06+00:00 Gunver Majgaard Patricia Lyk <p>The paper presents three perspectives on virtual reality (VR) and augmented reality (AR) as educational technology: one on the learning attributes of VR and AR, the second on practical issues and problems, and the third on learning design guidelines. The perspectives are explained through text, tables, and examples from engineering students' productions. The paper will be of interest to students, designers, and researchers of VR and AR for training and learning.</p> 2023-09-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on Games Based Learning Sandwich Robot for Computational Thinking: Reflections from testing with high school pupils 2023-07-12T11:59:15+00:00 Emanuela Marchetti Andrea Valente Nina Bonderup Dohn <p>Our study discusses results from testing and co-designing <em>Sandwich Robot</em>, a game on algorithmic thinking targeting beginner programmers. The player composes code from a minimal set of blocks, to make a robotic character gather ingredients for a sandwich, following a specific order; the gameplay is similar to other Computational Thinking (CT) games like <em>Karel the Robot</em> or <em>LightBot</em>. The latest prototype of the game has been tested with three classes of 15-20 pupils from a technical high school in Denmark. The test was conducted in collaboration with their teacher in the subject <em>Informatik</em>, which focuses on CT and basic programming, and ended with a co-design workshop.</p> <p>Our results shows that pupils were interest in the basic concept behind our game, they generally described our game as “fun”. Pupils and their teacher saw learning potential in the game, as a tool for understanding algorithmic thinking, but also for refining their learning at later stages. This expanded the role we envisioned for our game, leading us to rethink its relation to the pupils’ learning process. On-going and future work involves addressing pupils’ feedback and providing a level editor to allow Kahoot-style challenges. Our main contribution provides an exemplar of how the thinking behind algorithmic problem-solving can be transposed into game mechanics, embodied in a casual game, and how a non-technical narrative can support beginners learning CT.</p> 2023-09-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on Games Based Learning Kuxtal: Student Motivation Through Megagames in Higher Education Design Students 2023-07-01T03:34:48+00:00 Edgar Ludert Elsa Catalina Olivas Castellanos Leticia Isabel Ramírez-Cavazos <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Megagames are an engaging combination of different game resources. They involve role-play, social connection, simulations, rules, economics, politics, decision making among others that are merged into an immersive narrative, all of which are essential applications of experiential learning. They can last from one day up to one month, they are known to be collaborative and can be played by several players at the same time. In education, collaboration between individuals is an integral competence that has to be nurtured among the academic community. During the game dynamics, multiple experiences, events, and actions are activated that enhance curiosity and emotions among students which, in turn, impact their motivation in the learning process. Wicked problems are undetermined problems that&nbsp; are resistant to change, possess a social and cultural context, several stakeholders are involved and overall are complex to solve. In this paper we explore 1) the use of megagames as a component to motivate student-learning of Higher Education (HE) students of the fourth semester of a degree in Design at the Tecnologico de Monterrey institution, located in the northwestern region of Mexico in the State of Sonora. We also 2) analyzed if research and action was triggered among students through the megagame, Kuxtal. The megagame, aims to promote student-learning through understanding wicked problems: that all living beings face in regards to water: its scarcity, its pollution and its mismanagement. In this qualitative study, we used Jones (2021) user guide for assessing components of the MUSIC model of motivation to understand empowerment, usefulness, success, interest, and caring. With the incorporation of megagames in the classroom, educators were able to promote student motivation and students engaged in research methodology, all while adopting small world-changing actions in their everyday lives. This paper aims to promote the advantages of using megagames as an educational resource in Higher Education creative fields such as Design, Architecture and Communication.</span></p> 2023-09-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on Games Based Learning History and Cartography meet youth through Digital Technology 2023-08-09T18:43:58+00:00 GEORGIA MAVROUDAKI Katerina Roumpidou Maria Lebessi Giannis Foskolos Andreas Maniatis Bassileios Tsaloumas <p>Through collaboration between the Onassis Foundation, the Historical Archive of the National Bank of Greece, and the Vocational Senior High School of Kamatero, an innovative digital project was developed that is both trendy and geared towards youth. This project showcases how a concept aimed at emphasizing the historical significance of the Capital of Greece inspired students to merge the disciplines of Computer Science and History, resulting in the creation of a 3D game on a popular platform. Additionally, this project demonstrates how Project-based learning can be achieved through collaborative and inquiry-based learning, real-world connections, initiative, and the satisfaction of creating something new. The impetus for the cooperation was the Panhellenic Student Competition of the Onassis Foundation, "Hack the Map: Imaginary Worlds." This competition invited schools to promote the cultural heritage of Greece, especially cartographic exhibits/evidence of the old days, through students' digital projects. The Historical Archive of the National Bank of Greece, which is a significant resource for studying Modern Greek History through primary sources, reached out to the Vocational Senior High School of Kamatero, located in the western sector of Athens, to work on a project. The school has an IT department, among other disciplines. In close collaboration, they developed a scenario that is about the civil war that occurred in Athens during the Interregnum period (October 1862-October 1863) after the dethronement of Greece's first king, Otto I. The scenario highlights the bloody events that took place between political factions in the city. In these conflicts, the implication of "Kyriakos," a dangerous leader of robbers, is a paradoxical historical event that stimulated the 2nd-grade Informatics students' imagination. Therefore, they created a 3D digital game entitled "Thieves and Policemen in the newly established Greek city-state: Iouniana." This presentation intends to demonstrate how the students' team of the Vocational School of Kamatero rebuilt Athenian monuments related to Kyriakos' action in a 3D environment; how they reconstructed the cartography of the capital's center during the second half of the 19th century based on these monuments and how they utilized digital resources (maps, photos, and texts) and books proposed by NBG Historical Archives; how a single player, via Kyriakos' persona, has to accomplish missions-battles and match parts of Athens' map of that era; and finally, how students narrated a historical event in a game constructed in Roblox platform inviting other young people to involve history knowledge. </p> 2023-09-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on Games Based Learning Design and development of a gamified tutorial for iVR serious games 2023-07-08T11:51:50+00:00 Ines Miguel-Alonso Henar Guillen-Sanz Bruno Rodriguez-Garcia Andres Bustillo <p>Serious games, including immersive Virtual Reality (iVR) experiences, can be challenging for players due to their unfamiliar control systems and mechanics. This study focuses on designing a gamified tutorial for iVR serious games that not only teaches iVR interactions but also enhances user enjoyment and engagement. The tutorial consists of progressively challenging mini-games that adapt to the user's performance. Tips and recommendations are provided through a robot avatar if users struggle or make mistakes. An optional narrative is included to enhance user engagement, but it is not mandatory for the iVR experience. Gamification elements, such as point collection and progress updates, are incorporated into the tutorial. It can be played independently or as an introduction to iVR serious games. The goal is to use gamification principles to maintain user engagement and flow while enhancing the learning experience in the virtual world.</p> 2023-09-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on Games Based Learning Could the Technology for Adaptive Learning Systems Come out of GBL? 2023-09-28T11:30:18+00:00 David Moffat Olga Shabalina Aleksander Khairov <p>Games based learning (GBL) has a related field that it can draw upon: intelligent tutoring systems (ITS). A<br>common concern in both fields is adaptivity, whereby the system can automatically adapt to the user. In order to support<br>this adaptation, an ITS will generally include a user model and may also have a formal domain model. Work in this area<br>started optimistically some years ago, but seems to have either lost some of that initial enthusiasm or been diverted into<br>other directions. We scan recent ITS literature to help consider why this might be, and suggest how GBL may be the field<br>best placed to take the work forward again. Learner models have long been seen as useful for adaptive learning systems.<br>They include information about the learner which allows the system to adapt the course of learning materials and<br>exercises to the learner's particular characteristics. In order to achieve a good quality of adaptation to the user, a detailed<br>model of the required domain knowledge is typically added. The user and domain models then have to be brought<br>together to lay out a course of exercises for the learner to do, and to track progress as the knowledge is learned. It's an<br>attractive research programme, but recent work has moved to new issues, such as MOOCs. The reasons for that are partly<br>opportunistic and economical, but also suggest a deeper problem with the research programme. It is a costly task to<br>develop a domain model, and a suitable learner model that can take advantage of it. We suggest that GBL is in a good<br>position to push through this cost barrier, because much of the effort is already implicitly involved in the game design<br>process, which typically has to be more rigorously planned out in order to make the game a good one. One might thus<br>expect the next breakthroughs in adaptive learning systems to come from GBL. We further argue that the advantages to<br>research, offered by the ITS framework, are also potentially beneficial to the way we teach the subject of GBL to our<br>students on game development courses.</p> 2023-09-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on Games Based Learning Enhancing Pre-Schoolers’ Learning Motivation in Jawi Subject Through Game-Based Learning Application 2023-09-28T11:37:45+00:00 Noor Asmina Mohd Rashid Norah Md Noor <p>Game-based learning applications are becoming increasingly popular as an effective means of enhancing student motivation to learn. Jawi, a subject often viewed as uninteresting by students, has decreased motivation to learn due to a lack of technology resources. To address this issue, the "Dunia Jawi" mobile application was developed as a game-based platform to improve preschoolers' motivation to learn Jawi. In this study, student motivation was measured based on the ARCS model, which consists of four components: attention, relevance, confidence, and satisfaction. The study involved a pre-experimental group of 32 preschoolers evaluated using the pretest-posttest design. The results found an increment in preschoolers' motivation, where the mean for the posttest ( 43.50) was higher than the mean for the pretest ( 31.47). The increment was statistically significant, indicating that the use of the "Dunia Jawi" mobile application led to a significant increase in motivation to learn Jawi among preschoolers. Moreover, each ARCS component showed an increment in attention, confidence, and satisfaction. The attention component refers to capturing students' interest and encouraging them to focus on the learning material. The confidence component refers to the student's belief in their ability to learn the material. The satisfaction component refers to the student's enjoyment of the learning experience. The results indicate that game-based learning applications, such as "Dunia Jawi," can enhance each component, thereby increasing student learning motivation. The relevance component, which deals with how the students view the value of the learning content, did not, however, experience any appreciable shift. The "Dunia Jawi" mobile application may not have had as much of an influence on this component as it could have because the preschoolers may not have seen the content as being applicable to their everyday lives. In conclusion, this study proves that game-based learning applications, coupled with the ARCS model, can enhance preschoolers' motivation to learn Jawi. The results demonstrate that the "Dunia Jawi" mobile application effectively increased preschoolers' motivation to learn Jawi, particularly in the attention, confidence, and satisfaction components. Future studies could explore ways to increase the learning material's relevance to further enhance preschoolers' motivation to learn.<br><br></p> 2023-09-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on Games Based Learning Development of an Enjoyable Educational Game on Fundamental Programming: Designing for Inclusion and Learning Analytics 2023-09-28T12:11:35+00:00 Peter Mozelius Rasmus Pechuel Baltasar Fernández -Manjón Tim Kreuzberg Niklas Humble Lisa Sällvin <p>A well-discussed problem is how to attract a new public to computer programming, and especially how to reach girls and women. At the same time research reports on that children spend considerable amounts of time playing different types of games, where educational games today are part of formal, informal and non-formal learning. However, many educational games still have a design that appeals more to boys than to girls. Another problem addressed in this paper is how to measure the learning outcomes of an education game. It is a challenge per se to design for joyful gaming, but to assess the learning outcomes is important if the game should be accepted by teachers and a part of teaching and learning activities. The aim of this study was to describe and discuss the design and development of an educational game where girls would like to play together and at the same time learn fundamental programming. The research question that guided this study was: " How could a motivating and inclusive educational game on fundamental programming be designed and developed, with minimal prerequisites for students and teachers?". The overall strategy for the design and development of the was the Design Science Research (DSR) approach. This work was carried out according to the recognised DSR process with the five phases of: 1) Explicating the problem, 2) Defining the requirements, 3) Designing and developing the artefact, 4) Demonstrating the artefact, and 5) Evaluating the artefact. Phase one was based on a minor literature study, while Phase 2 was a combination of a larger and more systematic literature study combined with game testing. Phase 3 was conducted with brain storming sessions for design followed by implementation in the Unity game development tool. Finally, the game has been demonstrated for, and tested by, a group of academic game developers. Results from the formative evaluation look promising, but the important next step in this project is a more formal evaluation using game-based learning analytics with a larger and more diverse test audience.</p> 2023-09-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on Games Based Learning A Conflict Management Game in Project-based Learning 2023-06-05T06:20:22+00:00 Robin Isfold Munkvold Line Kolås Adam Palmquist <p>In project-based learning environments, students often face team frustration and conflicts, necessitating the development of conflict management skills. This study examines how integrating a game-based learning approach impacts students' perspectives on managing conflicts in game development project courses. Drawing on theoretical frameworks related to project-based learning, conflict management, and serious games in conflict resolution education, a case design is employed in higher education that incorporates the game "Cards of Conflict". Document analysis of student reflection notes is utilised to assess the outcomes. The results demonstrate heightened engagement among participants during the game session, leading to awareness and understanding of conflict managing principles. This encompasses the what, the why´s, and the how’s of conflict management, as well as the diverse perspectives of peer students.</p> 2023-09-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on Games Based Learning Games-Based Learning in Business Management Programmes – a Reflective Analysis of Students’ Experience. 2023-07-17T12:14:40+00:00 Nurun Nahar <p>Games-based learning constitutes integrating games into learning experiences to create effective learning environments by applying some common characteristics which improve intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. Using an exploratory study design and reflexive thematic analysis, this paper shares insights from a research study conducted between September 2021-April 2023, to co-evaluate the effectiveness of a co-created games-based learning application, for formative assessment of learning on a business undergraduate programme. Potential benefits of games-based learning in higher education institutions (HEI) include introduction of a structured rewards system and goals in a fun and focused way into learning that can act as a powerful motivator to enhance engagement and promote participative interaction It offers an alternative opportunity to HEIs to redefine learner experience by re-evaluating contemporary pedagogies.</p> <p>Findings from this study indicate, application of games-based learning as a pedagogical intervention, can improve learning experience of students on business management programmes by allowing students to take ownership of learning. The co-created application piloted in this study, helped students to recall contents learned and track their performance through instant feedback received upon completion of a game. It also supported students in identifying weaknesses in their grasp of knowledge related to particular topics within a module and motivated them to work on areas of improvements. A key challenge identified by the students was expectation of a variety of games within GBL approaches to keep intrinsically motivated to use such applications for learning.</p> 2023-09-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on Games Based Learning Collect that Coin: Efficacy Testing of Platformer Game Mechanics with Adult Learners 2023-07-14T18:51:53+00:00 Danielle Oprean Hillary Gould Nathan Riedel Soren Larsen <p>Digital serious games for adult learning have become a more prominent topic for research in recent years, yet platformer genre games for learning remain underexplored. Despite this, many adults enjoy platformer games for entertainment which presents the question of what about platformer games makes them less prominent in adult education learning games. Platformer games often focus on simple mechanics such as <em>collecting</em> and <em>race to the finish</em> which map well to lower-order learning but require more effort to map to higher-order learning. To address this case, we rapidly designed and developed a 2D platforming game prototype called <em>Biomes Rescue</em> for use in a large general-education undergraduate Geography course. The game follows an Indiana Jones-style character who collects and aligns items to different biomes by evaluating items collected. The problem follows the slime-like creatures: the enemy representing pollution that has impacted Earth’s biomes. Three biomes have been disassembled by the enemies and the player must rescue all four biomes by critically thinking about the characteristics of each. We actively tested and adjusted <em>Biomes Rescue</em> over the last three years and focus this case on the latest implementation, which addresses the alignment of game mechanics to higher-order learning and Knowles principles of Andragogy combined with games-based learning. We hypothesized participants would have an unbalanced view of the dexterity-centered mechanics tied to fun more so than learning. Our mixed-methods exploratory study aims to understand what mechanics connect to fun and to learning from the learner’s perspective using a quiz score - a newly added measure, and Likert scale ratings on Enjoyment with open-ended feedback. Data analysis consisted of thematic analysis and group differences on the quiz scores. This study holds implications for designing platformers for adult learners with an understanding of the differences in game mechanics application for engaging critical thinking.</p> 2023-09-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on Games Based Learning Exploring In-Game Scaffolds for Higher-Order Learning in a Case-Based RPG Learning Game 2023-07-14T19:12:58+00:00 Danielle Oprean Declan Brown Nate McGorry Blake Pieper Nicholas Rankin Soren Larsen <p>As active learning tools, digital games often focus on including interface and design features to scaffold progression. However, little emphasis on the use of such in-game scaffolds for higher-order learning exists in the literature. We focused this study on the second interaction of a working prototype game called Stories of a GeoFarmer. The study evaluates the importance of in-game scaffolds for engaging learners in higher-order thinking in undergraduate Geography education. Stories of a GeoFarmer is a case-based role-playing game where players take on the role of a farmer in different countries. The game utilizes documented case studies of different environmental issues relating to cultural geography to place players into the role of the individuals impacted by the various situations. The situations are ill-structured presenting interesting arguments for no-win situations meant to engage more thinking about geographic implications. We incorporated several in-game scaffold types that connected to the learning objectives including metacognitive, conceptual, and procedural. We use a mixed methods exploratory design approach consisting of thematic analysis and correlation of post-game survey responses. Our research question asks how does in-game scaffolding in the geography game Stories of GeoFarmer affect the adult learners' experience? Results from 63 undergraduates indicate that students can regularly recall and extrapolate how their in-game actions affect the environment. However, fewer students are able to evaluate why no singular solution exists to the game’s problem despite all the provided in-game scaffolds. Metacognitive scaffolds play the largest role in prompting students to recognize cause and effect but also highlight the necessity of making multiple scaffold types more prominent in order to reach higher-order thinking. This study holds implications for serious game designers to consider how in-game scaffolds can be presented to support high-order learning in adults.</p> 2023-09-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on Games Based Learning Proposal for a Participatory Methodology for the Creation of Serious Games 2023-07-20T17:39:14+00:00 Ernesto Pacheco-Velazquez Andre Bester Lucia Rabago-Mayer Virginia Rodes-Paragarino <p>We are facing a new generation of students, who are not only looking for theoretical knowledge, but also want learning to be practical, interesting, and fun. They request didactic techniques that allow them to have a more prominent role in their learning, models that are not focused on teaching, but on learning. They are students with different characteristics because they were born in the digital age. Technology has changed the way they relate to the world. They are not comfortable with respect to traditional models and try to incorporate new technologies into all aspects of their lives. Within the educational field, new technologies are seen as a tool that facilitates learning and develops skills in students. From this perspective, the development of simulators and serious games are now used as a strategy to facilitate learning. The advantages of using a serious game seem evident, they help develop critical thinking, encourage creativity, increase problem-solving skills, increase retention, among other benefits. However, when games are not well designed, they lose both their appeal and their playful essence. One reason for these problems is the absence of the application of any design methodology, and that many of these problems come from the requirements definition phase. Specifically, most of the problems occur in the game design phase, where there is a deficiency in the writing of the requirements requested by the teachers. When the requirements are vague, or ambiguous, experts in the development area are unable to interpret the interaction design, the game mechanics, or the way in which users will interact with the software. This article aims to discuss the specifications and requirements that instructional designers and developers should address before migrating to project development, implementation, or evaluation. This article is important because it analyzes the need to establish clear requirements and objectives that will facilitate the creation of serious games in education.</p> 2023-09-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on Games Based Learning What do we evaluate in serious games? A systematic review 2023-07-20T17:46:12+00:00 Ernesto Pacheco-Velazquez Andre Bester Lucia Rabago-Mayer Virginia Ro <p>Serious games have emerged as an invaluable tool in education, revolutionizing the way students learn and engage with complex concepts. These games combine entertainment with educational content, creating immersive and interactive experiences that enhance learning outcomes. This strategy has positioned themselves as a powerful educational tool recommended for the new generations due to their benefits in terms of motivation, engagement, active learning, development of skills, and adaptation to diverse learning styles. By integrating serious games into educational programs, educators can enhance meaningful learning, foster relevant skills, and prepare students to tackle the challenges of the 21st century. The evaluation of serious games is important for various reasons. For example, it helps determine if a serious game meets its educational objectives and truly promotes learning and the development of specific skills. It also provides feedback on the design, gameplay, effectiveness, and other aspects of the serious game, allowing developers to identify strengths and areas for improvement to optimize the learning experience. Evaluations help determine if the serious game appropriately caters to the needs and characteristics of users, if it is suitable for the target group, if it is accessible to individuals with different abilities, and if it provides an appropriate level of challenge to promote engagement and learning. Ultimately, evaluations provide validation and credibility to serious games as educational tools. This study shows a systematic review of the factors that appear most frequently evaluated, the methodology used, and discusses the possibility of adding new factors and points out the need to consider the opinion of other users to improve the evaluation of these resources.</p> 2023-09-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on Games Based Learning Using an Escape Room activity to Enhance the Motivation of Undergraduate Life Science Students in Mathematics Classes - A Case Study 2023-06-13T12:01:46+00:00 Sónia Pais Ana Elisa Sousa Ana Pires <p>Mathematics is one of the school subjects where demotivation, dislike and failure are frequent concerns. To address this, it is important to actively engage students in the classroom and employ resources that make math classes more appealing and captivating, leading to meaningful learning experiences.</p> <p>Active, cooperative, and participative learning methods should be prioritized over traditional didactic teaching and the mere transmission of knowledge. Active learning methods offer alternative approaches to the conventional lecture format, actively involving students in the learning process. The concept of an escape room, a gaming experience where participants must solve challenges to escape from a locked room, has gained popularity in educational contexts. The educational escape room is an extension of this concept, aiming to promote real-time problem-solving, teamwork, and discovery of clues and mysteries to facilitate active learning. By engaging in various tasks within a room, students work together in teams, fostering an active learning environment. The educational escape room offers several benefits, including the enhancement of problem-solving skills, student performance, and motivation. By incorporating gamification strategies into teaching and learning processes, this approach proves to be an effective way of promoting active learning in mathematics.</p> <p>In this paper, we present a case study that explores the use of an educational escape room with first-year undergraduate students from a Portuguese higher education institution, with the goal of improving their mathematical problem-solving skills. The study aims to evaluate how escape rooms can contribute to increased student motivation.</p> <p>To assess the perception of students regarding this escape room methodology, a quantitative survey was conducted. The findings indicate that using the escape room as an educational approach effectively increased student interest and improved learning outcomes in mathematics.</p> 2023-09-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on Games Based Learning Requirements and Learning Modules for Implementing a Hologram Table in University Lectures 2023-07-21T14:36:48+00:00 Bruna Pereira de Souza Johannes Zysk Samira Khodaei Maximilian Weber Anas Abdelrazeq Dennis Kreutzer Ingrid Isenhardt Bernd Georg Lottermoser <p>Holograms are relatively new technologies that can be used in university lectures. They enhance the learning experience by adding highly detailed three-dimensional (3D) visualization of objects and environments, which leads to more engagement of students and teachers. Particularly in mining engineering education, holograms have great potential to achieve learning goals, where students often struggle with understanding complex 3D concepts. When implementing new technologies in lectures, there is a must to consider the perception of students and teachers, as well as the didactical and technical requirements of courses. The consideration of these aspects ensures an effective learning environment. This paper presents the concept of three holo-modules with gamification features designed with the main goal of supporting the learning and understanding of mining engineering content. The different conceptual modules have been developed based on different learning objectives extracted from teaching requirements and technical aspects of the lectures. The results show a requirements analysis performed and the prototypes designed to integrate a hologram table in different teaching setups, such as seminars, group work, and frontal lectures.</p> 2023-09-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on Games Based Learning Ingenious Game: Insights Into Evolving From a Learning Card Game to a Learning Software Application Game 2023-07-21T02:59:52+00:00 Marcus Vinicius Pereira Pessoa <p>Ingenious is a collaborative and competitive learning game application in which groups of students compete against each other in a product design and development (PDD) scenario where each group is responsible for a multidisciplinary team of engineers. The game has been used since 2020 to support a mechanical engineering master course. In this period, the game evolved from a card game to a software application. During the four game rounds representing the PDD phases, the players learn when to use over 80 different engineering design techniques. By choosing varying engineers and techniques, a student group creates a design strategy with a cost to execute and might be proven more effective than the competitors’ strategies. Winning the game is about effectiveness in solving the challenges posed in the PDD scenario at a minimum cost. Once the game allows scenario customisation, new PDD scenarios can be created with different complexity levels. In the gamified classroom, grading is not a result of winning the game but a reflection of the group’s choices and consequences while playing the game. This article presents the different game versions, describes the Ingenious game mechanics and dynamics and reflects on the game evolution and coverage of the Octalysis dimensions.</p> 2023-09-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on Games Based Learning Number Express: a Digital Game to Improve Early Numeracy 2023-06-14T11:34:13+00:00 Nicoletta Perini Annamaria Porru Korbinian Moeller Tim Jay Francesco Sella <p>Early numeracy (including basic skills like counting, order processing, etc.) has repeatedly been observed to predict later scholastic but also vocational prospects. As such, it seems sensible to foster it early on during development. In this article, we describe the development and initial evaluation of <em>Number Express</em>, a digital game designed to facilitate numerical skills in pre-and primary school considering the latest evidence from research on order processing. The game consists of a train with six carriages for the player to fill in with numbers in the correct order. The game progresses in difficulty across several levels, moving from smaller to larger numbers and sequences in steps of 2, 5, and 10. Informative feedback helps players in case they respond wrongly. Associating numbers to carriages in the correct order earns the player points, with which they can buy items in a virtual shop, providing additional experience with calculating with money. During the design phase, we sought feedback from researchers, teachers, and an education consultant specialising in the learning and teaching of primary mathematics. Piloting will involve testing the game with a small group of preschool children to evaluate its playability and ease of use and to resolve any remaining technical issues. Additionally, we will gather feedback from children to identify any areas of the game that might be improved or made more engaging. In the next step, the game will be implemented in an intervention study to determine its effectiveness in improving children's early numeracy skills. In case the game proves to be effective in improving children's early numeracy skills, it has the potential to be a valuable tool for educators and parents in supporting their children's numerical development.</p> 2023-09-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on Games Based Learning Evaluating the Efficacy of a Serious Game in Enhancing Word Reading Speed 2023-07-27T07:45:43+00:00 Chiara Piazzalunga Linda Greta Dui Stefania Fontolan Sandro Franceschini Marisa Bortolozzo Cristiano Termine Simona Ferrante <p>Dyslexia is a Specific Learning Disorder (SLD) characterized by subpar reading abilities in terms of accuracy and/or speed. Dyslexia can have a lifelong negative impact on academic and day-to-day life. However, early identification and subsequent training can help dyslexic children overcome their reading difficulties. For instance, tachistoscopic reading, a technique that involves presenting words for a brief period, has been shown to improve reading speed. Technological tools, such as serious games, can also be useful, and governments encourage their use to enhance the management of SLDs. In this study, we investigated the efficacy of a serious game called Tachistoscopio in improving reading speed in children. The game began with a short calibration process, followed by the presentation of a word for a brief duration. The user was then asked to write the word. We tested it on children, carrying out the pictorial system usability scale to assess usability and investigating the effect of class and gender through Mann-Whitney U tests. We determined it had excellent usability and could effectively adapt to users’ abilities, as third graders performed significantly better than second graders (p&lt;0.001). Following the success of this preliminary phase, 36 second-grade children, split into two groups, participated in a training study: 18 children underwent a three-week training phase with the game, while the remaining 18 children served as the control group. Before the training, we assessed all children’s reading abilities using standardized word reading and vocabulary tests. The training involved four 20-item sessions per week. We then collected the reading performance of both groups again and used Mann-Whitney and interval estimates to test for statistically significant difference between the reading speed increments in the two groups. Their confidence intervals did not overlap (training: [0.11; 0.33], control: [-0.10; 0.05]), which suggests a significant difference between them. These findings suggest that Tachistoscopio may be an effective intervention tool for improving reading speed in dyslexic children.&nbsp;</p> 2023-09-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on Games Based Learning “A Slave Obeys”: Capital Violence and Illusory Agency in BioShock 2023-06-01T18:25:35+00:00 David Prihoda <p>The video game <em>BioShock</em>, developed by 2K Boston, depicts a world in which a laissez-faire capitalist named Andrew Ryan creates an underwater utopia called Rapture that is devoid of institutionalized oversight and entitles all of its citizens to their own production. Despite this exceptional aspiration, the game opens to a metropolis in disrepair; it showcases the broken endgame of the objectivist paradise it critiques (Yeates, 2015). Kevin Roozen suggests, in his paper “Writing is Linked to Identity,” that finding ways to engage students in a way that promotes selfhood is the key to engaging them as a community (2016). The brand of selfhood with which modern students in western capitalistic societies are familiar is often leveraged via excessive competition, and this suggests <em>BioShock</em> has unique insight to offer as a pedagogical locus (Kasser and Lin, 2016). Analyzing the inter-class competition within Rapture that caused the state of dissonance between its utopian ideals and dystopian practice leads to insight into the game’s take on Randian Objectivism and class inequality, an especially salient and relevant context to consider within the context of western economies replete with increasing levels of economic disparity and unrest (“Politics of Poverty”, 2010). In this essay, I approach <em>BioShock</em> with a Marxist perspective, aiming to showcase the game’s depictions of the social consequences for Rapture’s proletariat and bourgeoisie as meaningful insight into real-world class warfare. An important distinction I propose the game makes is in its depictions of agency, violence, and capitalism as intrinsically interconnected—they cannot be separated and are dependent on one another, because the sociological ecosystem established by the game’s narrative insists that each element is required; in so doing, my contention is that the game should be considered not only as a pop culture artifact, but as a legitimate piece of academic criticism in the vein of Marx’s <em>Manifesto</em>. I conclude that, in the game’s philosophical space, to be a successful capitalist, one requires agency without restriction, and the only way to exact that agency is through violence. Through its articulation of these concepts, <em>BioShock</em> functions as a useful vehicle in the search for accessible introductions to various economic, philosophical, and epistemological lessons.</p> 2023-09-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on Games Based Learning Confidence in Movement-Based Game Design Facilitation: Learning From a Novice Design Facilitator 2023-09-28T14:11:03+00:00 Lærke Schjødt Rasmussen Philip Wolfgang Maximus Kaos Lars Elbæk <p>Several movement-based and embodied design methods have been developed to supplement existing game design methods. Facilitating movement-based design methods is a practice that most game designers must master. Facilitation involves taking on several responsibilities and roles to ensure processes and activities follow the design project's principal values. For instance, the facilitator must possess design expertise and social awareness, be a direction setter and trust builder, facilitate stage engagement and mood, energise for commitment, and maintain a playful attitude. The many responsibilities and significant involvement will inevitably affect the facilitator, who enters an affective state facilitating the design activities. Through a phenomenological comparative analysis, this study explores how novice versus experienced facilitators perceive the emotion of confidence and its implications on the facilitation process. This analysis is based on a single case study of a two-day movement-based sports innovation camp for 80 K-12 high school students. Empirical data were generated using a combination of observations and interviews with seven of the involved facilitators: three experienced facilitators and four novice facilitators. Our research indicates that facilitation can be categorised into three stages focused on (1) Structure, (2) Process, and (3) Content. Reaching the Content stages requires a high bodily involvement closely linked to the facilitator’s confidence level, which we partially interpret as determined by the courage to use one’s body as a facilitation resource. Thus, the facilitation Process depends not only on the facilitator's level of expertise but also on confidence level and courage. Consequently, we recommend thorough preparation for each facilitation stage to support the facilitator's confidence. Structure: Outline a detailed playbook, organise the physical space and prepare necessary materials. Process: Prepare strategies for providing guidance and feedback. Content: Implement Movement-Modifiers and participate in warm-up activities.</p> 2023-09-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on Games Based Learning A Video Game to Teach Young Adults the Brain Basics of Addiction 2023-06-11T20:21:49+00:00 Andrés Felipe Reyes <p>While we struggle to find effective ways to prevent drug-related harm in young people all around the world, families and communities continue to get hurt. World-renowned experts on addiction believe if people understand its basics, they will make better decisions regarding drug use. Nonetheless, addiction happens in the brain, and the bases of brain function involved in addiction are quite complex. I asked whether young adults could learn with a video game some important basics of synaptic function in the brain related to addiction. My team and I developed ‘You VS Drugs’, a 3D video game beta which, through an adventure that takes place inside a synapse between two cells, explains some of the complex bases of brain function different drugs alter to produce their effects, including addiction. I ran an online questionnaire in which, as 340 young adults aged 18-25 viewed the video game content, answered five multiple-choice and two true-false questions which sought to measure their learning. Then, we ran a simulation with a thousand hypothetical participants who would answer the questionnaire at random. We found that, on average, participants had significantly greater performance on the questionnaire than the simulation group (<em>p</em> &lt;.00001, <em>r</em> = .77). Also, the average of correct responses participants gave over the course of the video game (5.644) corresponds to a group performance of 80.63% in the questionnaire. Results show young adults understand complex bases of neurobiological function related to the effect of psychoactive substances and addiction while playing ‘You VS Drugs’, and they also highlight the potential video games have to teach complex subjects in an engaging way. If we want to reduce the misery drug addiction imposes on families in our societies, we should educate young people in any effective way possible.</p> 2023-09-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on Games Based Learning Using In-game Analytics to Explore Learning Dynamics of Information Literacy in a Social Media Simulator 2023-06-19T08:18:29+00:00 Xavier Rubio-Campillo Celia Corral-Vázquez Kevin Marín-Rubio <p>The emergence of Game-Based Learning (GBL) strategies to promote critical thinking has generated a growing need for analytical tools able to assess their effectiveness. Current methods typically apply qualitative approaches such as focus groups and survey-based questionnaires evaluating players’ knowledge, skills, and attitudes before and after playing the game; these methods are flexible, and they provide valuable information, yet new methods are needed to improve our understanding of what is happening during a gameplay session.</p> <p>The challenge of understanding the internal dynamics of GBL are illustrated by the open debate on gamified disinformation inoculators. These educational tools teach players how to identify disinformation by training them with a small set of fake news displayed within a gaming experience. There is an ongoing debate on what exactly is being learnt with these inoculators as some studies suggest a positive effect while other ones reveal that they promote scepticism instead of resistance against fake news. It is argued that new analytical methods are required to capture the learning process: detailed data collection on gameplay would be extremely useful to identify the most useful traits of Game-Based Learning, while detecting potential limitations or negative effects of this valuable learning resource.</p> <p>This work presents a novel framework to assess GBL dynamics grounded on data analytics. The approach uses the potential of the Unity in-game analytics platform to collect detailed data on how players tackle the challenges posed by the game mechanics; this diverse information may include the full set of decisions and interactions of the player as well as additional information such as the number of tries or time lapse between interactions. The behavioural data is then combined with content metadata information to infer general learning dynamics amongst players.</p> <p>This analytical framework is applied to a social media simulator included in the video game Julia: A Science Journey. Results suggest that the framework can reveal novel insights including aspects such as the level of engagement of the players, the impact of the type of content on the correct assessment of fake news, and the relation between reading speed and performance.</p> 2023-09-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on Games Based Learning A 3 roles’ model to better design and facilitate the use of serious games in the classroom 2023-07-19T20:08:09+00:00 VALERIE SALLAZ Thibaut CARRON <p>The use of serious games in education, whatever the level of students and the subject of study, is full of promise but also strewn with obstacles. Both aspects have been the subject of numerous studies, a number of which underscore the multiple roles teachers have to embrace, each of them representing a more or less difficult challenge. Many factors come into play, including teachers' familiarity with this particular kind of tools.&nbsp;The research work presented in this article includes both game designers and university teachers in the field of management. Serious games have been used in classroom during a 6-year experiment. This experiment reveals a set of teacher attitudes that have to be adopted during teaching sessions to make the most of an increased students’ engagement. Teachers are led to adopt roles and positions they are not always familiar with, which can lead to certain difficulties or frustrations.&nbsp;How can we better take these new roles into account? Is it possible to turn them into a strength, and to take them into consideration beforehand, when designing teaching sessions, so as to optimize the use of serious games and get the most benefit from them? Finally, we propose to build a grid of these roles, which describes each of them, its benefits and its limits, and provides guidelines to avoid common pitfalls.</p> 2023-09-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on Games Based Learning Exploring Reflective Learning in Digital Game-Based Learning: A User Research 2023-07-23T23:15:29+00:00 Anjuman Shaheen Panagiotis Fotaris <p style="font-weight: 400;">Reflective learning has gained popularity as an effective form of education that involves students reflecting on their past experiences to enhance their skills and learning. In recent years, it has been observed that games offer experiential learning and are reflective in nature, making them the ideal medium to integrate reflective learning. With digital games being popular among people of all ages, particularly young adults and children, this study explores the advantages of explicitly incorporating reflective learning into digital game-based learning (GBL) by investigating young adults' perceptions of reflective game design (RGD).</p> <p style="font-weight: 400;">Research suggests that digital games implicitly promote reflective learning by encouraging critical thinking, self-awareness, problem-solving skills, and motivation. Additionally, reflective learning provides immediate feedback to students, promoting self-directed learning. Allowing students to reflect on their gaming experiences can make digital games more immersive, leading to deeper learning.</p> <p style="font-weight: 400;">The study was conducted in two phases. In the first phase, a survey was administered to 101 young adults between the ages of 18 and 24. The survey aimed to get participants' perceptions and acceptance of games exhibiting reflective features such as heads-up displays, screen maps, message prompts, and performance comparison charts. The results showed that 86.5% of participants accepted the idea of reflective game design, indicating a high level of interest in this approach to learning. In the second phase, fifteen in-depth interviews were conducted to explore further participants' perceptions and acceptance of reflection in games. The thematic analysis of the interviews revealed common trends in using reflective game practices to design a new GBL approach. Participants noted that reflective game design can foster deeper learning, promote problem-solving skills, and enhance learning motivation.</p> <p style="font-weight: 400;">This study contributes to developing principles and guidelines for RGD that can assist researchers, educators, and game designers in creating effective educational games. By explicitly incorporating reflective learning into digital GBL, educational games can become more engaging, immersive, and effective in promoting critical thinking, STEM literacy, self-awareness, problem-solving skills, and motivation among students.</p> 2023-09-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on Games Based Learning Making Legislative Process Understandable: Survey of Parliaments’ Serious Games of European Countries 2023-07-04T07:14:58+00:00 Martin Sillaots Mikhail Fiadotau <p>In addition to passing legislation, many parliaments in Europe and around the world engage in educational activities aimed at promoting democracy and explaining the legislative process. Increasingly, these educational activities take the form of serious games. But just how many European parliaments use games, and what do these games involve? This study is a survey of the use of serious games by European national parliaments’ visitor centres, based on a questionnaire and web page analysis. Out of the 43 countries surveyed, 25 were found to use some form of games. The study maps the game genres and activities the games contain, as well as the parliaments’ rationale for using them and intended target audience.</p> 2023-09-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on Games Based Learning Introducing Game Jams for Ecology and Citizenship Education in High School Classes 2023-07-24T13:51:46+00:00 Luana Silveri <p>This paper deals with the preliminary results of some applied game jam events integrated with the Citizenship and Civic education project in some Italian high schools.</p> <p>In Italy GBL is not systematically used as a didactic tool, especially in secondary school and game jamming is not well known nor used. A set of specifically designed game jam events called (EcoGJ - the game jam for ecology) were implemented in Italy during the 2022/2023 school year. The game jam format was designed to promote the discourse about climate change and ecosystems, and implemented to demonstrate how a more student-centred didactic approach can be used at school to foster collaboration and team working skills.</p> <p>Students in the 15-16 target age from different high schools have been involved in the EcoGJ format. Outcomes have been recorded with a survey and with on-field notes. Preliminary results show as game jams had a positive impact on students, encouraging them to use critical thinking and team working as well as activating them in discussing ecology and climate change issues. Notwithstanding, some critical points emerged both for students in terms of engagement and knowledge. It seems that game jams can be a valid working method to teach and learn new skills, as well as increase students’ self-confidence and their desire to learn more about complex issues such as climate change. Further explorations are needed to find the most adequate way to introduce game jamming in high school and the best format to use these events in the most effective way to foster students’ engagement in learning and to help them in deepening their scientific-based knowledge in ecology and climate change.</p> 2023-09-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on Games Based Learning The Dark Side of Fun: Understanding Dark Patterns and Literacy Needs in Early Childhood Mobile Gaming 2023-07-26T08:05:10+00:00 Carla Sousa Ana Oliveira <p>Play has always been recognized as an essential aspect of human development, particularly during early childhood, as it contributes to learning, the formation of meanings, and experiencing the world. In today's digitalized society, early childhood education has increasingly integrated digital media into its practices, both in schools and at the family level. Mobile digital games (MDG) have received significant attention due to their impact on children's interactions, play, and learning. However, as young children engage more with MDGs, concerns about problem gaming have arisen, referring to conflicts and issues that emerge from game playing within everyday sociocultural contexts. Scholars such as Zagal et al. (2013) have identified certain game design patterns as "dark", which can be considered unethical as they manipulate players against their best interests. Given the prevalence of mobile gaming in early childhood, studying these dark patterns becomes even more crucial.&nbsp; This study aims to investigate the presence of dark patterns in MDG for young children (0-5 years old), through qualitative analysis. The five most popular free games for this age range on App Store (February 2023) were analysed, particularly focusing on the presence of temporal, monetary, social, and/or psychological dark patterns. The analysis uncovers the presence of temporal, monetary, and psychological dark patterns, including aesthetic manipulations, paywalls, and periodic rewards resembling gambling elements. The games also employ advertising strategies and engagement tactics that challenge young children's navigation. Parental control mechanisms offer limited safeguards, requiring continuous monitoring and parental involvement in play dynamics. The study highlights the importance of adult media and digital literacy in supporting children's online play effectively, while also emphasising the responsibility of game designers and developers to create healthier and less risky game experiences.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2023-09-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on Games Based Learning Barriers and Hindrances to the Effective Use of Games in Education: Systematic Literature Review and Intervention Strategies 2023-06-21T15:26:26+00:00 Carla Sousa Pedro Neves Filipe Luz <p>Games play a central role in human culture, as well as in interaction, interpersonal relationships, and overall development. Based on these premises, game-based learning (GBL) has been increasingly studied as a form of pedagogical innovation in formal and non-formal education. However, the implementation of these types of interventions in real educational settings has faced several barriers and constraints that reduce their possible impact. In this context, the present study aims to fulfil two aims: (a) mapping the main obstacles experienced in the implementation of GBL approaches in educational contexts; and (b) proposing an intervention diagram that matches each type of barrier with potential strategies to address it. Towards these aims, a Systematic Literature Review (SLR) was conducted, following the PRISMA methodology and guidelines. This included screening and eligibility processes based on inclusion criteria, which were defined considering the research's aims. Non-peer-reviewed research and studies aimed at other pedagogical approaches, such as gamification, were excluded to obtain a final sample of 11 studies and 1952 individuals, with an average of 195.20 participants per study (<em>SD</em> = 266.14). Through the analysis of the studies, a model of four types of barriers emerged: (1) attitudinal and behavioural barriers; (2) school policy barriers; (3) technological and material barriers; and (4) game literacy barriers. Through the critical evaluation of the barriers emerging from the analyzed empirical studies, we propose some potential methodological strategies that might support practitioners in overcoming them. This includes: (a) the implementation of a co-creation and participatory-driven methodology; (b) the appropriate selection of analogue, digital, or hybrid games; (c) the inclusion of the different educational stakeholders in the process; and (d) the promotion of GBL training within the projects.</p> 2023-09-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on Games Based Learning Mathematics and Sign Language Learning with a Tangible Game: An Inclusive Approach for DHH and Hearing Children 2023-06-09T20:25:30+00:00 Cátia Casimiro José Carlos Neves Carla Sousa <p>The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential of a tangible game, Inclusive Glossary of Mathematical Terms (GIM), to support the teaching of math and Portuguese sign language (<em>Língua Gestual Portuguesa</em>; LGP) to preschool and first-grade children, with an emphasis on inclusive education, knowledge acquisition, and engagement. GIM is composed of physical cards that are complemented by digital videos that run on an interface designed for this game. The game consists of two sets of cards and respective animations. As an inclusive math glossary, it also includes videos where concepts, characters, and objects are identified through images, words, and sign language. During the development process of GIM, it was possible to involve a multidisciplinary team, of which a Deaf sign language teacher and a sign language interpreter were part to ensure the clarity of the sign language and refine the written sentences accompanying the glossary. In order to validate its contents, a focus group of preschool and primary teachers specialized in the teaching of Deaf and Hard of Hearing (DHH) children was formed. A total of 120 children, aged between three and eight years old (<em>M</em> = 5.61; <em>SD</em> = 0.78), and seven LGP and special education teachers from three Portuguese schools participated in the study. The children used GIM in their classrooms, with the assistance of the participating teachers, who were subsequently interviewed to assess their engagement, interest, and learning outcomes. The interviews were analyzed using content analysis procedures, including descriptive statistics and Pearson correlations. The results indicated that GIM has the potential to effectively support the teaching of mathematics and LGP to preschool and first-grade children, especially in inclusive education contexts. The tangible nature of the game facilitated children's understanding of mathematical concepts and LGP, leading to improved involvement in the teaching-learning process. Moreover, the game promoted awareness of diversity and the principles of inclusive education, making it a valuable tool for promoting social inclusion and understanding. However, the study has reduced sample and context-specific limitations, suggesting a need for further research in this area.</p> 2023-09-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on Games Based Learning The Novelty of Collaboration: High School Students Learning and Enjoyment Perceptions When Playing Cooperative Modern Board Games 2023-06-17T22:01:14+00:00 Micael Sousa Carla Sousa Filipe Luz <p>Modern board games are changing the way people play analogue face-to-face multiplayer games. One of the novelties of this trend is the growing prevalence of games that offer collaborative gameplay. These cooperative games have been instrumental in shifting the demographic of players, attracting individuals who prefer engaging in constructive interactions rather than destructive confrontations. Likewise, playing cooperative games demand specific players' skills which can be associated with the concept of soft skills. Training these skills through modern cooperative board games, whether by modifying existing games or developing new ones as serious games or using gamification approaches, holds promising potential. To test the perception of students playing cooperative modern board games for the first time, we organized a one-day play session in a school environment, specifically in a classroom with the support of the students’ teachers. Over a period of six hours (three in the morning and three in the afternoon), a total of 25 high school students from the vocational multimedia area, comprising students of all genders, participated in the session. The students engaged in gameplay with a curated selection of four cooperative modern board games. The results indicate that the students enjoyed the game sessions and recognized the significance of collaboration, as well as the associated skills including communication, empathy, organization, focus, and complementary interactions. The experiment reinforces the suggestion that the used modern board games could be introduced during classes as engaging activities fit for learning and training.</p> 2023-09-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on Games Based Learning Chances and Limitations of Immersive Augmented Reality for Game-based Learning in Museums 2023-09-06T07:32:29+00:00 Ulrike Spierling Jessica L. Bitter Yu Liu Thorolf Müller <p>This article discusses opportunities and limitations of using immersive augmented reality (AR) with head-mounted displays for gaming and education in museums. We first report on a prototype application for HoloLens 2 that we developed and tested with 109 museum visitors in a recent project for an exhibition with large animal skeletons. The results show that the feedback from visitors was overall positive, while more steps are needed before it can be implemented in a museum routine. Based on the findings, we discuss hypotheses for the planned further development of the approaches towards game-based learning in the real environment of a natural history museum.</p> 2023-09-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on Games Based Learning Work, Costs and the Unexpected in the academic’s creation and use of Games and Simulations in Teaching and Learning 2023-09-03T12:35:13+00:00 Ian Stewart Kun Wang <p style="font-weight: 400;">Experiential teaching and learning activities such as games and simulations are increasingly popular in management education. The research has evolved specific clusters of concerns, principally; correlates of performance, the effectiveness in management courses, and what they can possibly teach. However, O’Flynn (2021) states that “the teaching viewpoint has been widely neglected.” In management education research, costs, human or financial, of games or simulations, specifically towards the creator, the academic do not seem to be considered. Recent systematic reviews show the literature prioritising the effects of experiential learning, games or simulations and ‘future research’ guidance calling for more of the same. This leads to a simple research question “What are the actions, unexpected events, costs and risks in using experiential teaching and learning techniques, from the lived experience of academics?” This paper uses data from a British Academy of Management/Management Knowledge &amp; Learning Division-funded project into the lived experience of management academics creating and using games and simulations. It presents an analysis of three cases that exemplify the categorisations created by this research to uncover costs, risks and emergent events that are generally unreported by the serious games and simulation literature.</p> 2023-09-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on Games Based Learning Evaluating Playful Creative Problem Solving in Kyiv and Ukrainian Refugees in France 2023-05-29T13:22:23+00:00 Oksana Strutynska Margarida Romero <p>Creativity in playful creative problem-solving (CPS) is influenced by the emotional state of the learner-player. In this study, we evaluated how stressful situations (such as conditions of war) can impact divergent thinking (DT) in CPS. To evaluate divergent thinking, the main components of which are fluency, flexibility, and originality, creativity researchers have developed the Alternative Uses Test (AUT), where participants are asked to write about different uses of familiar objects in a limited amount of time. In educational robotics, DT has been operationalized with the same components of fluency, flexibility, and originality based on the diverse configurations made by the learner-players.</p> <p>In the present research, we engaged participants in a playful activity with modular robotics to evaluate divergent thinking. Participants engaged in the CreaCube task are Ukrainians. We recruited two groups of participants: Ukrainian refugees living in France and participants staying in Kyiv (Ukraine). These participants are experiencing a stressful situation due to the daily war events in Kyiv during the development of this study (missile attacks, power and heating restrictions, air sirens, and limited communication with partners on the frontlines). By comparing these two groups of learner-players in the CreaCube task, we aim to identify how stressful situations affect divergent thinking.</p> <p>The preliminary results showed that flexibility and originality as DT components of the participants from Kyiv in the first experiment are significantly higher than those of the refugee participants based in France. This may indicate that the participants from Kyiv, having been in stressful situations (war conditions) for almost a year, have developed more original ideas (originality component) and different ideas (flexibility component), which could be explained by the daily problem-solving activity under war constraints. Playful situations under war conditions permitted the Kyiv participants to distract themselves from the current situation and show originality in thinking better than participants playing in France who were not in stressful situations. This may indicate that wartime constraints have engaged the participants in better strategies for generating novel ideas, but it also indicates that the interest in game activities has a positive effect on DT even in stressful situations for the participants.</p> 2023-09-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on Games Based Learning Sense-making of Digital Game Technologies (DGT): Positive Instances of Children-led Engagement with Chess 2023-09-13T10:24:58+00:00 Malola Prasath Thittanimuttam Sundaramadhavan Luis Blasco De la Cruz Astrid Barbier Mustafa Megrahi Tamer Karatekin Muthukumar Narayan Sharon Whatley Humberto Enrique Gutiérrez Rivas Bayaraa Delgerzaya <p>The Game of Chess, a drosophila of reasoning, is a unique opportunity for nurturing children into systemic thinking approaches that naturally embrace the higher-order thinking skills required for STEM aspiration.</p> <p>In this paper, we conceptualise chess from a digital game technology perspective to nurture a rich system thinking experience and illustrate the various attempts to introduce a digitally immersive classroom experience for children using a generation of digital chess infrastructure. We continue to illustrate a few positive hands-on experiences of deploying generations of digital chess infrastructure for group learning in the classroom environment for nurturing both the learning and the social imagination of children working together to expand their quest for chess. We examined what brought the attention, advocacy, and achievement to build an agency for chess. With no prior value claim existing for the advocacy of technology deployment with chess in classrooms, the present framework shows how the attention to chess is progressively enriched.</p> <p>Further, the positive instances of children-led engagements demonstrate the goal of steadily integrating digitally immersive chess experiences into classroom learning environments. We make sense of the social imagination of classrooms and make in-vivo observations on children-led empowerment, shared aspiration, competency building, and the evolution of contemporary practices in chess leading to the agency for chess. We conclude that a transformative opportunity exists through deploying a digitally immersive chess environment within the classroom for nurturing systemic thinking in children with chess.</p> 2023-09-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on Games Based Learning From research to prototypes: Developing a digital game to foster fraction equivalence. 2023-07-12T09:27:06+00:00 Georgios Thoma Julia Bahnmueller Manuel Ninaus Korbinian Moeller <p>Fraction understanding is a significant predictor of future math achievement. In addition to more traditional instruction, digital game-based approaches have been found successful in facilitating conceptual understanding of fractions (including aspects such as part-whole relations represented as pie-charts, or measurement, i.e., magnitude in terms of number lines). Nevertheless, the number of existing games that address the aspect of fraction equivalence is limited and if so, these typically replicate common paper-and-pencil tasks like identifying and matching equivalent fractions. This, however, hardly takes advantage of the medium’s potential and affordances nor strives for intrinsic integration of the learning content with game mechanics. Seeking to overcome this shortcoming, the present article describes the development of a digital game fostering fraction equivalence. To do so, among others, we developed visual animations illustrating the transitions from circular part-whole representations (pie-charts) to magnitudes on a number line—drawing on previous research and games. In particular, a wheel is presented, whose circumference matches the length of the number line which it rolls along. Players can manipulate the number of spikes on the wheel reflecting the number of parts of the whole (e.g., 2 spikes halve the circle, while 4 cut it into quarters etc.). By rolling the wheel, the spikes puncture the number line thus segmenting it into equal parts, essentially transforming the aspects from part-whole relations to measurement (magnitude) on the number line. Additionally, as punctures of 2 and 4 spikes will coincide at the 1/2 - 2/4 location of a 0-1 number line, players can find equivalent fractions. The game under development will be evaluated with late primary/early secondary school students to test its game design, affordances, and possible impact on fraction understanding.</p> 2023-09-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on Games Based Learning Values-based Transformative Games: From the Physical to the Digital 2023-08-08T00:03:36+00:00 Khushbu Tilvawala Michael Myers Ton Spil David Sundaram <p>In the context of game-based learning, learning is often limited to basic literacies such as math and reading, even though several educational institutions acknowledge the importance of Values education. In this paper, we discuss how to bring values into a game. We discuss the design and implementation of a customisable version of the popular board game, Snakes and Ladders to teach values to the young (ages 0-8). Values refer to “a centrally held, enduring belief which guides actions and judgements across specific situations…”. This implies that there is an inherent element of choice or decision-making in demonstrating one’s values. We discuss the process of adapting the Snakes and Ladders board game to a physical artefact by applying a Values-based Transformative Games Design Model, and further digitizing the artefact to make it more accessible. A prototype of the digital artefact is presented to demonstrate the concept. The Insider Action Game Design Research methodology is applied to create a physical artefact given the researcher’s involvement in volunteer work on values-based education for the young. The findings of this research are of immediate benefit to those wishing to introduce a digitized version of a simple and popular board game to teach values to young children. The values-based questions used in the game are easy to adapt so the game has the potential to be extended to various other basic literacies, as well as different types of values such as sustainability and cultural values. The Values-based Transformative Games design model can also be adapted and improved with further research.</p> 2023-09-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on Games Based Learning Educational Story-Based Game for Capturing the Learner's Personality 2023-07-27T08:06:32+00:00 Athanasios Tsionas Maya Satratzemi <p>In recent years with the help of digital games there is an increasing interest in creating Serious Games for learning through play. With the help of machine learning algorithms, an educational serious game can be used, not only to assist the learner in his/her studies, but also to extract insights about the learner's personality. In game-based learning we take into account that the student behaves differently according to his/her individual characteristics while learning by playing. The most used method to model the learner’s personality is the self-report using questionnaires. The drawback of this approach is that the learner may not assess himself correctly or his/her answers’ may be biased towards the more socially acceptable responses rather than being truthful. In this paper, we explore the idea of having an alternative method of learning a person’s personality model and thus to better create interactive and engaging methods to assist learners in their studies. A story-based game with gamified learning elements was created for helping the learners study and evaluate their knowledge in the programming language C. The students learn by evaluating code snippets and depending on their response the game would give constructive feedback. At the same time students’ in-game behavior is captured and thus their personality traits could be determined. For modeling the learner’s personality we used the Five-Factor Model (OCEAN), a taxonomy of five personality traits (Openness, Conscientiousness, Extraversion, Agreeableness, and Neuroticism), each of which combines many personality characteristics. To evaluate the efficiency of the proposed serious game, we gathered data from 107 first year Computer Science students from the University of Macedonia. The students played the game and filled in the Big Five Inventory (BFI) questionnaire to capture their OCEAN traits. The BFI questionnaire was used as a ground truth. After the data gathering, we used machine learning techniques and also classification algorithms to create our model. The goodness of the model was assessed using different metrics and the results showed that it is effective to model both the extraversion and openness personality dimensions using serious games instead of questionnaires.</p> 2023-09-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on Games Based Learning Fostering Employability Skills for Engineers with Serious Games: A gamified GBL concept 2023-09-13T14:53:23+00:00 Paul Varney Vanessa Mai Valerie Varney <p>The world is becoming increasingly complex, and as a result, the demand for individuals with strong employability skills is growing rapidly. It is essential for engineering education to adapt to this reality and provide opportunities for students to develop critical thinking, problem-solving, communication, teamwork, adaptability, and leadership skills. By doing so, engineering graduates will be well-equipped to navigate the complex challenges of the modern world and make meaningful contributions to society. Engineering education needs to adapt to this reality by incorporating more opportunities for students to develop their employability skills. This can be done through a variety of methods, such as experience- or project-based learning, internships, co-op programs, and industry partnerships. Game-based learning offers an engaging and immersive experience that can promote the development of these skills in a fun and interactive way. Within the Game-based learning approach implemented in our lecture the students play two subsequent game modules in which they first plan and build a factory building together and then put it into operation in the second part. The players are confronted with problems and situations that can only be overcome through communication and cooperation. This paper presents the self-developed online platform that uses gamification aspects such as micro-achievements for each student to represent the progress with the learning materials as well as within the gaming parts. The platform aims to provide students with an engaging and interactive way of learning, while also assessing their performance through collected data.</p> 2023-09-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on Games Based Learning Utilizing outdoor quiz game in secondary school 2023-08-24T11:16:15+00:00 Tone Vold Linda V. Kiønig Souad Slyman <p>Outdoor play is a natural way for children of all ages to do physical activity. The advantages of being outdoor in an educational setting have been elaborated. For instance, the social constellations may change when outdoors as the social structures defined in the classroom setting no longer apply as the pupils may display different skillsets outdoors as to indoors. Using games for learning purposes have been employed for several decades. As far back as in 1904, the Landlord’s Game was used to teach people about real estate and taxation. Since then games have mostly been developed for leisure purposes, but some also for educational purposes. In this paper, we elaborate on the use of a Norwegian developed quiz game called ‘ZippyGO’. Most of the research on ZippyGO have been focusing on students’ perceptions of the use of this quiz game. In this paper, however, we focus on the teachers’ perceptions and use of an outdoor quiz game for educational purposes. In this particular case, four teachers have collaborated on developing questions for the quizzing. We conducted mixed method ways of collecting data, surveys and semi-structured interviews. Our investigations have focused mainly on how the teachers perceive working on developing adequate questions for the quiz and how they perceive pupils may react to using the quiz game. We have also challenged the teachers on their perceptions of games for learning purposes in general and about being outdoor during class.</p> 2023-09-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on Games Based Learning Digital Educational Escape Rooms for Social Entrepreneurship: Identifying Design Choices for Educational Impact 2023-09-04T14:25:41+00:00 Kristin Webb Richard Martina <p>Digital educational escape rooms (DEERs) can provide an engaging gamified learning experience for students that is easy to use and sustainable for teachers. Though well-established in the STEM fields, where escape rooms often call for students to apply procedural skills, escape rooms are also used across a range of subjects to impact durable skills and attitudes such as communication, collaboration, and critical thinking. This paper seeks to extend the application of DEERs into social entrepreneurship (SE) education by exploring the DEER design elements relevant to the SE field. This paper will focus on developing durable skills and attitudes associated with social entrepreneurship, an area of entrepreneurship that seeks to create businesses with positive social impact. To identify the relevant design elements in DEERs, we conducted a systematic literature review. The research question was "Which design elements of digital educational escape rooms are necessary to teach social entrepreneurship skills and competencies?” This current paper builds on this type of framework by highlighting the relationship between the components of a DEER and learning objectives, specifically those relevant to a social entrepreneur’s educational context. For example, almost all papers reported successful collaboration in online groups. The authors also found that specific puzzle types were less important than the gamified context on impact on learning and skill development. Thus, the authors contribute to our understanding of how DEERs can relate to SE specific learning objectives, skills, and attitudes.</p> 2023-09-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on Games Based Learning Multiplayer Serious Games Supporting Programming Learning 2023-07-24T14:07:36+00:00 Adam Wynn Jingyun Wang Ruisheng Han Ting-Chia Hsu <p><span class="s4">Computational thinking (CT) is crucial in education for </span><span class="s4">providing a multifaceted approach to problem-solving</span><span class="s4">. However, challenges </span><span class="s4">exist such as</span><span class="s4"> supporting </span><span class="s4">teachers' knowledge of CT and students' desire to learn it, particularly for non-technical students.</span> To combat<span class="s4">&nbsp;these challenges, Computer Supported Collaborative Learning (CSCL) has been introduced in classrooms a</span><span class="s4">n</span><span class="s4">d implemented using a variety of technologies, including serious games, which have been adopted across several domains aiming to appeal to various demographics and skill levels. This research focuses on a Collaborative Multiplayer Serious Game (MSG) for CT skill training. The architecture is aimed at young students and is </span><span class="s7">designed to aid in the learning of programming and the </span><span class="s7">development of CT skills. The purpose of this research is to </span><span class="s7">conduct an empirical study to assess the </span><span class="s7">multiplayer game gameplay mechanics</span><span class="s7"> for collaborative</span><span class="s7"> CT</span><span class="s7"> learning</span><span class="s7">. The proposed game leverages a card game structure and contains complex multi-team multi-player processes, allowing students to communicate and absorb </span><span class="s7">sequential and conditional logics as well as graph routing</span><span class="s7"> in a 2D environment. A preliminary experiment was conducted with four </span><span class="s7">fourth</span><span class="s7">-graders and eight sixth-graders from a French school in Morocco who have varying levels of understanding of CT. Participants were split into three groups each with two teams and were required to complete a 16-question multiple-choice quiz before and after playing the same game to assess their initial </span><span class="s7">structural programming logics</span><span class="s7"> and the effectiveness of the MSG. Questionnaires were collected along with an interview to gather feedback on their gaming experiences and the game’s role in teaching and learning. The results demonstrate that the proposed MSG had a favourable effect on the participants’ test scores as the scores of </span><span class="s7">4</span><span class="s7"> of the teams increased and 1 remained the same. </span><span class="s7">All students performed well on the sequential and conditional logics, which was </span><span class="s7">significantly </span><span class="s7">better than</span><span class="s7"> the achievement of the Bebras test of the graph routing. </span><span class="s7">Furthermore, according to the participants, the game provides an appealing environment that allows players to immerse themselves in the game and the competitive aspect </span><span class="s4">of the game adds to its appeal and helps develop teamwork, coordination, and communication skills.</span></p> 2023-09-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on Games Based Learning Exploring the Effects of Progression Mechanics in Competitive and Collaborative Gamified Learning 2023-08-22T01:41:46+00:00 Dongjie Xu Janet Read Julie Allen <p>This study investigates how competitive, collaborative, and progressive game-based and gamification learning mechanics influence children's motivation, engagement, and learning outcomes. The research was conducted with primary school children in an e-learning context delivered by the University of Central Lancashire’s (UCLan) eLearning platform – Learnvoy - and specifically explored how the sense of progression, competition, and collaboration in a gamified environment influenced learners' academic performance. This study involved groups of primary school learners in a quasi-experiment. The control group engaged in a traditional eLearning setup where they were asked to watch a few plain monologue tutorial videos and answer related questions. Two experimental groups participated in a gamified eLearning environment that used the same tutorial videos, but in which their answers powered up in-game characters: in one case creating a competitive experience and in the other a collaborative experience. After viewing each tutorial video, each learner answered the same questions as the control group, but here their rate of correctness powered up, or hindered frogs, from reaching a princess in a game based on the story of The Princess and the Frog. In this way, competitive, collaborative, and progressive elements were introduced in the game, where learners with higher accuracy in the question and answering activities had a better chance of winning, thus fostering an environment of motivation and achievement. The results indicate that both experimental groups exhibited improved motivation, engagement, and accuracy compared to the control group; there was no significant difference between the two gamified conditions. These results are interesting to schoolteachers and eLearning creators seeking to integrate innovative and effective learning strategies into their educational curriculums. The findings underscore the potential of competitive and collaborative game mechanics, particularly progression elements, in enhancing learners' learning experiences and outcomes.&nbsp;In conclusion, this research highlights the educational value of competitive, collaborative, and progressive digital game-based learning mechanics, suggesting that the sense of progression, competition and collaboration conveyed by such games can play a role in fostering learners' academic success.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2023-09-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on Games Based Learning On Supporting Game-based Learning via Recommendations 2023-08-21T11:18:21+00:00 Aytuna Yamaç Mehmet Yamaç Kostas Stefanidis <p>Over the last two decades, game-based learning has gained increasing popularity. In today's world, teachers are expected to utilize technological tools such as digital games as learning aids. Despite the multitude of studies examining the benefits of game-based learning, finding the most convenient game for a particular teaching purpose can be a challenging task given the vast number of similar games that are available on the market. With this study, we aim to provide teachers with a recommendation system that will assist them in selecting appropriate games from all the web-based game materials available. A key theoretical premise behind this work is to examine teaching from the perspective of teachers to develop their ability to teach. The purpose of this study is to develop a recommendation system that will assist teachers in selecting educational games based on the subjects they teach, that will be both personalized and use the experience of other researchers at the same time. We propose a system that utilizes the latest developments in signal processing and machine learning, specifically the tensor completion method. This is a machine learning technique from the family of collaborative filtering methods that fills in missing values in a dataset by analyzing its existing patterns.</p> 2023-09-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on Games Based Learning Games as Socio-Technical Systems 2023-07-29T12:18:09+00:00 Diego Alatorre Guzmán <p>In the search for a comprehensive framework to structure and instrumentalize a Pedagogy of Play, the present article explores the ludic phenomena from an interdisciplinary perspective, integrating relevant knowledge from multiple sources and complementary epistemologies. As a result, a socio-technical framework of play and games is built, described and exemplified across different cases, over a continuous territory that performs in terms of multiple scales and complexities. The overall intention is not to normalize games, but to integrate more and diverse playful interactions within our everyday lives; not only within basic education but across academic and professional life: an exertion driven by a genuine search to learn from each other and supported by a versatile set of tools. By approaching games as the tangible materialization of play, therefore delegating the material embodiment of whatever comes out of our creativity, to an active learning practice inspired by our curiosity, and that of whom we collaborate with. To conclude, the article discusses and reflects upon the political and aesthetic implications of the presented framework, highlighting the importance of attitudes and narratives that complement conventional study programs by suggesting new ways to approach pre-identified, yet open spaces.</p> 2023-09-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on Games Based Learning Using RPG-Based Learning Environment to Increase Engagement and Motivation for Learning Higher Mathematics 2023-09-28T13:26:21+00:00 Evgenia Anagnostopoulou <p>Although game-based learning has been introduced in various fields, there appears to be a lack of engaging computer games that incorporate higher maths learning (Anagnostopoulou, 2021). This paper presents an exploration of how fantasy-based narrative and storytelling, through role-playing and game mechanics, can be used to increase engagement and motivation for learning higher mathematics in a role-playing game (RPG) based learning environment. As part of this research, the project developed an RPG with incorporated mathematical techniques. Players/learners access the fictional world, controlling in-game characters. Learning evolves via a storyline and six mechanics, progressively building knowledge of derivatives using puzzles with shapes, which gradually fade to the abstract notion of mathematical functions. An experiment was conducted to test the research hypothesis that an RPG based around a quest structure with concreteness fading can enable students to get a better understanding of higher mathematics in the area of differentiation without impeding their entertainment. Participants were recruited from various backgrounds and levels of mathematical knowledge and gaming experience. Data was collected through observations, interviews and two questionnaires: one to be completed before playing the game and the other after. This paper is mainly focused on the qualitative outcomes of the research. The results suggest that the method is effective, with serious learning taking place. The participants reported that they had found the game to be fun and a useful way to learn maths. Moreover, it is revealed that a PRG-based learning environment can increase engagement and motivation for learning higher maths, without invalidating entertainment. The findings have implications for the design, implementation, and evaluation of game-based learning environments for higher mathematics. The paper concludes that this approach has the potential to provide a more immersive, engaging learning experience and increase motivation for learning. Finally, recommendations on how to improve the current game as well as more bold and optimistic ideas for enhanced immersive game builds are suggested.</p> 2023-09-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on Games Based Learning SwageXR: Designing Gamified AR Applications for Industrial Training 2023-08-08T15:16:17+00:00 Luke Beveridge Keshav Dahal Marco Gilardi <p><span data-contrast="auto">This paper presents a case study describing the design of SwageXR, an augmented reality (AR) application that gamifies a tubing assembly exercise. The aim of this paper is to contribute to the field of extended reality (XR) applications by providing a case study of a novel design process based on an existing framework by Gilardi et al.</span><span data-ccp-props="{&quot;335551550&quot;:6,&quot;335551620&quot;:6}">&nbsp;</span></p> <p><span data-contrast="auto">Design needs and requirements were gathered using a contextual design approach and qualitative research through interviews with training course instructors as well as a workshop involving them. The contextual design approach involved the PI taking part in the training course as one of the trainees to observe and build understanding of the taught practical content and the context in which the learning happened. This was followed by semi-structured interviews with 4 training instructors, with results indicating preferred course content to digitise, early concepts for gamification, and the storyline of the gamified content with respect to existing training. Using the data and experience gained from the contextual design approach and interviews, a paper prototype of the gamified AR application was developed, and feedback was obtained from the company technical director. The paper prototype and feedback were used as a basis for developing a 3D prototype in VR using ShapesXR. This led to a virtual reality (VR) workshop involving the technical director and training manager of the company where the 3D prototype was demonstrated and discussed. The workshop resulted in the flow of the overall application being refined including the storyline, gamification, training, and challenges. The design process aims to facilitate the development of a coded working prototype for SwageXR, with gamification elements such as score, time-based challenges and leaderboards. An initial experience playtest with course trainees will then be possible to gain insight on engagement levels and trainee attitudes about the initial game experience.</span><span data-ccp-props="{&quot;335551550&quot;:6,&quot;335551620&quot;:6}">&nbsp;</span></p> <p><span data-contrast="auto">The main outcome of this research is a design approach that tries to address the gap outlined by Krauß et al., the approach makes use of rehearsal techniques and virtual reality to provide context for AR application design.</span><span data-ccp-props="{&quot;335551550&quot;:6,&quot;335551620&quot;:6}">&nbsp;</span></p> 2023-09-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on Games Based Learning Introducing Resource Management Into a Large-Scale Cyber Security Seminar Game: A Case Study 2023-09-28T13:34:51+00:00 Peadar Callaghan <p>In seminar wargames, participants are asked to resolve problems presented by an umpire, who also adjudicates the outcome of the player decisions. This type of game has been used across a wide range of contexts, including notably in cybersecurity training. Seminar games, however, have been criticized for their lack of rigor. The solutions developed during the game can often be idealized. It is also common for these games to have pre-scripted outcomes. This minimizes the agency of the player and reduces the investment the player can have in the game. This paper focuses on the design and development of a seminar wargame with a novel resource management component. This component expands on the traditional seminar game and addresses some underrepresented training needs. The game was designed using a participatory design framework and the process is clearly described in the paper. The game was then played during a large-scale cybersecurity event by governmental representatives from 18 different countries using a hybrid game system. Data was gathered through a series of observations made during play, interviews with participants, and discussion during a debriefing session. Preliminary results show that the participants and sponsors felt that the game improved the overall quality and utility of the seminar style wargame. While the practical implementation of the game requires refinement, the overall approach is viable for a broad range of contexts in which seminar-style games can be used.</p> 2023-09-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on Games Based Learning Overcoming Social Anxiety: How Virtual Reality and Game-Based Elements are Revolutionizing Patient Therapy. 2023-08-10T09:07:49+00:00 Asge Matthiesen Gunver Majgaard Lasse Juel Larsen <p>In this paper, we reflect upon the design process and the game-elements for developing a tool for patients. These reflections are based upon a case in where we developed six different Virtual Reality (VR) scenarios as a combined tool for treatment of social anxiety disorder (SAD) for usage within the Danish healthcare system. The core theory for this development is based upon behavioral therapy as a standardized treatment method and the exposure that occur within this. This research is a part of a larger funded project titled VR8, which also contains integration of biofeedback and the application of the practice in where the tool should be applied. The main goal of this paper is to explain the development of the six scenarios, to provide a deeper understanding for the patients on how their anxiety triggers unfolds when exposed to a variety of different scenarios. And to provide a tool for both patients and practitioners to use as an addition to existing treatment methods. The reason for this development is due to (among others) the cost-reduction, time-reduction, heighten of effectivity and user experience in using VR as a tool for treatment compared to regular in-vivo exposure therapy in where the practitioner guides the patient in a physical environment. In this environment a lot of factors can’t be controlled and often results in the patient giving up and abandoning the treatment. With VR it is a controlled and closed environment making it more suitable for the patient to interact and level out their anxiety. The combination of iterative design thinking, filmmaking methods, game-based elements and agile software development are used as the core methods to develop the six scenarios. The six scenarios are developed with the aid of specific game-based elements, such as: mapping, level-design, audio control and remote action triggers.</p> 2023-09-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on Games Based Learning The Design, Implementation and Evaluation of Gamified Immersive Virtual Reality (IVR) for Learning: A Review of Empirical Studies 2023-07-19T18:40:07+00:00 Wenting Sun Qihui Chen <p>The reduced cost of Virtual Reality (VR) technology makes it possible to be used in education. And the virtual learning scenarios in immersive virtual reality (IVR) contain some kind of gamification in the design aspects. Though some published reviews mapped the application of IVR in education, reviews about the use of gamification in IVR in education are still under research. In this review, game elements, game mechanisms, learning performance evaluation, research design, and methods were extracted from the selected empirical articles from Web of Science, Scopus, and Google Scholar after rigorous inclusion and exclusion. It found that learning interactions inside the IVR learning scenarios frequently consisted of interaction with virtual objects or equipment, interaction with avatars (non-Player Characters (NPC)), interaction with avatars (participant displayed as an avatar), and watching the video in a follow-the-machine view. The most popular three gamification mechanisms were rewards, challenges, and avatars, while the most common gamification elements utilized were content unlocking, a point system, task difficulty levels, NPC, an achievement system, role-playing, and a progress bar. Action error rates and test scores were the popular learning performance measurement metrics. In general, positive learning performance was more related to the number of game mechanisms rather than the number of game elements. Gamified IVR programs facilitated learning engagement, learning motivation, collaborative ability, declarative knowledge learning, and procedural knowledge and skills learning especially for novice trainees. Some high abstract focus areas like algebra in mathematics might not be suitable for IVR-based instruction even combined with the use of gamification. Some recommendations and future research directions were given such as how to help integrate gamified IVR learning materials with normal education or training and how to improve simulator sickness, more attention to diverse learning performance measurement, collaborative learning in IVR, learning theories or pedagogical strategies adopted in gamified IVR-based instruction.</p> 2023-09-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on Games Based Learning A Proposed Framework for the Classification of Game-Based Learning in Construction Management 2023-08-06T14:21:18+00:00 Yara Elenany Vian Ahmed <p>As the construction industry heads towards the Fourth Industrial Revolution, the gap widens between industry demands and fresh graduate capabilities. Much of this is owed to the traditional Construction Management (CM) pedagogy. Therefore, there is a pressing need for a paradigm shift in our approach towards CM education. As such, to meet both industry demands and student expectations, integrating game-based learning (GBL) can substantially enhance the learning experience for CM students in higher education. Although the body of knowledge recognises Game-Based Learning (GBL) as tools that facilitate active learning in engineering disciplines in general, their utilisation remains limited in construction management. Thus, the aim of this paper is to conduct a systematic literature review of past GBL studies in Construction Management via Scopus database with an attempt to classify these studies into three broad categories: Tabletop games, digital games, and computer-assisted games. First, this paper will explain the key features, strengths, and limitations of each category. Second, this paper will identify the trends in game characteristics, learning objectives, data collection methods, and game evaluation approaches. Finally, this paper will present a classification framework that summarises the findings to facilitate selecting effective GBL strategies for CM higher education. Thus, this study will provide a wide-lens view of the research trends, gaps, and future research recommendations in this field as well as present design parameters for effective GBL integration.</p> 2023-09-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on Games Based Learning Meraki: Encouraging Language Learning in Real-World Simulations through AI Para-Social Relationship Building 2023-07-31T17:37:55+00:00 Subhangi Namburi Gail Hopkins <p>This paper presents a prototype application designed to teach language, using a dialogue-based theatre production experience. The application engages users in the production of a theatrical performance in a graphical 3D environment and incorporates AI verbal assistance to promote language learning. The application combines declarative and non-declarative memory building exercises to teach Hindi, although it is anticipated that this idea could be expanded to any language/culture. Users who have an intermediate knowledge of the language can evaluate their language skills in a social and professional virtual environment which incorporates motivational elements based around the Self-Determination Theory regulatory styles and Loci of Causality. Verbal AI assistance is used to provide an appropriate level of flow during the experience building a para-social relationship with the video game. <em>Sandhi Viched</em>, a Hindi euphonic junction splitting exercise has been incorporated into each language task. Context splitting the words into its constituent meanings is intended to help the players understand and remember the meaning of words and their use in different contexts. Initial Wizard of Oz testing has demonstrated that the AI verbal assistance provides a good balance between autonomy, competence and relatedness. Feedback from users show that by providing a balanced mix of external, introjected, identified and integrated regulatory motivation styles, as adopted from the Self-Determination theory, the AI assistance can speed up the language acquisition process and build a para-social relationship with the user. This initial evaluation suggests that the idea of theatre production that can incorporate many aspects of language provides a good starting point for an engaging learning game. This LLA topples the dominant belief, that the best way of learning a language through an application is to reinforce their behavior with external rewards. Further work is proposed to expand the application and build in more gamification with a view to conducting a more comprehensive evaluation.</p> 2023-09-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on Games Based Learning Color Blindness in the Digital Gaming Landscape: Addressing Critical Issues and Research Gaps 2023-08-14T15:35:02+00:00 Merve Tillem Ahmet Gün <p>Color blindness is a condition that affects a significant portion of the population, particularly men. It is characterized by difficulty perceiving colors in the same way as people with normal color vision, which can result in confusion when distinguishing between different colors. This can impact various aspects of life, including playing digital games. In computer games, colors are often used to convey important information, such as distinguishing enemies from allies or indicating objectives. A person with color blindness may have difficulty identifying these visual cues, which can make the game less enjoyable and even affect their ability to play the game. Previous research has been conducted on accessiblity but very few of these studies have focused on the intersection of color blindness and digital games.&nbsp;The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between color blindness and game design through a comprehensive literature review, identifying key findings and highlighting any missing components in the existing research. To accomplish this, the sources were classified according to their focus, method, and findings.<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp; </span>From examining all of the resources found, the studies in the intersection between color blindness and game design that reviewed, organized into various subject headings for further analysis and understanding. It was explored that the researches organized under certain four main topics as follows: (1) defining guidelines to provide better game experience for color blind individuals, (2) offering alternative methods for detecting color blindness; and (3) examining technologies developed to improve the visual experience of color blind individuals and (4) examining color blindness on gaming performance. Additionally, the majority of the reviewed studies focus on discussing digital games in terms of accessibility, while some studies suggest utilizing games as a testing method and educational tool for individuals with accessibility issues, effectively turning challenges into advantages. On the other hand, they also explore the potential of games in solving problems related to accessibility in gaming. However, there is still many issues to be explored in terms of understanding how color blindness affects the experience of games. There is a research gap in exploring whether color blind individuals experience physical and sensory differences in perceiving digital game visuals, as no study has been conducted to address this aspect. It may address critical issues in understanding the color blindness experience from the perspective of perception and senses of this disadvantaged group.</p> 2023-09-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on Games Based Learning Combine DGBL with AI system: A Technical Guidance to Reduce Teacher’ s Burden in Digital Game-based Learning 2023-09-20T15:13:03+00:00 yue lei liang guo <p>Game-based learning has been regarded as a increasing popular method in current teaching process, however, it really burdens teacher as it requires teachers to invest abundant energy and time to design. Aims at reducing teaching burden, this research has proposed a guidance system design based on large language model (LLM) and blockchain technology. In this design, system framework has been divided into 3 layers: user layer, application layer and technical layer. Initially, teachers input their instructional plans, while students signing up their learner profiles. This information is securely recorded on the blockchain for data integrity. The results stemming from data prediction and feature engineering are then incorporated into the LLM , facilitating the visualization of strategies tailored to address specific learning challenges. As the process advances, the information undergoes automated scrutiny to evaluate the learning conditions, ultimately selecting an appropriate DGBL cases with a proven track record in similar scenarios. This aids teachers in crafting personalized learning blueprints, informed by the insights gleaned from the feature engineering analysis and its impact on students' learning experiences. The concluding phase involves tracking and assessment, wherein an automated evaluation of student performance is conducted based on study data and LLM-generated questionnaires. Teachers subsequently review the results and recommendations to enhance the quality of their instructional methodologies, and the learner portrait will also be renewed according to received data. This guidance system still has some disadvantages, such as lacking sequential consistency in the responses generated by the model. In summary, a future direction for this research is to develop specific LLM systems for specific school segments and instructional needs to help teachers implement DGBL</p> 2023-09-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on Games Based Learning Designing GBL for Higher Education: Pitfalls & Recommendations 2023-09-26T09:37:30+00:00 Vanessa Camilleri <p>Game-Based Learning (GBL) has gained significant attention in recent years as an effective educational approach to enhance student engagement and learning outcomes in higher education. This conference paper aims to emphasise the significance of GBL in higher education and presents a comprehensive review of a case study involving the application of GBL in a linguistics course. The study explores the impact of games on student learning, motivation, and engagement with the course content.By integrating gaming principles and mechanics into the curriculum, students are encouraged to actively participate, explore concepts, and apply their knowledge in a dynamic and stimulating environment. The study examines data gathered from student surveys and structured interviews to evaluate the effectiveness of GBL in fostering student engagement and knowledge acquisition. Furthermore, this paper provides a valuable set of recommendations and strategies for educators and administrators interested in implementing GBL in higher education settings. It explores the potential benefits of GBL, including increased motivation, improved critical thinking skills, and enhanced problem-solving abilities. Additionally, it highlights the importance of aligning game design with specific learning objectives and ensuring the integration of assessment mechanisms to gauge student progress effectively. Moreover, this paper discusses potential pitfalls and challenges that may arise during the implementation of GBL in higher education. It addresses issues such as technology requirements, accessibility considerations, and the need for appropriate training and support for instructors. By acknowledging these challenges and offering potential solutions, this research aims to guide educators and administrators in overcoming obstacles and optimising the implementation of GBL in higher education courses.</p> 2023-10-12T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on Games Based Learning Experimenting with GAME OVER to create processes of reflection and academic inquiry 2023-10-04T08:38:53+00:00 Camilla jensen Susanne Dau <p><em>Educations are challenged in their effort to facilitate students learning when it comes to especially processes of reflection. Also in a Problem-Based Learning context, errors often cause a lack of motivation, that gives reflection processes and academic inquiry difficult conditions Game-Based Learning is thus suggested as a learning strategy which can address these learning needs though a procedural rhetoric. Furthermore, Game-Based Learning is found to affords students risk taking and engagement in learning activities However, a literature review of empirical studies of Game-Based Learning reveals existing gaps in the literature. There are missing models for how academic activities can be enhanced through the use of Game-Based Learning, here especially the transformation of “Game Over” elements into a learning environment based on physical Game objects. </em><em>This study aims to describe learning situations where the academic focal point is a reflective and innovative writing process through gaming principles</em><em>.</em><em> The study design aims to identify what impact Game-Based Learning have on facilitating academic literacy to create processes of reflection. Based on two cases, the empirical data are retrieved from video observations during a period of 1 year. A qualitative content analysis and interpretation of the collected data reveals how the use of “Game Over” strengthens the depth of the students' writing through a reflective and metacognitive approach to the task. As a contribution to the existing knowledge, this paper presents a Procedural Rhetoric for how to work with a “Game Over” strategy to facilitate academic literacy and thereby create processes of reflection in a physical context. </em></p> 2023-10-12T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on Games Based Learning The Application of Games to Engage Citizens in Climate Change Policy Development 2023-09-20T12:30:21+00:00 Paul Hollins <p style="font-weight: 400;">This paper introduces the Games Realising Effective and Affective Transformation (GREAT) research and Innovation project. The project will examine the emerging ways Applied Games could be used to facilitate the social engagement of European citizens in determining future policy priorities and policy interventions to the existential challenge of climate change. This full paper is a provides detail of the work in progress but moreover provides a a conceptual analysis of the methodologies applied to this emerging domain of study. The project is funded by the EU Horizon programme with UK Associate partners funded through UKRI and coordinated by the DIPF, Leibniz Institute for Research and Information in Education, Frankfurt and involves seven partners located across Europe, Serious Games Interactive (SGI) Denmark, Centre for Social Innovation (ZSI) Austria, International University of Rioja (UNIR) Spain, Frederick University, Cyprus, Playmob and The University of Bolton (UoB) as UK associate partners. The project incorporates collaborative design and citizen science methods and brings together researchers with expertise in the areas of games, data analytics, and policy development. This integrated investigation will be articulated by case studies of the use of games in facilitating dialogue between citizens and policy stakeholders including policy makers, policy implementers, political parties, campaigning organisations and affected citizens. This will be achieved by leveraging the central role of games in contemporary culture by combining academic studies with practical experimentation of novel applications of games. The context for the research is the global challenge of climate emergency, and each case study incorporates a research cycle addressing a policy issue and research questions, using multiple pilots to generate both quantitative and qualitative and data to further inform research activity.</p> 2023-10-12T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on Games Based Learning Teaching with business simulation games: Identifying and overcoming hurdles to adoption. 2022-08-02T09:29:48+00:00 Tim Rogmans <p>Although the use of business simulation games (BSG) in higher education has grown steadily, there are still many instructors who have never taught with BSG and their use in several academic disciplines remains very low. Existing research has primarily used quantitative surveys to identify the hurdles that prevent faculty from teaching with BSG. This article uses a focus group methodology to further investigate the obstacles to using BSG and subsequently applies a change management framework to identify levers that can be used to promote the use of BSG. The obstacles to adoption are classified into categories of suitability, risk and resources.</p> <p>Focus group participants expressed concerns over the suitability of existing BSG for their courses and the expected time required to identify, evaluate and prepare to teach with BSG. These factors made most focus group participants consider teaching with BSG as fraught with risk. In response, universities can encourage faculty to start using BSG in their teaching through the provision of resources, information and training, and through organizational adjustments such as incentives and flexibility to adjust course syllabi. A full range of measures is identified and the environmental contexts in which each one is likely to be effective are discussed. The individual levers that can bring about change have different environmental contexts in which they are likely to be effective.</p> 2023-10-12T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on Games Based Learning Investigating Inclusivity in Game-Based Learning: Current Practices and Multistakeholder Perspectives 2023-10-05T08:56:35+00:00 Sara Rye Carla Sousa <p>This study aims to examine how inclusivity measures are understood and applied in game-based learning (GBL). It considers the perspectives of various stakeholders, such as educators, game designers, and students. The focus is on creating accessible and engaging games that meet the diverse needs and characteristics of players. The methodology adopted a combination of primary and secondary data sources to pursue these aims. The primary data collection involved focus groups with educators, game designers, and students. The study employed a participatory design approach, involving multiple stakeholders in the exploration of inclusivity measures. The data collected from the focus groups, along with findings from the literature review, helped in formulating a set of inclusivity metrics for educators to create educational games that cater to diverse student needs. The obtained results emphasize the limited state of analogue GBL accessibility in scholarly and professional literature, while emphasizing the existing frameworks to be adopted by educators, designers, and publishers. Stakeholder discussions revealed themes related to inclusivity measures, including motor, sensory, and cognitive needs of players. Game designers can enhance accessibility by considering these requirements and incorporating alternative communication channels, accessible cues, adaptable gameplay options, and diversified knowledge-based requirements. In addition to inclusivity, addressing instances of exclusion, managing teams effectively, promoting inclusive communication, and incorporating gameplay limitations, educational components, diverse perspectives, and real-world applicability are discussed as important in education game design, to this extent.</p> 2023-10-12T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on Games Based Learning A Video Game to Help the Fight Against the Vicious Tapeworm in Africa 2023-09-22T09:35:47+00:00 Chiara Trevisan Merel Joris Feyza Ercos Kabemba Evans Mwape Sarah Gabriël <p style="font-weight: 400;">The pork tapeworm, <em>Taenia solium,</em> is the agent causing the most important parasitic infection worldwide due to its substantial economic and health impacts, disproportionally affecting low-income countries.&nbsp;Health education should form a core component in control efforts and sustain control strategies proposed by the World Health Organization (WHO), such as human treatments. Traditional health education methods have shown to be less effective. Therefore, in the field of tropical medicine, new, engaging ways to teach affected populations are needed. Within the project ‘Gaming 4 Health’ we developed an educational video game aimed at instructing school-going children in low-income countries about the tapeworm and how to prevent it.&nbsp;Building on the principles of gamified learning and the self-determination theory, we created the educational video game the ‘Tapeworm game’. The game was developed by a multidisciplinary team, following the game design research cycle which included five steps: game planning, game design, prototyping, play testing and evaluation.&nbsp;The Tapeworm game is a multi-player video game set in an African village. The game’s objective is to educate players about the tapeworm and how to prevent the the spread of disease. Players create their own avatar and learn about disease prevention by exploring the village, engaging in minigames and preforming complementary actions, such as washing hands and visiting the toilet. Points are earned by playing the minigames and performing the actions correctly within a given time. The more points a player accumulates, the higher they climb on the leader boards. Rewards are unlocked based on performance and competence and displayed as stars, badges, and avatar customizations. This makes the game exiting and keeps children fully immersed, motivating them to learn, improve and continue playing the videogame.&nbsp;With this videogame our goal is to educate, raise awareness and advance the control of the pork tapeworm as part of the WHO’s 2030 goals for Neglected Tropical Diseases.</p> 2023-10-12T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on Games Based Learning Classroom Introduction of a Video Game on Italian Grammar 2023-10-16T12:04:49+00:00 Massimiliano Andreoletti <p>Despite Italian teachers’ strong interest in the use of games, especially the digital ones, there are several critical issues due to their lack of familiarity with games/video games thus making games’ adoption in teaching complex because teachers have only limited time to prepare and play a game-based learning game. Therefore they feel uncertain about using games in class due to their limited knowledge of digital games and find it difficult to identify appropriate assessments, they also find it difficult to integrate video games effectively and efficiently into their classroom, it is also difficult for them to choose appropriate games for teaching. Additionally the school/administration doesn’t assist their effort to support and improve their skills in game-based learning. The learning of the fundamentals of the Italian language and grammar are described and defined by the Italian Ministry of Education within the “National Indications for the ‘Italian Language’ Curriculum”. However, multiple difficulties often make it arduous to learn the basics of the Italian language. The video game “Ross and the Sgrammanebbia” - which can be translated as “Ross and the Un-grammar-Fog” - is a didactic grammar web video game that has a correspondence between the levels and the topics of the textbook as well as giving the teacher a valid help to organise a didactic path studied on the curricular skills. In order to define the useful guidelines for an effective introduction of the game in the classroom, participatory qualitative-quantitative research was prepared on the methods that a small group of teachers put in place to design the training activity with video games. The research focused on: analysis of the educational design skills for the use of games: definition of learning goals, assessment methods and identified teaching strategies; evaluation of the pedagogical activities implemented to facilitate the introduction of games in the classroom; analysis of the roles played by the teacher during all the phases of the training activity - from the design of the training activity to the introduction of the game in the classroom, to evaluation.</p> 2023-10-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on Games Based Learning