European Conference on Games Based Learning <p>15th European Conference on Games Based Learning - ECGBL 2022<br />6-7 October 2022<br />Lisbon, Portugal</p> Academic Conferences International en-US European Conference on Games Based Learning 2049-0992 Climate Adaptation as an Economic Challenge: Finding Business Strategies by Game-based Learning <p>Climate adaptation and learning support organizations in dealing with the current and projected consequences of climate change by recognizing challenges as opportunities, ensuring business continuity and increasing their economic efficiency. Here it applies that those actors who deal with their existing framework conditions, opportunities and risks at an early stage, and also have structures or capacities for strategic learning processes, increase their climate resilience and reduce their vulnerability to negative impacts. A cumulative doctoral thesis analyze to what extent companies already have climate-related structures conducive to learning, to what extent they take responsibility in terms of the learning object (climate change), and which elements prove to be limiting here. The results illustrate that intangible resources such as a sense of responsibility, executives positive attitude and common values have a significant influence on the way companies deal with climate change. Based on these findings, a serious game will be developed and its didactic effectiveness reflected critically to raise the climate-related awareness of decision-makers and to enable them to derive their own adaptation measures.</p> Sophie Fischer Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Games Based Learning 2022-09-29 2022-09-29 16 1 613 618 10.34190/ecgbl.16.1.581 Pedagogical Foundation to Promote Students’ Engagement and Creativity While Co-creating a Music Learning Game <p>Learning-game co-creation is a pedagogical activity where learners draw on their knowledge of a specific topic to collaboratively create a learning game that peers can later use to gain a new understanding of a topic (Kafai &amp; Burke, 2015; Kangas, 2010). Indeed, this approach offers important learning opportunities, as students call upon their acquired knowledge to create the different components of their game (e.g., rules, objective, dynamics, elements), all while also calling upon their creativity and encouraging their engagement with the activity. Studies exploring game creation as a learning activity have allowed us to identify and understand the common phases of this process. However, it is less clear to determine which are pedagogical principles the teacher should consider when implementing this approach into their own “teaching reality.” In this paper, we present a pedagogical experience based on co-creating a music learning game with seven young musicians (age: 10–14). More specifically, our paper presents the educational, operational, and conceptual models that enabled us to establish a robust pedagogical foundation upon which we built this learning activity that, to our knowledge, had never been explored in our field (music education). Therefore, we will explain how we used each model to a) structure the set of activities that enabled the participants to create their own music learning game, b) guide the researcher’s pedagogy act to co-create a music learning game with the students, and c) understand the participants’ creative response towards this learning activity.</p> Astrid Patricia Marin Jimenez Francis Dube Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Games Based Learning 2022-09-29 2022-09-29 16 1 619 627 10.34190/ecgbl.16.1.844 NanoDoc: Designing an Adaptive Serious Game for Programming With Working Examples Support <p>There is an increased interest in serious games about programming, particularly for younger ages. The ability to evoke motivation and retain engagement leads to better learning efficiency and a positive educational impact. Serious games usually include support systems to assist novice users. In recent years there have been attempts to enhance support with intelligent tutoring systems. These systems adapt and provide personalized learning by analyzing user behaviour. Although this is a positive evolution, support still remains in the form of hints, images and videos. The paper describes an alternative adaptive method for support with working examples. An expert solution to a similar problem is displayed to the students allowing them to address the problem and start the solving process by analogy. Our previous research showed that working examples can reduce cognitive load during problem-solving and increase the student's educational results in comparison to traditional techniques. This paper presents the design of NanoDoc, a serious game for teaching the programming concepts of sequence and iteration to elementary school students. It features adaptive support with editable and executable working examples. Each example can be examined, edited and executed freely by the user until the required knowledge level is sufficient to solve the similar problem at hand. The adaptation method is based on a Fuzzy Logic algorithm and the dynamic modelling of user knowledge level. The paper also provides some preliminary results on student usage in the classroom and a questionnaire about the game experience. Plans for future research include investigating if adaptive support with working examples can reduce cognitive load even further and how learning is affected.</p> Pavlos Toukiloglou Stelios Xinogalos Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Games Based Learning 2022-09-29 2022-09-29 16 1 628 636 10.34190/ecgbl.16.1.463 Wealth Creation: Serious Game Development to Improve Financial Literacy for High School Students <p>Serious games simulate events in a virtual world to allow players to interact with the game's elements and other players within the game. In the field of health, transportation, economics, and finance, serious games were used as simulators in training. By playing a serious game, learners gained experience in making meaningful decisions through trial and error to solve problems in the virtual world. In this research article, the authors developed a board game to introduce concepts of Wealth Creation and studied the characteristics of board games suitable for developing high school students’ financial literacy. The four steps of the development process included content and game mechanic development, game mechanic testing, content validity and communication of game elements evaluation, and usability testing. The game was tested and verified by experts in terms of its mechanics, communication, financial content, and implementation in two cycles. The experts included two gamers, two game designers, a finance professor, and two instructors as well as three high school students. The information from the first cycle will be used to improve the game, and the game was retested again in the second cycle. The qualitative data gathered through observations, informal interviews, and focus groups were analyzed using content analysis to determine the game's characteristics that were appropriate for classroom use and the effects of the game on students’ skills and understanding of financial concepts. The results showed that the nature of the game should include a variety of gameplay options, each of which must be balanced to allow students to evaluate the worthiness of each choice made. The mechanics and components of the game must clearly demonstrate the relationships between the elements of financial concepts. Students were able to express their understanding of financial concepts and recognize their relationships. Additionally, the students expressed the use of mathematics in analysis and illustrated good decision-making during playing the game. The findings shed more light on the roadblocks that game developers will face and how to overcome them. Educators and teachers interested can apply the findings in this article to develop their serious games.</p> Kittiphan Wiboonsin Wandee Kasemsukpipat Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Games Based Learning 2022-09-29 2022-09-29 16 1 637 646 The Design of a Gamified App for Supporting Undergraduates' Resilience <p>Supporting students in building psychological resilience is crucial considering the COVID-19 pandemic’s effect on the population’s mental health. Psychological resilience refers to finding ways to cope with stress and achieve goals despite obstacles. It is an important life skill that has become highly relevant in the post-pandemic era. Mobile devices and applications are becoming integral to users’ self-monitoring of health data for their access, convenience, and cost advantages. Most resilience apps target specific professional groups, are not gamified, and lack solid theoretical foundations. Phone-based sensor data collected using Internet of Things (IoT) technology allow for new ways to measure psychological health and provide personalized recommendations. However, none of the existing gamified apps on resilience used IoT. None of the existing resilience apps refers to behavioral change techniques. The proposed resilience app addresses these gaps in the literature. This paper describes the design of a prototype for a gamified, theory-based mobile app that utilizes IoT to provide personalized data and support undergraduates’ resilience in the “new normal” of the pandemic. The poster also provides preliminary data on undergraduates' feasibility and usability evaluation of the prototype, focusing on first-year students. Users set one of three goals daily (focusing on studying, engaging in physical exercise, and socializing), monitor their progress towards achieving them, and receive points and badges when reaching their goals. Goal setting, progress monitoring, and self-reflection at the end of each day are connected to a) self-reported data (e.g., through the use of a short, validated mental health survey that automatically calculates users’ level of anxiety) and b) objectively measured data through the use of IoT (accelerometer and noise sensors) in the app. Users can share their badges on their social media networks. Thirty first-year undergraduates (M=18.41 years old, SD=0.57) tested the prototype resilience app and completed an evaluation questionnaire examining feasibility and usability. Neutral to positive responses (M=3.32 out of 5) were received for all functions indicating feasibility. Design usability was evaluated as satisfactory (System Usability Score=70.3). Future research will evaluate the app in a quasi-experimental setting. Implications for the design of gamified mobile apps for health are drawn.</p> Iolie Nicolaidou Loizos Aristeidis Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Games Based Learning 2022-09-29 2022-09-29 16 1 648 650 10.34190/ecgbl.16.1.708 War Game as a Method of Training, as a Method of Analysis <p>The purpose of the article is to present the development of a new simulation tool Superior Degree Demonstrator, which is intended to introduce the issue of fire support to students of the military college in a game-like manner. The simulator is intended primarily for the purpose of preparing future artillery officers at the Department of Fire Support of the University of Defence, which is directly involved in its development. At the same time, it aims to awaken in the younger generation of students a proactive approach to study. However, it can also be used as an objective tool of combat effectiveness analysis within the framework of the army acquisition programs.</p> Ondřej Pekař Vlastimil Šlouf Jiří Šotnar Ladislav Potužák Tomáš Havlík Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Games Based Learning 2022-09-29 2022-09-29 16 1 651 654 10.34190/ecgbl.16.1.656 Provocative Games to Encourage Critical Reflection <p>The SECRIOUS project takes a game-based approach to improving knowledge and attitudes in cybersecurity practices. Our methodology includes interdisciplinary Serious Game co-design with coders and aims to produce critical reflection on participants’ own coding practice. To encourage this we created a series of Small Provoking Games (SPGs) about the project’s three overarching topics (Code Security; API Security; Security Lifecycle) and five co-produced themes (Coder Practices; Code Motivation; Morality; Resources; Communication). Games and play are well-suited for creating both reflection-in-action and reflection-on-action. Provoking a lasting change in attitudes towards secure coding practice requires dialogic or inquiry-based reflection leading to transformative reflection We define a ‘provoking game’ as one that uses the techniques of reflective game design to produce cognitive and affective challenge – a eudaimonic appreciation of the player experience. This emphasises a player’s sense of purpose and aims to create exo-transformation (change in attitudes and/or practice outside the game.) SPG design foregrounded Khaled’s principles of reflective game design and was led by serious game experts, a cybersecurity expert, and a playwright, and included input from the entire SECRIOUS team to define each game’s specific focus. Two SPGs were produced: Protection (which challenges the assumption of ‘absolute’ cybersecurity protection) and Collaboration (which highlights communication in cybersecurity developer teams.) A third game is in development. SPGs feature highly exploratory gameplay, expected failure, and focus on metaphor (of both game objects and player actions) to create doubt, contradicting existing mental models and encouraging the players to question the game rules and underlying concepts. The games were used within game-jams to provoke critical discussion, a creative mindset, and group reflection. This paper analyses the design process of these two SPGs and reflects on our contribution to reflective game design.</p> Daisy Abbott Sandy Louchart Olga Chatzifoti Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Games Based Learning 2022-09-29 2022-09-29 16 1 1 10 10.34190/ecgbl.16.1.486 Game Designers’ Perspectives: Interception between Games and Educational Games Design <p>Games and Educational Games(EGs)! To what extent do they diverge? How do game designers approach such apposition? The extensive need for games in and outside classrooms demands clarity between games and EGs through game designers’ perspectives. In the Australian context, game designers have witnessed technological advancement, the user-expectation, and the use of games within various contexts, including the classroom. The transformation in technology and the need to adapt and design games corresponds to the needs and requirements of its end-users. Admittedly, it has been overlooked in gaming studies if the designing processes and their perception differs between games and EGs. Respecting that aspect and the knowledge adapted by game designers to achieve players’ experience successfully, we first need to comprehend how game designers position games and EGs within their context, their experience constructed over time, and their beliefs. Therefore, this paper interprets seventeen game designers’ perspectives through semi-structured interviews in Australia. The data is thematically categorized, coded, and analyzed using NVivo. The results are presented through the interpretivism paradigm, which is grounded in the theoretical implications based on Dewey’s theory of experience and concepts to gather the ‘essence’ of game designers’ experience. Furthermore, a conceptual basis is established for game designers and learning designers to consider while designing games and EGs.</p> Mifrah Ahmad Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Games Based Learning 2022-09-29 2022-09-29 16 1 11 20 10.34190/ecgbl.16.1.895 Designing a Mobile Game for Introducing Learners to a Soap Making process <p>Bunno's Fabulous Soap-Making Challenge is intended to be both, a game that is played for fun and a game from which subject content can be learned. The game is modeled on and represents authentic, real-world chemical processes. Specifically, it promotes the learning of aspects central to the soap-making process. The game is a resource-managing game in which players plan, organize, and execute the production of soap. Players source the raw materials, acquire the technical equipment, create an efficient lab setup and produce and sell soap in an economically sustainable way. The game is centrally based on the idea of constructivist learning. Players encounter an inspiring and challenging situation and are active, in control, and make their own decisions and experiences. Their actions trigger immediate responses and are consequential. The main contribution of this article is a detailed description, a conceptual explanation, and a critical discussion of the game design. In addition, this article briefly describes the educational theory which informs the project, how the game design is actually realized in the implemented game and how it can be played, and the game's educational content and the projected learning outcomes.</p> Jessica Lizeth Dominguez Alfaro Chioma Udeozor Serkan Solmaz Daniel Cermak-Sassenrath Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Games Based Learning 2022-09-29 2022-09-29 16 1 21 27 10.34190/ecgbl.16.1.516 Development and use of a Playful Learning Observation Tool (PLOT) for Active Game-based Learning in Physical Classroom Situations <p>This study presents the development and implementation of a qualitative observation tool for in-class observation of courses employing game-based learning (GBL), and playful learning situations. The design of the observation model exploits a literature review of classroom observation models, of cognitive psychology motivation scales, and of GBL evaluation models. It integrates relevant elements from these domains to offer an observation model for GBL implementation. In this model, in-class observations are coded and analysed for GBL effectiveness and potential to support intrinsic motivation in students. The model was then used in two courses using different forms of GBL (one digital cooperative multiplayer game, one analog board game). Observations were coded using NVivo and distributed according to type of motivation and type of motivated learning tasks. Due to Covid19 restrictions and the difficulties of finding in-person classes, only two courses were examined using the model. The model appeared efficient in both observational situations, and the coding confirmed previous studies to the potential of GBL to sustain students’ intrinsic motivation. The observations also showed that preparedness of students to the specific contents of the game reduced risk of amotivation and disengagement in students. The study allows us to reflect on best practices for GBL implementation and evaluation and how better understanding of in-class interactions during playful learning could enable educators and teachers to make better informed choices to implementing GBL. While there are many templates for classroom observation and GBL evaluation, there is a lack of dedicated observation models, that offer clear guidelines for qualitative data gathering in live, in-person classroom situations. This study aims at providing a specific tool to that purpose.</p> Muriel Algayres Olga Timcenko Evangelia Triantafyllou Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Games Based Learning 2022-09-29 2022-09-29 16 1 28 37 10.34190/ecgbl.16.1.713 Seven Spells and Peer Tutoring: a Collaborative Mathematics Game Experience <p>Mathematics anxiety (MA) is a negative emotional response to the manipulation of numbers and the solving of mathematical problems, potentially hindering learning and leading to poor maths skills. Digital game-based learning, in which games are used for education, has been recognised as a potential tool for reducing MA and positively influencing learning, information assimilation, and retention. Peer tutoring is an active learning method that reduces MA in addition to benefiting students academically. This study assessed how ’Seven Spells’, a digital maths game developed by our team, affects students’ levels of MA and mathematics performance. We hypothesized that this game could be used in classrooms to control MA and potentialise mathematics learning when combined with peer tutoring. 55 children from two 4th classes in an Irish primary school participated in this study. Over a period of three weeks (two days/week), the groups played the ’Seven Spells’ game with and without peer tutoring. A mathematics knowledge test, including content covered by the game, was administered at the beginning and end of the study to assess the children’s mathematics skills. Game scores were also analysed. At the end of the study, the children participated in an interview, answering questions about the game and the peer tutoring experience. The average game scores increased significantly for the entirety of the children, and also for both groups separately. MA only decreased significantly in the no-peer tutoring group, suggesting that the peer tutoring approach, which was expected to reduce MA, was not successful. No statistically significant differences were found between the peer tutoring and the no-peer tutoring groups in terms of game scores, mathematics errors and MA, further pointing out that the peer tutoring approach was not successful either in reducing MA or in stimulating mathematics learning.</p> André Almo de Moraes Coutinho Mariana Rocha Attracta Brennan Pierpaolo Dondio Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Games Based Learning 2022-09-29 2022-09-29 16 1 38 47 10.34190/ecgbl.16.1.533 Playing With Play Moods in Movement-based Design <p>New design approaches focus on the lived body’s capacity for sensing, feeling, and creating (Loke &amp; Robertson, 2011) are emerging in sport, health, game, play, and innovation. These approaches' engagement in physical movement and movement-based learning becomes focal for designing new practices, artifacts, and interaction designs for movement and movement-based learning games. In movement-based design, a playful mindset is a medium for creating movement, which unifies with the understanding of playfulness as a facilitator of creativity (Bateson &amp; Martin 2013). Aspects of play are also recognised to lower performance anxiety, spurring creativity and conceptualising ideas (Segura et al., 2016). The paper takes a starting point in the triad of play (Skovbjerg, 2013) to state that play is more than an instrument for stimulating design insights but a meaningful practice of moods. Operationalising the triad of play, this paper aims to analyse how different play practices and play moods unfold in two movement-based design workshops. Further to discuss how this perspective of play practice and mood can provide recommendations for movement-based design. With a constructive research design approach, two movement-based design workshops are our cases of data generation. We generated data using video observation, interviews, and observation notes. We found different play media, practices, and moods by an analysis of the participants' actions and interactions. The analysis points out that the participant engages physical and playful in the play moods euphoria and devotion conducive to generation, exploration, and meaningfulness. The paper recommends taking the perspective of play moods as an intrinsic motivating value in play to engage the participant in a playful mood conducive to spontaneity, exploration, and generation. The paper also encourages designers to reflect on the play concepts of ludic (Rule-based activities) and paideia (spontaneously and free activities) when designing through movement-based design.</p> Rasmus Andersen Lars Elbaek Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Games Based Learning 2022-09-29 2022-09-29 16 1 48 54 10.34190/ecgbl.16.1.545 Comparing the Student Engagement with Two Versions of a Game-based Learning Tool <p>Research has shown that game-based learning techniques positively impact students' engagement, motivation, and learning outcomes. We performed a study to explore the differences in student engagement with a game-based learning tool implemented on two different platforms: mobile and web-based. We developed two versions of a peer-quizzing game where the students can create quiz questions related to the learning material, which their peers can attempt to answer. The students can create three types of questions: Multiple Choice Questions, True/ False, and short answers. Students from a first-year introductory programming computer class were recruited to evaluate both versions of the game during one academic term (four months) during the Covid-19 pandemic when classes were entirely online. A bonus participation mark of up to five percent of the course was offered to students who posted at least three questions per week. &nbsp;In addition, we collected data about the students' in-game activities for the study duration. The Mann-Whitney U-test results show no significant difference in the engagement between the web and the game's mobile version. However, students posed more questions in the mobile version than in the Web version of the game. On the contrary, students solved more questions in the web version than in the mobile version. We have learned from the study that both game-based learning platforms effectively engage students. We also collected data about the students' experience with the game in a post-study survey. The responses show that both game versions got similar user experience ratings.</p> Zakia Arif Julita Vassileva Nafisul Kiron Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Games Based Learning 2022-09-29 2022-09-29 16 1 55 64 10.34190/ecgbl.16.1.687 Marie’s ChemLab: A Mobile Augmented Reality Game to Teach Basic Chemistry to Children <p>Digital games are widely used in education to motivate students for science. In parallel, the role of augmented reality (AR) in education is increasing. This paper introduces Marie’s ChemLab: a marker-less handheld AR application in which K-12 students learn about science. In Marie’s ChemLab, users perform interactions in their physical environment using virtual AR objects displayed on a handheld device. The utilized interaction concept is based on the TrainAR framework (Blattgerste et al, 2021), which originally was envisioned for procedural AR training and layered feedback mechanisms. The original framework has been enhanced to support gamified interactions with virtual objects, specifically for K-12 students. In total, 239 early secondary school students played the final application as part of a larger study. The usability score indicated marginally acceptable usability, and the application was successfully implemented in a classroom setting.&nbsp;</p> Michaela Arztmann Jessica Lizeth Domínguez Alfaro Jonas Blattgerste Johan Jeuring Peter van Puyvelde Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Games Based Learning 2022-09-29 2022-09-29 16 1 65 72 10.34190/ecgbl.16.1.518 Using Game-based Learning Methods to Demystify Cyber Security Concepts for Adult Learners <p>The digital society we live in today has compelled both businesses and individuals to become increasingly dependent on the internet and online services. With the increasing cyber security threats and attacks, there is a growing demand for cyber security professionals and a need for every individual to be cyber literate and cyber-aware. But cyber security is often regarded as extremely complex and quite technical, which acts as a roadblock in educating the adult population about cyber security. 'Play as a natural means for learning' is commonly exploited in early learning and primary education settings. But it is seldom used in secondary education and rarely considered in an adult learning context. This paper presents a game-based learning resource developed as part of the 'Gamified Intelligent Cyber Aptitude and Skills Training' (GICAST) course to introduce cyber security topics to adult learners. The course is targeted at adult learners who work in low-skilled and low-paid jobs and have no formal degree-level qualification. The aim was to demystify cyber security concepts and equip the low-confidence learners with the confidence to engage in learning and gain additional digital skills to enhance their career options. This paper provides an overview of the GICAST project, the game design principles and the game mechanic employed to achieve the intended pedagogic outcomes. The paper illustrates how the power of games helped demystify a complex area of cyber security among adult learners. This is demonstrated in the evaluation results and findings from the study on the effectiveness of game-based learning methods in enhancing learner engagement and motivation to learn among adult learners.</p> Chitra Balakrishna Patricia Charlton Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Games Based Learning 2022-09-29 2022-09-29 16 1 73 80 10.34190/ecgbl.16.1.804 ARtales: AR Mobile Application Using Transformative Learning Through Aesthetic Experience – First Evaluation <p>Nowadays, the noteworthy growth of digital tools for museums and art spaces enhances and redefines the museum experience. The creation of digital applications that provide meaningful experiences in the art space is a real challenge. Transformative learning theories focus on educational processes that aim for the development of critical thinking while some of them involve the aesthetic experience as a medium that can be exploited. ARtales is an augmented reality mobile application for the National Gallery of Athens visitors which utilizes transformative learning methods through aesthetic experience in an attempt to offer a more substantial and innovating experience in the gallery. More specifically, users asked to discover hidden symbols, uncover hidden objects and live AR experiences related to different subjects/scenarios in the outdoor spaces of the gallery or in their personal place, in order to develop their critical thinking and revisit the artworks in a playful and substantial way. The application also uses a points-based reward system in the direction of gamification. This study refers to the first use and evaluation of the ARtales application by a number of postgraduate students in order to draw conclusions related to the development of the critical thinking and the transformation of the views and perceptions of the participants, the assimilation of the offered information as well as the acquaintance with the artworks. For this purpose, questionnaire-based evaluation and free conversation with the participants was carried out as well. According to the results derived, the first use showed positive acceptance and response. Last but not least, the study gives suggestions for future work and exploitation as well as future pilot implementation which is of major importance in order for the ARtales app to become feasible for a widespread use in the near future.</p> Sissy Barakari Aristotelis Skamagkis Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Games Based Learning 2022-09-29 2022-09-29 16 1 81 90 10.34190/ecgbl.16.1.801 Pre-service Teachers' Player Types and Their Relation to Self-efficacy With Digital Media <p>Gamification in educational contexts is often used to increase learners’ intrinsic motivation and their self-efficacy beliefs, two constructs which are positively related with each other as well as to scholastic outcomes. As self-efficacy beliefs are conceptualized context-specific, it is important to consider various users’ needs by adapting the learning environment to their corresponding gamification player types (GPT). Studies show that different GPT are characterized by different motivational aspects (intrinsically motivated, extrinsically motivated, disruptive GTP) Therefore, the aim of the present study is the examination of six different GPT according to the HEXAD typology (Tondello et al., 2016) for pre-service teachers regarding their distribution and their relation to self-efficacy with digital media. Altogether N = 75 pre-service teachers were assessed in terms of their GPT and their self-efficacy with digital media. It was hypothesized that the GPT distribution for pre-service teachers is comparable to the distribution reported by Tondello et al. (2016). Additionally, it was exploratively examined to what extent the different types of players differ in their self-efficacy with digital media. Results show that the GPT distribution in the current sample differs significantly from the expected distribution. Pre-service teachers seem to show specific GPT characteristics due to their profession. Concerning self-efficacy with digital media, pre-service teachers show a high subjective perception of their self-efficacy with digital media, but contrarious to the hypothesis no significant relation was found between GPT and self-efficacy with digital media. The results indicate that pre-service teachers feel confident to the use of digital media in class and that pre-service teachers form a group with a specific distribution of player types and therefore have specific needs in gamified learning environments. Due to the reported high amount of intrinsic player types, game design elements which promote intrinsic motivation should be in the focus of prospective analyses.&nbsp;</p> Nathalie Barz Pauline Arndt Laura Dörrenbächer-Ulrich Manuela Benick Franziska Perels Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Games Based Learning 2022-09-29 2022-09-29 16 1 91 98 10.34190/ecgbl.16.1.524 SynErGame: Gamified Knowledge Building on Synchronizing Energy Supply and Energy Demand <p>Climate change is one of humanity’s biggest challenges. With reference to power grids, there is a strong need for decarbonization alongside for a substantial increase in renewable energy generation. Keeping in mind that renewable energy sources are volatile – solar and wind power are heavily weather dependent – it is necessary to ensure the balance between power generation and power demand in the European power grid at all times. Significant deviations in grid frequency or bottlenecks could lead to a blackout. This raises the need for flexibility in the power grid substantially. An option so far relatively little explored is to make use of industrial demand-side flexibility. With a share in the power demand of about 45 per cent in Germany, industry could contribute significantly to power grid stability. While technologies for industrial demand-side flexibility have been comprehensively explored by the scientific community and (prototypically) implemented in industry, this knowledge has not spread to a broader audience. To foster knowledge on industrial demand-side flexibilization, we developed an approach using a serious game called SynErGame, synchronizing energy supply and demand. Within two game modes, one perspective macro-oriented and the other industry-oriented, a player learns about the benefits and challenges of using demand-side flexibility options to stabilize a power grid. The paper first introduces the topic of flexibilizing industrial power demand. Secondly, requirements are derived and the game design is outlined in detail. Thirdly, the paper shows how to make the game accessible via browser or app on mobile devices, such as smartphones and tablets. During ongoing use, SynErGame has proven particularly effective for audiences inclined to digital technologies, such as students.</p> Dennis Bauer Sara Gail Lena Hitzenberger Can Kaymakci Alexander Sauer Laura Körting Benjamin Körting Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Games Based Learning 2022-09-29 2022-09-29 16 1 99 107 10.34190/ecgbl.16.1.479 A Serious game to Teach About Career Pathways in the Games Industry <p>The games industry is one that continues to evolve and grow at an accelerated rate. Advances in technology in terms of how games are developed, the sophistication of gameplay, mechanics and their graphical representation span a multitude of game franchises. Furthermore, job roles within the games industry are as diverse as the game genres within it. One dilemma that sometimes confronts undergraduate game development students when entering university is what career path to undertake in the industry. Students in this discipline area are sometimes uncertain whether they want to pursue the aesthetical side of games development or implementational. When learning about the industry for the first time, it is important not only for students to be aware of the distinctive job roles within the industry but also how they interrelate with one another. From a higher educational standpoint, the concept of career pathways is associated with graduate employability. It is important to inform game development undergraduates from an early stage about the various routes into the games industry from a job role perspective. This paper provides a scoping overview of some of the salient job roles in the games industry and their associated hard and soft skill sets. Engagement with the literature associated with soft skills required for working in the games industry is presented. Focus is also provided on how to embed the concept of career pathways into games development higher educational curriculum. One proposed solution is the use of a serious game to teach students in this discipline about this topic. This paper also presents the development of a serious game designed to inform undergraduate game development students about different job roles within the games industry and what skill sets the industry requires. The paper advocates that a serious game can be one of many blended approaches to inform game development students about career pathways within the games industry. Acknowledgement is made that further empirical work is required to substantiate this pedagogical approach.</p> Gavin Baxter Thomas Hainey Ryan McMahon Alan Williams Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Games Based Learning 2022-09-29 2022-09-29 16 1 108 116 10.34190/ecgbl.16.1.744 Ganking the Ranking: The self-reported Learning Potential from a Selection of game Genres to Develop self-directed Learning <p>Game-based learning (GBL) is said to have encouraging potential for varying educational contexts and scenarios, but <em>how do practitioners select suitable edifying gaming content for their own unique environments? </em>Moreover, what are the correct strategies, recommendations, procedures and/or parameters for choosing appropriate gaming media for learning? There are countless options to choose from, varying in genre, play style, medium, difficulty, aim(s), etc. This paper presents the results of an interpretive study seeking to discern a set of requirements and qualities of informed GBL selection. Online surveys completed by history-for-education students at a South African Higher Education institution hope to bring us closer to guidelines for more effective GBL selection and application in tertiary education contexts across the globe. The following paper begins with remarks on the significance of self-direction in contemporary Higher Education and the potential for GBL to not only spur this tendency on, but to frame and support it. The conceptual framework used in the project is then unpacked as it relates to self-directed learning, game-based learning, video games and supplementary theoretical structures. The proceeding section is divided into three sections related to central study concepts, including: meta-behaviour, metacognition, and meta-emotion, with trial and error, observation and modelling, as well as reinforcement learning as subcategories of meta-behaviour that follow. Additional subcategories surrounding metacognition are then explored, namely: connected learning, reflect and improvise, logical and analytical reasoning, inquiry-based learning, and synthesis. The methodology then describes the hybrid video/survey techniques utilised to gather data relating to participant impression(s), motivational factors, challenge and educational value of GBL selection for Higher Education contexts. Results obtained provide a suitable starting point to construct a viable applied framework for such an environment.</p> Byron Bunt Lance Bunt Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Games Based Learning 2022-09-29 2022-09-29 16 1 117 127 10.34190/ecgbl.16.1.802 Playing for Privacy Awareness: Learning from a “Wow-Moment” with iBuddy <p>iBuddy is a narrative game-based simulation session inspired by research evidence and designed to enhance secondary school and higher education students’ privacy awareness. Students enter the simulation through storytelling and are asked to install the iBuddy app. Later in the simulation, students discover that some of their personal information have been extracted from their devices and manipulated – and this generates a <em>wow-effect</em> that sparks questions and discussions. The simulation is backed-up by a lively debriefing phase, supported by original animation videos, interactive activities, and small group games. To overcome privacy issues, iBuddy sessions are played on a local network and the collected data, which are anonymous, are deleted before the end of the session. iBuddy exploits an original software, released as open source, with a layered architecture composed by app, server and operator interface. The system also includes an Artificial Intelligence filter for inappropriate content. Multilingual class materials are published under a Creative Commons license and are available on the <a href=""></a> platform. Post-session assessments collected from over 970 students indicate that they enjoy iBuddy sessions and learn from it. Follow-up assessment data, collected on a portion of the participants, also suggest that iBuddy sessions are effective and conducive to medium-term behavioral change.</p> Felipe Cardoso Davide Andreoletti Alessandro Ferrari Luca Botturi Tiffany Fioroni Chiara Beretta Anna Picco Schwendener Suzanna Marazza Silvia Giordano Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Games Based Learning 2022-09-29 2022-09-29 16 1 128 138 10.34190/ecgbl.16.1.490 A Game-based Approach for Open Data in Education: A Systematic Mapping Review <p style="font-weight: 400;">Open Data is defined as digital data that is made available with the technical and legal characteristics necessary to be freely used, reused, and redistributed by anyone, anytime and anywhere. Examples of Open Data can be data on mobility or pollution, which an increasing number of cities are making available to citizens. In education, the novel field of Open Data has the potential of empowering a young generation with digital skills and critical thinking through work with real-life Open Data. However, the scarcity of methods and tools for skills development and insertion into educational designs reduces the possibility of achieving this potential. This study is part of the project ODECO, aimed at addressing challenges in the creation of Open Data ecosystems in several contexts, such as education. A systematic mapping review was conducted to uncover the research connections between Open Data education and educational games. Twenty-eight studies were identified and analysed through iterative searching and including keywords related to Gamification, Open Data and Education. In doing this, relevant themes and novel approaches in the current literature were found. This paper discusses how the fields of Open Data education and educational games methodologically and theoretically contribute to outline a game-based approach for Open Data in education. An Open Data Gamified Education Framework leads to authentic learning experiences for real-world problem solving in relation to eight actions: connecting classroom activities to real facts, empowering students to act with Open Data, supporting technical Open Data skills in the classroom, building literacy and developing skills, enhancing civic participation, creating more realistic and appealing narratives, extending teaching outside the classroom by collecting data in real time and local settings, and increasing engagement and motivation.</p> Alejandra Celis Vargas Rikke Magnussen Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Games Based Learning 2022-09-29 2022-09-29 16 1 139 146 10.34190/ecgbl.16.1.572 Integrating the 4cs into Creating Games by Visual Programming and Project Based Learning <p>In recent years teaching methods and tools have changed due to the development of IT information technologies. The Teaching Learning Process is guided and supported by the use of technological and pedagogical drivers in a holistic way.</p> <p>This paper presents a teaching framework for the development of technologically supported learning environments, through the utilization of visual programming tools, such as Kodu and Scratch, proposed by the current and supplementary National Curriculum. Also, it proposes a framework of educational scenarios as a part of Games Based Learning practices within a Project Based Learning project that will be implemented during languages courses to K-6 students.</p> <p>Seventy-five Greek-speaking children of the fifth year of various primary schools of Athens participated in this study. The aim of the study was not only to examine how the creation of educational digital games with Kodu and Scratch can introduce primary school students to programming but also to investigate the developmental path of 21st century skills such as critical thinking, creativity, collaboration, communication (4Cs) and virtual/digital skills. A mixed method approach was adopted to explore the educational value of using these programming tools in the teaching-learning process. The research data was collected using observations, worksheets and questionnaires. The result of this study shows that the students were excited about the creation of their game by visual programming environments and project implementation, which was reflected by their active involvement in the learning process.</p> <p>The positive results of the research suggest that, in the proposed framework, the visual programming environments Kodu and Scratch can be dynamic learning tools during the teaching of language courses that support the development of students’ expression and collaboration skills. Also, the above findings provide an approach for future teaching to K-6 students on developing narrative skills.</p> Vasiliki Choleva Stelios Stagakis Eutuxia Choleva Charalampos Patrikakis Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Games Based Learning 2022-09-29 2022-09-29 16 1 147 154 10.34190/ecgbl.16.1.694 Board Game: An Effective Way for Novice Trainees to Learn Incident Command System <p>The incident command system (ICS) is widely used in disaster management, but it is hard for novice learners to apply what they learn in actual practice. Considering these aspects, we developed a board game for novice learners to learn ICS and conducted a study to evaluate the effectiveness of the board game method compared with that of traditional lectures.</p> <p>Two sessions of ICS training were conducted using only board games and lectures for each session. In the board game session, the participants played the board game for 1.5 hours without receiving any teaching. The game participants played as disaster response teams based on ICS principles. In the lecture session, a didactic lecture on ICS concepts and their applications in disaster medical assistance team (DMAT) work was taught for 1.5 hours by a disaster medicine expert. Before and after each session, a test comprising 20 multiple-choice questions (5 points for each question) was conducted. In the test, participants were evaluated on how to apply the ICS principle to DMAT work. Participants who had not previously received any disaster medicine education were defined as novice learners and were included to compare the learning effects of the two methods. A paired <em>t</em>-test was used to compare the results within each group, and an analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to compare the results between the two groups.</p> <p>The study included 17 participants in the board game group and 25 participants in the lecture group. The mean test score was significantly higher after the game and the lecture (pre-game score = 56 versus post-game score = 75, <em>p</em>-value = .001; pre-lecture score = 58 versus post-lecture score = 74, <em>p</em>-value = .002). No significant difference was found in the score improvement between the two groups (<em>p</em>-value = .6). Hence, we can concluded that learning ICS through board games was as effective as using the traditional lecture method for novice disaster medicine trainees. The board game is an useful tool of disaster medicine education.</p> Wei-kuo Chou Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Games Based Learning 2022-09-29 2022-09-29 16 1 155 163 10.34190/ecgbl.16.1.411 Design Considerations for a Serious Game on using HR to Shape Employee Behavior for the Digital Transformation <p>Organizations increasingly embrace the digital transformation (DT): organizational change shaped by the widespread diffusion of technology. This results in specific demands in terms of employee behavior. Organizations need to adapt to technology-driven work methods and proactively set out to reap the benefits of new technology. Shaping employee behavior conjures a significant challenge for organizations. While aligned HR configurations shape employee behavior, the number of interrelated HR practices to select from is vast. Currently, no tool aids professionals with the design of an HR configuration that shapes DT behaviors. DITInLine is a serious game that captures this challenge; it invites professionals to design an HR configuration that shapes the DT behaviors of employees. Departing from the state of the art HRM literature, it presents professionals with a set of granularly defined HR practices that can combinedly be implemented during the game. The game provides feedback on the impact of their decisions. Professionals are challenged to combine those HR practices into a strategy-aligned HR configuration that shapes the employee behaviors most effectively. After each round, feedback on the HR configuration design is provided to the players. By providing an abstract representation of the HR and DT challenges that organizations face, DITInLine constitutes a valuable tool for professionals tasked with designing aligned HR configurations. DITInLine forces managers to be explicit about their HR decisions. It provides a risk-free environment for them to experiment with HR practices and gauge the effects of their decisions, potentially enabling learning. From a research perspective, the HR choices of these professionals are made explicit. It enables studying HR decisions. Furthermore, the serious game introduces a promising level of detail, providing a falsifiable theoretical framework on the impact of HR for DT.</p> Luuk Collou Guido Bruinsma Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Games Based Learning 2022-09-29 2022-09-29 16 1 164 171 10.34190/ecgbl.16.1.604 Narrative Games in BioAnalytic Forensics <p>This paper reports on the use of branching path narrative games based on cases written by industry partners and built using Twine in a graduate BioAnalytic Forensics module. The ease of use offered by Twine made it suitable as a tool to quickly introduce industry partners to the concept of interactive narratives which assisted them in framing their case studies. Twine is also an effective tool for introducing these games to students who may be unfamiliar with the genre. Business constraints central to the problems and modelled in the games include time taken to resolve the problem, and the regulatory requirement to fully explore possible root causes of the issue. Assessment was based on student reflections on their experience in game play, and on their team case study writing.</p> Michael Cosgrave Eric Moore Athene Storey-Cosgrave Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Games Based Learning 2022-09-29 2022-09-29 16 1 172 179 10.34190/ecgbl.16.1.601 Players’ Reflections on Digital Games as a Medium for Education: Results from a Qualitative Study <p>The use of digital game potential for education has been investigated extensively. However, little is known about how players themselves perceive educational possibilities of the entertainment games they play in their free time. This knowledge gap is problematic because players’ own assumptions about learning with digital games will influence the acceptance and the outcome of any game-related educational intervention. Based on a qualitative content analysis of interviews with 19 adolescent and young adult players of five simulation games (Age of Empires, Cities Skylines, Civilization 6, Eco, and Tropico 6), this study investigates how players perceive digital entertainment games as a medium for (geography) education. While a few interviewees dismiss the potential of digital (entertainment) games, predominantly based on the games’ contents instead of medial particularities, others embrace the educational possibilities of the medium wholeheartedly, based on its attractiveness and unique characteristics, including didactical features. A third group of respondents provided mixed reviews of (entertainment) games’ educational potential by referring to advantages and disadvantages of the medium’s characteristics, as well as the challenges of a simplified and/or inaccurate representation of content. Interviewees from all three groups underestimated the value of digital games for (geography) education beyond subject matter expertise. By solely framing (geography) education as the transfer of correct and politically neutral specialized knowledge, they failed to recognize games’ possibilities in terms of achieving additional learning goals of contemporary (geography) education, such as critical reflection skills, argumentation skills, and the formation of opinion. Overall, many players rightly assume that a successful implementation into the geography classroom strongly depends on context variables, such as the selected game, target group, learning goals, and pedagogical concept. Above all, they stress the importance of briefing and debriefing by an educator. Finally, the players’ levels of reflection and depth of argumentation varied significantly – presumably depending on their age, educational level, and the games they refer to.</p> André Czauderna Alexandra Budke Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Games Based Learning 2022-09-29 2022-09-29 16 1 180 188 10.34190/ecgbl.16.1.324 Hack the Map 3D Video Game – Escaping your destiny through Rigas’ Charta <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Celebrating the two hundred years from the Greek Revolution of 1821 and the War of Independence, Onassis Library, in collaboration with the Cartographic Heritage Archives of General State Archives of Greece and the Department of Geography of Harokopio University, implemented a series of digital workshops on 3D video game design in order to motivate teenagers to interact with one of the most emblematic maps of the eighteenth century and a major artefact of the Greek cartographic heritage: Rigas Velestinlis’ Charta (map) of Greece (1796–1797).</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">In 2020, four (4) school teams consisting of sixty-five (65) students 13-17 years old, brought to life the map that inspired the Greek Revolution of 1821, transforming it into a 3D video game for PC or Android devices. By using innovative mixtures of history, geography, cartography, visual arts, and information technology, they managed to build a third-person puzzle game with one hero (Rigas) who had to run through the Charta region to escape imprisonment by solving twelve (12) riddles, collecting all the scattered sheets of the revolutionary map and unifying its parts.</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">This educational activity broke out of the traditional classroom routine, and enhanced the engagement, collaboration, and communication of the youngsters, fostering their creativity and their connection with the cartographic cultural heritage. Learning through game-making stimulated literacy development and improved the digital skills of the participants. The success of this innovative educational experience led to the development of an Augmented Reality (AR) application entitled “Rigas’ Charta,” available at Google Play for Android devices, and to the implementation of the game-developing course to an online National Student Competition entitled “Hack the Map: Rigas’ Charta” for the school year of 2020–2021.</span></p> Kostas Diamantis Vasiliki Gerontopoulou Maria Pazarli Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Games Based Learning 2022-09-29 2022-09-29 16 1 189 198 10.34190/ecgbl.16.1.573 A Custom-Made Board Game to Familiarise Primary School Children With Atoms <p>To discover the link between the abstract concept of atoms and the macroscopic material world is often seen as one of the key challenges for new students in chemistry. Failing to make this connection results in low student grades, little interest, and eventually small numbers of graduates in chemistry or related disciplines. Science education research approaches this challenge by designing and creating new learning experiences and curricula for children without any prior knowledge about atoms. One promising approach is to introduce atoms and/or sub-microscopic particles in late primary school, such that children can start making connections between the macroscopic and the microscopic world. In this paper, an educational, custom-made board game that combines science content and fun for primary school children is presented to accomplish this difficult task. The board game features cooperative gameplay for 2 to 4 players, simple strategic elements, and play time between 20 and 30 minutes. Intrinsic integration of the learning content was the leading design idea and, as a result, concrete associations between sub-microscopic particles and macroscopic events related to material hardness lie at the core of the game. Another pivotal criterion was that the game is fully playable for children at home, like other board games, or in school lessons. This contribution, therefore, discusses: (<em>i</em>) how the game works, (<em>ii</em>) the essential design elements of the current game from a designer’s and educator’s perspective; and (<em>iii</em>) the basic atomic concepts which could be facilitated by playing the game. Preliminary play tests suggest that players, or learners, believe the game to be fun, and appreciate the balance between elements of strategy and luck. In summary, a compact, playful activity could trigger children to think of hardness of solid materials as a property that emerges from the strength of interactions between atoms. Such a change in conceptual thinking could in turn ease students’ pathway for future chemistry education.</p> Michael Dumin Daniel Cermak-Sassenrath Carole Haeusler Ilse Smets Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Games Based Learning 2022-09-29 2022-09-29 16 1 199 207 10.34190/ecgbl.16.1.608 Mind the gap: The 4M Bridge Between 4E-Cognition and Movement-Based Design <div><span lang="EN-GB">Along with technology trends like extended reality, wearables, IoT, and exergames, new design approaches have emerged, focusing on full-body interactions by actively working with the lived body’s capacity to sense, feel, and create. Thus, designers are recommended to use movement as part of the design activity when designing for and of movement, regardless of the targeted application domain. However, designing for bodily experiences is challenging. We have identified a gap of no movement-based design framework available, including the moving body as the centre part and core material of the design processes. We recognise the human body is more than a physical object in the world, but a feeling, perceptualising body, that creates meaning in interaction with the environment. It thus frustrates and challenges us to reach a bodily grounded design process embracing the lived body. A common framework informed by the theoretical aspect of embodied cognition and the practical element of movement design can be a starting point for embodied design research. Recognising these challenges, we see a need for creating a bridge between practice and theory. Based on the bridging concept from Dalsgaard and Dindler, this paper presents a movement-based design framework to bridge the abstract idea of embodied cognition theory with the 4E perspectives of embodied, embedded, enactive and extended and concrete movement-based design practices. We created a movement-based design framework structuring the movement-based methods of different perspectives. The 4M model we propose contains three types of facilitator-mediated methods: 1) Mood-setters stimulating a creative body being, 2) Movement-based design methods for creating immersion in creative bodily activities, and 3) Movement concepts as knowledge and evidence for developing and validating movement artefacts. Besides the facilitator cards, the participants have access to Modifiers that can be used in conjunction with the other methods as creative inspiration for exploring, trying, or performing new movement possibilities.</span></div> Lars Elbæk Søren Lekbo René Engelhardt Hansen Maximus Kaos Rasmus Vestergaard Andersen Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Games Based Learning 2022-09-29 2022-09-29 16 1 208 215 10.34190/ecgbl.16.1.667 The Effectiveness of Playful Augmented Reality Media for Teaching Early-Primary Students <p>Hybrid learning has become the only solution to ensure the learning process still occurs in place of traditional classroom activities during the Covid-19 pandemic. Following this condition, the phenomenon of "Zoom Fatigue" has emerged. Some of the symptoms reported are decreased learning motivation, low attention, and reduced responses. Thus, a refresher process, including the use of new playful and frugal learning media is necessary for varying children's learning activities. A learning intervention was designed to teach anatomy playfully as part of a biology curriculum. The Augmented Reality technology used in this research is a Humanoid 4D+ mobile application with flashcards, developed by Octagon Studio. This media displays information virtually on a smartphone screen when the application uses the camera to scan flashcards containing visual markers. A hybrid learning space is formed as students can see information virtually. But, physically, they are in control because they run applications and choose the type of flashcard they want to scan.</p> <p>The research was undertaken in several learning parks in Solo City, Central Java Province, Indonesia, with a total of 43 volunteer teachers and 132 early primary students participating. Previously, the ACES team (part of a UKRI funded project) had provided online training on the use of this media with teachers. Each teacher would then implement the media for all students in each learning park. The teachers demonstrate the media and each student takes turns running the application to view information virtually, therefore experiencing interactive learning. The qualitative approach was conducted for capturing teachers’ perceptions of Augmented Reality media. A survey using the JISC online platform was distributed to capture participants’ reflections on the activities and media used. Based on findings, the media appears beneficial, effective, and efficient for teaching anatomy concepts. Its virtual features can attract the children’s attention and teachers do not need to bring a lot of physical teaching aids, just one application to explain all organ system concepts. Students can learn playfully on their own and feel new learning experiences. The results indicated that the intervention could create playful and frugal activities which build student engagement as a potential solution to address issues of <em>Zoom Fatigue</em>. The next stage of the project will involve volunteer teachers implementing the technology more widely in their classes.</p> Muhibuddin Fadhli Rochmat Purnomo Deka Dyah Utami Betaria NAE Hastuti Dominic Mahon4 Alex Masters Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Games Based Learning 2022-09-29 2022-09-29 16 1 216 224 10.34190/ecgbl.16.1.632 Visualization, Serious Games and Decision Making <p>One of the most important objectives of serious games is to detonate behavioral changes of participants. Serious games generate engagement, they are meaningful, entertaining, and immersive. However, when the game represents a complex system, it contains a great number of variables and the relationship between its decision components are not entirely clear. Consequently, it is necessary to offer a set of tools that increase the data visualization of the players and help in the decision-making process must be provided. In our university, logistics professors have designed a simulator for logistics decision making. On the one hand, the game has gained acceptance from the student community, but on the other hand, several students do not accomplish a satisfactory performance. Therefore, these students fail to notice lots of variable interrelationships in the game, and they do not develop the skill required to follow a good decision-making process. The goal is two folded. On the one hand, the improvement of the participant's comprehension of a complex logistical system must be reached. On the other hand, the clarity on the decision-making process has to be laid out. &nbsp;A set of visualization support tools were created to accomplish those objectives. Neither of the tools aim to influence the decision-making process nor to show decision alternatives to the participant, but to highlight a few key performance indicators, constraints, and data that the students can use when making the decisions. In this paper it is presented how the participants have improved their understanding about the logistic system represented in the game, when the support tools are used. Moreover, their motivation has increased, they are more involved and committed to learn. Overall, their decision-making strategies have been modified and they have shown a better comprehension of the game structure. This paper contributes to underline the importance of visualization in student's learning, considering that currently big data, industry 4.0, as well as internet of things have gained a significant relevance in our everyday life. The design of strategic games involving these new variables are necessary. The more complex a system, the greater the number of visualization tools to strengthen the comprehension of the system are required.</p> Alejandro Flores Benitez Linda Medina Herrera Ernesto Pacheco José Martín Molina Espinosa Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Games Based Learning 2022-09-29 2022-09-29 16 1 225 235 10.34190/ecgbl.16.1.695 Climate4Kids – A Gamified App Teaching about Climate Change <p>As per Deterding et al. (2011), gamification can be defined as using game design elements in non-game contexts and it is used to increase motivation and engagement. That is why there are already gamified application to change people’s behavior when it comes to environmental protection. Climate change is a complex topic which is for younger children aged 6 to 10 years quite often too abstract to understand properly. Therefore, a browser-based app is being developed that aims at teaching basics about renewable energy, mobility, greenhouse effect, soil sealing, heat insulation and the like. Using elements of gamification like points, collecting stars, planting trees digitally, a changing background (depending on the progress made) as well as a narration about the protagonist Mani (a groundhog that is affected by climate change) and his friends encourage the children to use the app not only at school but also at home. By telling stories which introduce the topic, the children get a first understanding of how everybody of us affects the environment and what we can do to prevent effects of climate change. Moreover, instructions for easy hands-on experiments are used to make children experience certain effects and/or consequences of climate change. The app seeks to meet children’s emotional needs acknowledging feelings, emphasizing solutions, and encouraging action. The contribution shows how elements of gamification are included in the app to ensure that children are motivated to engage with the topics as well as stay immersed and transfer the learnings into their every-day-life.</p> Sonja Gabriel Bernhard Schmölzer Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Games Based Learning 2022-09-29 2022-09-29 16 1 236 243 10.34190/ecgbl.16.1.356 Nursing XR – a VR application to teach decision making to student nurses <p>This paper validates an approach to the design and development of VR applications that are integrated into the curricula and address fundamental student needs. To accomplish this, a case study describing the process undertaken to create Nursing XR, a wound dressing scenario where the patient is discharged home and requires follow up care and treatment by a nurse. The aim of the VR application is to support nursing students in developing their communication, risk assessment, holistic assessment, and person-centred clinical decision-making skills.</p> <p>To design Nursing XR, needs and initial requirements were collected via a workshop with student nurses. The workshop, which involved 10 student nurses and two lecturers in nursing from two Universities (Co-Is) and was led by the PI, supported by the learning technologist and the head developer of the company used for development of the software. Results from the workshop identified two major needs for the students: the need to undertake practical applications of the procedures learned in the lectures and the need to build confidence in the skills required of a nursing student. These needs were the foundations for the design process, which followed an artefact-based approach. The artefacts generated during the design were also used to elicit additional interaction and software requirements from the nursing lecturers. An iterative lean development process was followed by the company for the software implementation. Throughout the development, students and lecturers were involved as user testes ensuring that the user experience of the application was satisfactory, and the application fit for purpose.<br>In this paper, we describe the high-level design and development process followed by the multidisciplinary team to develop Nursing XR and report initial qualitative findings from the workshop focus group.</p> Marco Gilardi Stephen Honnan Laura Sheerman Audrey Cund Susan Rae Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Games Based Learning 2022-09-29 2022-09-29 16 1 244 252 10.34190/ecgbl.16.1.617 Serious games as innovative formative assessment tools for programming in Higher Education <p>Serious games are becoming increasingly popular as alternative supplementary learning approaches across all disciplines at all levels. Learners are more enabled to become more actively involved, not only in the learning process but also in the design and development of innovative formative assessment tools. This paper will present four serious games for programming education developed as part of a Serious Games honours year module in Higher Education at the University of the West of Scotland. Computer Games Development students were tasked as part of a research project to design and implement a serious game for students in their course or other Computer Science related courses in earlier years to provide their peers with innovative games for the purposes of formative assessment. It was hoped that the participants could enhance the engagement of courses that they had already passed but also utilise their creative Games Development skills in a new productive way to enhance the assessments in their own course having had the experience. &nbsp;Permitting students to design their own formative serious game assessments in this way enabled enhanced creativity with the students creatively tackling the overall problem in insightful and surprising ways. This paper will look at four games created for the purposes of teaching programming by analysing the overall learning outcomes, development process and providing a description of the games. The idea is to provide insight into the development process of serious games for programming education in terms of similarities, differences and to produce a basic framework for development in relation to content, assessment, and game mechanics. The paper will produce an overview of the excellent games created and present a case for increased active involvement of students to develop their own serious games – particularly on Computer Games degree or college courses.</p> Thomas Hainey Gavin Baxter Julie Black Kenneth Yorke Julius Bernikas Natalia Chrzanowska Fraser McAulay Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Games Based Learning 2022-09-29 2022-09-29 16 1 253 262 10.34190/ecgbl.16.1.756 The challenges of designing learning games: Interviewing professional learning game designers <p>The professional practice of designing digital learning games has existed for more than four decades. Even though considerable work has been done on research and development projects that include learning games (e.g., through Design-Based Research projects), there is relatively limited research on how professional learning game designers work, and what design challenges they face when trying to develop learning games for K-12 educational contexts. In this explorative interview study, we take a closer look at the design challenges that experienced learning game designers face during the design process, and what complexities and dilemmas they need to balance in doing so. The interview study is based on extended semi-structured interviews with five experienced learning game designers from five different learning game companies from Europe and the US. Having transcribed and coded the interview data, we conducted a thematic analysis to address the following research question: How do learning game designers experience and manage the different knowledge forms and design challenges that emerge when developing games for K-12 educational contexts? To answer this question, we draw on insights from design theory and domain theory, which allows us to map and analyse how the learning game designers try to establish links between different forms of knowledge across three domains: the pedagogical domain, the disciplinary domain, and the game design domain. Based on the thematic analysis, we identify three design principles across these domains, which are central to the learning game design process: 1) creating a shared language and repertoire for the involved actors (e.g., game designers, subject matter experts, and educational practitioners) across the three domains, 2) establishing meaningful links between educational aims and game elements, and 3) considering the educational context of the learning game. Addressing these design principles are all crucial, when engaging in the highly complex task of designing games for educational purposes.&nbsp;</p> Thorkild Hanghøj Sara Hajslund Stine Ejsing-Duun Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Games Based Learning 2022-09-29 2022-09-29 16 1 263 270 10.34190/ecgbl.16.1.669 Can We Detect Non-playable Characters’ Personalities Using Machine And Deep Learning Approaches? <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Personality recognition and computational psychometrics data have become prevalent in personnel selection processes. Such assessment tools are adequate for human resources seeking tools to assess a large volume of diverse player personalities in the current "war of talents." Recently, studies about using Gamified situational judgment test approaches have shown positive results in assessing players' behavior and personality.</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Gamified situational judgment tests combine the advantages of gamification, such as enhancing players' reactions and flow state, with the acknowledged traditional situational judgment test approach. To gamify a situational judgment test, an innovative approach using the visual novel game genre has shown positive results in the gamification by adding game elements such as narrative scripts, non-player characters, dialogs, and audiovisual assets to the test. Indeed, these elements play an essential role in the validity of the players' personality results by using a stealth-assessment method to minimize social bias and player's stress. However, to our knowledge, as gamification in personality detection is still recent, little is known on the possible positive outcomes of designing game elements such as the dialogues and non-player character personalities in the validity of the team cohesion measure. To this end, we propose an empirical study to build personality trait models based on non-players characters' speeches.&nbsp;</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">We used the Myers–Briggs Type Indicator based on four dichotomies to classify the personalities as one of companies and organizations' most used personality typology. For each of the four dimensions, we train twenty-four separate binary classifiers and one 16-class classifier, using well-established machine learning and a convolutional neural network in the domain of natural language processing, text analytics, and computational psychometrics. The results of this study show that it is possible to recognize non-playable characters’ personalities and thus can help game designers to understand their characters' personalities using natural language processing.</span></p> Jérôme Hernandez Mathieu Muratet Matthis Pierotti Thibault Carron Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Games Based Learning 2022-09-29 2022-09-29 16 1 271 279 10.34190/ecgbl.16.1.627 Refurbishing the Educational Escape Room for Programming: Lowering the Threshold and Raising the Ceiling <p>Programming education at university level has often been identified as problematic learning. At the same time, prognosis for future labour market is increased need for professionals with programming and related skills. To meet demands of future society, K-12 schools around the world have integrated programming in the curriculum. However, research show challenges for integrating programming in K-12 education. Challenges include students’ and teachers’ struggle with learning and teaching programming, lack of time to properly incorporate programming in existing teaching and learning, and insufficient support for teachers. This study addresses these challenges by designing, developing, and evaluating an educational game on programming that combines the idea of game-based learning with digital escape rooms. In the game, the player develops knowledge about programming concepts to escape 10 rooms. The study’s main research question was: What are K-12 students’ perceptions of the game and what do they considered to be important design factors for a digital escape room game on computer programming? A design science approach was used for designing, developing, and evaluating a web-based escape room game on programming. This was conducted in a five-step process: 1) Explicating the problem, 2) Defining the requirements, 3) Designing and developing the artefact, 4) Demonstrating the artefact, and 5) Evaluating the artefact. The game was tested and evaluated by 32 K-12 students with a questionnaire during the autumn semester of 2021 and spring semester of 2022. Collected data were then analysed and grouped into categories to answer the study’s aim and research question. Findings of the study show several suggestions for further development and important design factors to consider when developing a digital escape room game. The next steps of research are to combine these findings with evaluations from teachers, and to incorporate this in an updated version of the game.</p> Niklas Humble Peter Mozelius Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Games Based Learning 2022-09-29 2022-09-29 16 1 280 289 10.34190/ecgbl.16.1.603 Toward a learning game on Computational Thinking Driven by Competencies <p>There are many learning games related to the theme of programming and computational thinking (CT) that exist nowadays. However, the main problem currently in France is that teachers lack training to teach K-12 learners to modern computer concepts. Teachers understand the competencies of referential but are not comfortable with and don’t know how to develop teaching sessions for these competencies. Our proposition is: a learning game (LG) driven by competencies will assist teachers to develop teaching sessions with learners. Our main objective is to help teachers to appropriate learning games on CT. To do this, we conducted an analysis based on the PIAF (<em>Pensée informatique et Algorithmique dans l’enseignement Fondamental</em> - Computational Thinking in primary school) reference framework which aims at developing CT in elementary school. It lists a set of competencies related to the development of algorithmic thinking in fundamental education. We chose to analyse three existing learning games on CT with this framework. We selected these three learning games ("Blockly Maze", "Compute-it" and "Kodu") from 48 learning games identified on CT. These analyses show that many competencies aren’t present in the games. Then we study how to link the PIAF framework in a LG. We work on the learning game named SPY in which the player has to program an agent to escape a maze. Our contribution for this paper is double: (1) an analysis of existing learning games and (2) propositions how to express PIAF competencies in gameplay features.</p> Malak KANAAN Sébastien MAILLOS Mathieu MURATET Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Games Based Learning 2022-09-29 2022-09-29 16 1 288 296 10.34190/ecgbl.16.1.537 Creating an Escape Room for Cultural Mediation: Insights from "The Archivist's Dream" <p>The Archivist’s Dream („Der Traum der Archivarin“) is a Live Escape Room Game that has been developed by the University of Krems’ Center for Applied Game Studies on behalf of the Archives of Contemporary Arts in Krems, Austria, which are dedicated to collecting pre-mortem bequests and post-mortem estates of outstanding artists. Located in the underground facilities of the archive, the Escape Room interweaves selected archival materials, historic media devices and archivist approaches to form an interactive puzzle experience. However, it is not an interactive exhibition showcasing the archives’ contents; and while the Escape Room incorporates elements of educational game design, it is an example for a less common application of (Escape Room) Games: the use of game design in the field of cultural mediation (<em>Kulturvermittlung</em>). Instead of following an educational goal in the narrower sense, the Escape Room is designed to turn aspects of cultural mediation and archival practice into gameplay principles, focusing on letting players explore the tenets of archival thinking rather than on “teachable” content. This is achieved by establishing different levels of (un-)reality players have to travers within the game: players follow a fictional archivist into her dreams, which merge with the real-life archives. In order to “escape” this dream world, players combine archival practices with dream logic to solve a secret tied to actual archival materials, while at the same time dissolving the borders between real life, dream and game.</p> Nikolaus Koenig Natalie Denk Simon Wimmer Hanna Prandstaetter Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Games Based Learning 2022-09-29 2022-09-29 16 1 297 306 10.34190/ecgbl.16.1.682 Exploring the Combination of Point-of-view and Tenses in Movement-based Design Processes <p>Our work presented is grounded in Movement-based Design and used for creating solutions with movement as a focal point. Several researchers utilise the moving body in their design for embodied products such as ubiquitous computers and interactive prototypes. The recognition of the moving body is seen in embodied design approaches with a body-centred focused design supporting and encompassing human experience. We believe that incorporating the moving body at the centre of the design process is required to create a future of sustainable movement related to technology, e.g., exertion games, VR or general health and fitness solutions. To understand the nuances of a movement-based design process, we see a need to go beyond the specific design methods. Designers need to approach the complex problem from multiple perspectives. To nuance our movement-based design process, we use the Svanæs and Barkhuus framework to categorise the body-centred design process in two dimensions: Tenses and Point-of-view. The aim is to learn how Point-of-view and Tenses can be utilised to increase the value of the Movement-based Design Process. The empirical material generated in this project stems from two Movement-based Design workshops, each with its own scope: workshop one, the creation of outdoor fitness equipment and workshop two, the creation of technology-based motion games. Both workshops were filmed, and selected participants were interviewed subsequently. The analysis indicated how Point-of-view and Tenses have distinct qualities when interpreted through the framework combined with the empirical material. Point-of-views: 1st-person perspective is used to create insights that are to be shared. 2nd-person perspective is used when two users are designing. 3rd-person perspective creates a distance for analysis. Tenses: Past tense was utilised by watching recorded videos. Present tense creates a feel of here and now, and the future tense was aimed at looking forward in time. The workshops went through several phases, each with its distinct way of working with movement. We wrap up with recommendations for designing a movement-based design process guided by point-of-view and tenses: Start and stay in the 1st-person, let the group share insights, let the participants distance themselves, and the use of tenses should be explicit.</p> Søren Stigkær Lekbo Lars Elbæk Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Games Based Learning 2022-09-29 2022-09-29 16 1 307 315 10.34190/ecgbl.16.1.520 Learning Machine Learning with a Game <p>AIs playing strategic games have always fascinated humans. Specifically, the reinforcement learning technique Alpha Zero (D.Silver, 2016) has gained much attention for its capability to play Go, which was hard to crack problem for AI for a long time. Additionally, we see the rise of explainable AI (xAI), which tries to address the problem that many modern AI decision techniques are black-box approaches and incomprehensible to humans. Combining a board game AI for the relatively simple game Connect-Four with explanation techniques offers the possibility of learning something about an AI's inner workings and the game itself. This paper explains how to combine an Alpha-Zero-based AI with known explanation techniques used in supervised learning. Additionally, we combine this with known visualization approaches for trees. Alpha-Zero combines a neuronal network and a Monte-Carlo-Search-Tree. The approach we present in this paper focuses on two explanations. The first explanation is a dynamic analysis of the evolving situation, primarily based on the tree aspect, and works with a radial tree representation (Yee et al., 2001). The second explanation is a static analysis that tries to identify the relevant situation elements using the Lime (Local Interpretable Model Agnostic Explanations) approach (Christoforos Anagnostopoulos, 2020). This technique focuses primarily on the neuronal network aspect. The straightforward application of Lime towards the Monte-Carlo-Search-Tree approach would be too compute-intensive for interactive applications. We suggest a modification to accommodate search trees and sacrifice the model agnosticism specifically. We use a weighted Lasso-based approach on the different board constellations analyzed in the search tree by the neuronal network to get a final static explanation of the situation. Finally, we visually interpret the resulting linear weights from the Lasso analysis on the game board. The implementation is done in Python using the PyGame library for visualization and interaction implementation. We implemented the neuronal networks with PyTorch and the Lasso analysis with Scikit Learn. This paper provides implementation details on an experimental approach to learning something about a game and how machines learn to play a game.</p> Christoph Lürig Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Games Based Learning 2022-09-29 2022-09-29 16 1 316 323 10.34190/ecgbl.16.1.481 Using mathematics game-based intervention on children with special educational needs: Preliminary findings <p>Many video games incorporate positive learning principles, stimulating students' cognitive functioning and promoting problem-solving and spatial abilities. The high levels of engagement and involvement that some students can achieve with video games are notable. Hence, video games for children with a long history of school failure, such as children with special educational needs (SEN). Moreover, it may give educators immediate and ongoing assessment of students' progress. When complemented with human tutoring, video games as a game-based intervention may improve mathematics performance since instruction is more effective when adapted to students' learning needs and pace.</p> <p>As part of the research project "GBl4deaf – Game-based Learning for Deaf Students (PTDC/COM-CSS/32022/2017), the video game "Space adventure: Defend the planet!" was designed to stimulate arithmetic competencies in deaf and hearing children. The player must use elementary arithmetical and spatial concepts to rebuild an abandoned space station. Each challenge has three difficulty levels. In the game challenge used in this study, the player must add or remove particles to collect resources. The current research focuses on two questions: The study follows two research questions: Q1: Did the students make any progress in mathematics achievement after playing the video game?; Q2: Is the gameplay of Space adventure: Defend the planet! an engaging experience for players? A pre-and post-game mathematical test was applied to measure mathematics achievement and an observational grid to gather information about arithmetical procedures. Ten fourth- to ninth-graders participated in the study - four girls and six boys, aged between 9 and 16, three deaf and seven hearing students with different special needs (dyscalculia, cognitive deficits, autism spectrum disorder, deafness and Asperger syndrome). Due to the COVID-19 pandemic lockdown, children played the video game using Zoom video conference software in 8-12 sessions (50 minutes, two a three times/week). The results show 4% to 19% of mathematics progression after children played the video game and indicate that they maintain the use of counting-based procedures throughout the game sessions. For instance, they kept counting both addends starting from 1 or counting by 1, 2, 5 or 10 using a number line. The current data suggest that the videogame "Space adventure: Defend the planet!" allows educators to gather immediate information about students' difficulties and progression.</p> Lilia Marcelino Conceição Costa Carlos Santos Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Games Based Learning 2022-09-29 2022-09-29 16 1 324 328 10.34190/ecgbl.16.1.528 Investigating Social Media Potential for Supporting Teachers’ Digital Games Literacy <p>Digital games have the potential to address a variety of pedagogical objectives across a range of subject areas in education and research shows that teachers are interested to learn about the use of games in teaching. However, due to the lack of professional development opportunities, teachers typically learn about the use of games informally from their peers and on social media. This raises questions about the kind of knowledge that social media resources may be catering to teachers and their relevance for more formalized ways of game literacy development. Further, the reason for the lack of professional development options could be that research is lagging behind in testing and developing systemic models that frame teachers’ knowledge of game-based learning such as the recently proposed Game Literacy for Teacher Education (GLTE) framework. To address the research gap, we investigate the following question: How do social media resources address key literacy areas of the Game Literacy for Teacher Education framework? The study tests the GLTE framework to investigate the research question. Data has been collected between autumn 2021 to spring 2022 from YouTube, Twitch, and Twitter using 1) search words in English, German and Swedish, 2) built-in recommendations and discovery functions, and 3) following links and references. Data relevant to supporting teachers in Digital Game-based Learning (DGBL) at primary and secondary levels in education were included, and 150 multimedia resources were selected for further analysis. Data were deductively coded onto the broad categories of the GLTE framework and descriptive coding was used to explore new categories. Findings show that DGBL resources shared on social media address the key literacy areas of the GLTE framework at least partially while also indicating that conceptualisations of games literacy for teachers need to go beyond technological and pedagogical integration and consider the broader societal role of games and gaming. Based on the findings we propose that game literacy for teachers is conceptualised from a broader social-cultural, critical perspective, and we suggest an updated model and recommendations for future research</p> Melinda Mathe Harko Verhagen Mats Wiklund Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Games Based Learning 2022-09-29 2022-09-29 16 1 329 338 10.34190/ecgbl.16.1.712 A Digital Learning Game for Mathematics that Leads to Better Learning Outcomes for Female Students: Further Evidence <p>Stereotypes about men being better than women at mathematics appear to influence female students’ interest and performance in mathematics. Given the potential motivational benefits of digital learning games, it is possible that games could help to reduce math anxiety, increase self-efficacy, and lead to better learning outcomes for female students. We are exploring this possibility in our work with <em>Decimal Point</em>, a digital learning game that scaffolds practice with decimal operations for 5th and 6th grade students. In several studies with various versions of the game, involving over 800 students across multiple years, we have consistently uncovered a learning advantage for female students with the game. In our most recent investigation of this gender effect, we decided to experiment with a central feature of the game: its use of prompted self-explanation to support student learning. Prior research has suggested that female students might benefit more from self-explanation than male students. In the new study, involving 214 middle school students, we compared three versions of self-explanation in the game – menu-based, scaffolded, and focused – each presenting students with a different type of prompted self-explanation after they solved problems in the game. We found that the focused approach led to more learning across all students than the menu-based approach, a result reported in an earlier paper. In the additional results reported in this paper, we again uncovered the gender effect – female students learned more from the game than male students, regardless of the version of self-explanation – and also found a trend in which female students made fewer self-explanation errors, suggesting they may have been more deliberate and thoughtful in their self-explanations. This self-explanation finding is a possible key to further investigation into how and why we see the gender effect in <em>Decimal Point</em>.</p> Bruce McLaren Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Games Based Learning 2022-09-29 2022-09-29 16 1 339 348 10.34190/ecgbl.16.1.794 Treasure Hunt as a Method of Learning Mathematics <p>Future jobs will require students to handle interdisciplinary knowledge that goes beyond computing techniques when it comes to mathematics education. The traditional approach to education insufficiently develops the needed mathematical skills and mathematical literacy and there is a need to devise new methods of teaching and learning. We introduce game-based learning in mathematics education through carefully designed activities aiming at interdisciplinarity and increasing students’ motivation, mathematical and digital literacy, physical activity, level of knowledge, etc. We propose the treasure hunt cantered around cryptography as an example activity that satisfies the described criteria. Parts of the clues leading to the treasure are hidden using different ciphers, following the historical development of cryptography. The treasure hunt is time-limited to one hour and, to successfully complete the search, students need to learn, adapt, and apply different methods of encryption and decryption. To complete the hunt in time, students must work as a team and effectively divide the tasks among themselves. Students have at their disposal all instructions and manuals in written form, and they are compelled to read with comprehension. We conducted the activity with several groups of high school students with no previous knowledge and skills in the field of cryptography. Students were asked to take a pre-test and post-test survey about their experience and familiarity with cryptography concepts. Most teams completed the search and achieved all learning outcomes. In the paper, we will describe the activity in detail, analyse the test results and give additional examples of game-based activities in mathematics education. </p> Vedrana Mikulić Crnković Ivona Traunkar Bojan Crnković Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Games Based Learning 2022-09-29 2022-09-29 16 1 349 357 10.34190/ecgbl.16.1.740 The Project Win Game™: A Serious Game for Project Management Simulation <p>Agile project management methodology usage have grown widely in the last decade. Not all types of projects should apply agile methodologies, and the tasks that would typically be executed by a project manager are not (explicitly) addressed in agile methodologies. This paper describes The Project Win Game: a serious game for people to experience the differences in decision-making between traditional/waterfall and agile projects. The game engages an audience in complex decision-making and allows them to experience the effects of their decisions; this allows non-managers to learn project management responsibilities and translate that experience into knowledge. This paper describes the gamification of project management, the development of the game, and the lessons learned through single-player and competitive play. This paper would interest people that need to engage non-managers in management tasks and understand how a board game builds knowledge based on the experience of playing the game.</p> Gloria Miller Victoria Vaca Núnez Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Games Based Learning 2022-09-29 2022-09-29 16 1 358 367 10.34190/ecgbl.16.1.660 Learning to Escape or Escaping to Have Fun: Do Educational Escape Rooms Positively Impact Students’ Performance in Business Higher Education? <p>Interest in and the use of escape rooms (ERs) for educational purposes have increased recently (Taraldsen et al, 2020; Veldkamp et al, 2020). There are many benefits to using ERs in education, including improved engagement and motivation (Buchner et al, 2022; Taraldsen et al, 2020; Veldkamp et al, 2020). However, findings concerning the impact of the use of ERs on students' actual learning are mixed (Veldkamp et al, 2020). This study aims to investigate this impact by exploring a case in which a digital ER was implemented in a blended online course. This ER was designed to be used in a business course including more than 150 business undergraduate students distributed across 15 campuses. The specific learning objective of the escape room was to enhance students’ understanding of the most important concepts of the course in preparation for the midterm examination. The authors compare students’ performance across two different sections of the same course, i.e., a control section and another section in which the ER was implemented. In addition, the authors administered a survey to comprehend students’ ER perception. Results show that while students had a positive perception of the use of the digital educational ER, its usage did not affect their performance on the midterm examination.</p> Christiane Molina Nelly Ramirez-Vasquez Rocio Elizabeth Cortez-Marquez Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Games Based Learning 2022-09-29 2022-09-29 16 1 368 376 10.34190/ecgbl.16.1.685 Is a Board Game Suitable for Teaching Complex Natural Systems? Yes <p>The quality of people’s daily lives is dependent on the functioning of natural systems - ecosystem services. These services are essential for social and economic development of our society and for ensuring the well-being of humans. This dependency is not easily understandable, as it is non-linear. The use of games has been proven a successful method in teaching complex systems. Games can improve, besides knowledge, students’ social and academic achievement, promote students’ motivation, improve their critical thinking and co-operation skills. In this research we assessed how an ecosystem services themed board game „End of the World Begins in Kurtna” supports students’ ability to understand the relationship between humans and nature. We evaluated the game’s potential as an educational tool to foster better comprehension of the concept of ecosystem services. To validate the game’s usability and learning value, game sessions were conducted with more than a hundred students. To collect their knowledge about both ecosystem services and nature, their attitudes towards the game and their subjective assessment of their own knowledge, pre-test and post-test questionnaires were used and the data was analysed using mixed methods. The results present that the game enhances the understanding of relations between humans and nature and helps to notice causality related to the subject. The game makes players perceive the human impact on nature and creates a positive attitude towards protecting the natural environment. The majority of respondents found the game to be interesting and engaging. Since interest and engagement are closely related to motivation we conclude that the game also has a positive effect on learning motivation. We conclude that board games can be suitable means for understanding complex terms such as ecosystem services. The game is applicable for enriching natural science education and is a good supporting material for teaching. However, since we did not measure knowledge retention over a long period of time we cannot confirm the game’s ability to enable deeper understanding of the subject.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> ecosystem services, board game, natural sciences, GBL, educational games</p> Maris Morel Jaanus Terasmaa Triinu Jesmin Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Games Based Learning 2022-09-29 2022-09-29 16 1 377 386 10.34190/ecgbl.16.1.511 Playful Participatory Mapping: Co-creating Games to Foster Systems Thinking <p>This paper presents a currently evolving hybrid research, teaching and public engagement methodology that uses game design principles and elements to overcome established limitations of participatory research methodologies and pedagogies (such as lack of transferability of findings and difficulties in comparing outcomes and datasets) through the inclusion of game design elements and a focus on systems thinking. Game design is inherently rooted in systems thinking, which has been highlighted a key competence in addressing the “wicked” problems and Sustainable Development Goals, a linkage which is still weakly explored by research. The paper will discuss the methodology’s theoretical groundings and inspirations, with a particular focus on linking participatory approaches, game design and Donella Meadows’s work on “Leverage Points” for systems-oriented interventions. The paper will then discuss how the methodology builds on and moves beyond established community mapping approaches by working with participants to progressively and co-creatively add more formalised game-like elements and dynamics (simulation, goal-setting, player-mapping, turn-taking, role-playing) that organically scaffold participants in moving towards more abstract systems modelling. Following an articulation of the process and its underlying theoretical framework, the paper will also present brief, reflective accounts of a number of experiments in playful participatory community mapping facilitated over a 18-month period, with diverse groups of participants across different countries engaging with the methodology and informing its evolution. These accounts will showcase how the game design lens has allowed participant communities to develop systems thinking and engage in systems mapping, moving from materially grounded and culturally relevant categories towards more systematised models, which include possible, practical “leverage points” for intervention.</p> Luca Morini Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Games Based Learning 2022-09-29 2022-09-29 16 1 387 395 10.34190/ecgbl.16.1.591 How to get the girls Gaming: A Literature Study on Inclusive Design <p>Gaming is a ubiquitous activity today where many children spend considerable amounts of time playing various games. Serious games have also become a mainstream educational tool in a wide variety of school subjects. Despite this, many games still have a design that mainly appeals to boys where girls are less frequent players. The aim of this study was to gather requirements for a design of serious games where girls should not feel excluded. The research question to answer was: <em>"Which design concepts are important if girls should be engaged in serious gaming?"</em>. Furthermore, the results from this study could be useful for future implementations of educational games. This study strives to address the research gap in the field of inclusive game design, and to gather important requirements for games where girls and boys want to play together. This study was carried out as a scoping literature review to map literature in the field of game design to identify key concepts that can attract the younger girl audience. Scoping literature reviews offer a method of mapping key concepts in a research field to identifying the main sources and types of evidence available. A central aim of a scoping literature review is to synthesise research results to a specific target group as a foundation for future research. For this study, the future research will consist of implementing the found design factors in an educational game on computer science. Findings indicate that there are specific game design concepts that girls find appealing. Important main themes to consider are Creativity and customisation, Character diversity, Collaborative interaction, and Exploration without violence. However, there seems to be several challenges related to the concept of designing specific girl games. The conclusion from this study is rather to choose a more inclusive game design where girls and boys would like to play together. A concept for game design that could be described as having a low threshold, wide walls and a high ceiling. The recommendation for a girl inclusive design is to carefully consider factors such as narration, backstory, social interaction, game graphics, sound design, and personalisation.</p> Peter Mozelius Niklas Humble Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Games Based Learning 2022-09-29 2022-09-29 16 1 396 402 10.34190/ecgbl.16.1.658 Systems Mapping to Support Interdisciplinary Understanding in Serious Game Design <p>This article discusses the advantages and limitations of systems mapping as a method of approaching serious game design on the highly complex social issue of Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) in an interdisciplinary team. The method of systems mapping has been evaluated for the research and design phase of a yet unfinished game. It has been shown to be useful as a tool for research, design and interdisciplinary collaboration. Systems mapping does not provide new knowledge in the respective research area nor does it offer direct solutions to difficult design problems, but it supports the process and makes it more structured and substantial.</p> Lorena Müller Ulrike Spierling Angela Merkle Regina-Maria Dackweiler Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Games Based Learning 2022-09-29 2022-09-29 16 1 403 411 10.34190/ecgbl.16.1.772 Case Study on VR Empathy Game: Challenges with VR Games Development for Emotional Interactions with the VR Characters <p>Empathy development in young children (6 to 9 years old) sets a foundation for emotional regulation and social skills for children’s futures. Researchers from the fields of virtual reality (VR) and game design highlight the potential of VR technologies as a great tool to promote empathy. However, there is little empirical and systematic knowledge on how to use VR technology to help promote empathy in young children. To address this gap, we developed a VR Empathy Game prototype to explore how VR experiences can inculcate empathy development in young children. To evaluate this prototype, we conducted a qualitative study with 15 children from 6 to 9 years old. We used an interpretive case study to provide an in-depth understanding of children’s experiences with the VR Empathy Game. To guide participant selection, we used a purposeful sampling approach and intentionally included K-3 children with different empathy and social skills levels.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>This paper describes one case representing a challenge that children with a low level of empathy can experience while playing the VR Empathy Game. This case explains the game experience of a seven-year-old boy, Gabe. The case is entitled: “The VR Empathy Game Experience with a Focus on Exploring the Environment and Looking for Clues.” Gabe confused intrinsic and extrinsic game goals and played the game focusing only on the VR environment. He perceived the game characters as an information source rather than building relationships with them unlike the children with a higher level of empathy. This case represents the group of four boys who participated in our study. In comparison with other participants, Gabe’s case provided very little evidence of noticing the characters' emotions. Our findings suggest that game designers should provide additional scaffolding for children with little levels of empathy, including additional reflective questions and reminders to interact with the characters. We also suggest a follow-up study exploring how different storylines would help children’s game experience.</p> Ekaterina Muravevskaia Christina Gardner-McCune Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Games Based Learning 2022-09-29 2022-09-29 16 1 412 418 10.34190/ecgbl.16.1.410 Games for Teaching and Learning History: a Systematic Literature Review <p>This work shows a systematic literature review carried out within Scopus database to identify educational projects where games have been used to teach geography and history in secondary education. Following most of PRISMA methodology procedures, while adapting some of its protocols, we identified 255 works. After the first data cleaning, we applied our inclusion and exclusion criteria to end up with 125 relevant results which were refined in later stages. Within our final sample, we applied descriptive statistics to confirm that most projects appear in conference proceedings and that they use mainly educational games created ad hoc instead of commercial games. Many times, these projects have not been implemented and even in these cases, their educational impact is rarely measured rigorously.</p> Jorge Oceja David Abián-Cubillo Marina Torres-Trimallez Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Games Based Learning 2022-09-29 2022-09-29 16 1 419 430 10.34190/ecgbl.16.1.558 Facilitating Social Inclusion of Migrant Students through Digital Games: Design Principles and Pitfalls in Wanderers <p>Schools are central in facilitating the inclusion of migrants and refugees in society. However, research from the LIM: Language, Integration, Media project has shown a lack of activities where students from various cultural backgrounds can come to know one other on equal terms. To meet this need, we designed a collaborative puzzle game – <em>Wanderers</em> – with the goal of facilitating low-stakes social interaction and cultural exchange between high school students with and without migrant backgrounds. This article outlines this design process and explores the design principles and pitfalls for digital games that support the social inclusion of migrants in a classroom setting. In the study, we use a design-based research methodology to address the research question: &nbsp;what design principles can be used to support social inclusion through cultural exchange in local collaborative play? We outline and discuss the following key design principles for games designed to facilitate social inclusion: 1) Facilitating cultural exchange through “safe topics”; 2) Promoting mutual dependency; 3) Diversity in representation and 4) A stimulating theme. We argue that these design principles can be used to design positive experiences that support the idea of inclusion as a two-way process. However, our discussion also shows how these design principles can also reinforce existing majority/minority configurations, and how conventional game design principles may fall short when applied in this specific context. The paper argues for the importance of low-threshold activities, such as small talk about food and holiday traditions, while also highlighting specific challenges in designing games for social integration.</p> Kristine Oygardslia Kristine Ask Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Games Based Learning 2022-09-29 2022-09-29 16 1 431 438 10.34190/ecgbl.16.1.535 Recent Developments regarding Exergames and Individuals with Disabilities <p>Exergames are digital interactive games that require physical movements of upper and lower limbs by the users to achieve simulation with the game screen. Their effects regarding the maintenance of fitness levels and the improvement of their overall health, is proven to be positive. Due to attractiveness, they offer an innovative way to increase physical activity levels of individuals with disabilities. &nbsp;Exergaming may provide both entertainment and multiple benefits for the users while their engagement with the games may produce a positive mood state, socialization, improvement of well-being and good outcomes. Digital environment provides the possibility for the users to participate at the games on equal terms, regardless of academic performance and type of disability. Individuals with disabilities are less physically active compared to individuals without disabilities. As a result, their fitness levels appear to be lower compared to general population and that may cause cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, obesity and depression. The main reason for this is the absence of motivation to participate in physical education programs. Therefore, it might be meaningful to increase their physical activity levels using exergames. The purpose of this study was to explore the possible benefits of exergames on individuals with disabilities. To achieve this, an extensive research and record of relevant publications in recent years took place. Results indicate that exergames had positive effects on individuals with disabilities and although they should not replace their participation at exercise programs in real environments, they can be used in combination with exercise programs adapted to their needs. More specifically, results suggest that exergames are useful, attractive, and efficient tools for enhancing physical activity levels and attitudes. Additionally, studies reveal social, emotional, and motor benefits as well as improvements in communication skills contributing positively to the quality of their life.</p> CHARIKLEIA PATSI Christina Evaggelinou Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Games Based Learning 2022-09-29 2022-09-29 16 1 439 447 10.34190/ecgbl.16.1.735 Designing a Game to Promote Equity in Cybersecurity <p>Cybersecurity faces a persistent problem with attracting and retaining diverse workers. Most exposure to cybersecurity as a discipline tends to come through formal experiences in higher education, often requiring extensive prior experience with computer science content. Therefore, informal learning environments that can serve to both introduce youth to concepts found within cybersecurity, as well as aiding them in building identities as the type of person who can ‘do’ cybersecurity, may be able to advance the goal of diversifying the field. Game-based learning is an effective approach for attracting new learners to specific domains of knowledge in informal contexts. Players who might not otherwise think of themselves as being capable participants within a field can use the structures and supports commonly found in well-designed digital games to build a personal identity as a novice practitioner of that domain. Previous work has found that while cybersecurity is represented in some commercial games, the depiction tends to be either superficial, or when there is a deeper engagement with content, tends to represent a stereotypical personage of a cybersecurity professional. In this paper, we present a digital game, called <em>HEX of The Turtle Islands</em> (<em>HEX</em>), designed to introduce players from historically underrepresented populations to the domain of cybersecurity. <em>HEX</em> leverages several gameplay elements to immerse players in a learning experience centered on cybersecurity: rich, multi-layered narratives; building player self-efficacy and identity within the domain of cybersecurity through challenges rooted in concepts that are authentic to the field; and making the game broadly accessible in terms of technology and design. In introducing HEX, we discuss how the design of the game can broaden participation in cybersecurity and conveys authentic cybersecurity concepts to players. Drawing from 2 years of playtesting data with a diverse group of youth play testers, we discuss both challenges and opportunities for introducing underrepresented youth to cybersecurity through play.</p> Anthony Pellicone Diane Ketelhut Ekta Shokeen David Weintrop Michel Cukier Jandelyn Plane Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Games Based Learning 2022-09-29 2022-09-29 16 1 448 454 10.34190/ecgbl.16.1.825 Fighting against Fake News Using the Card Game "Follow Me” <p>The increasing presence of fake news in the media, especially on social media poses significant damage to our society. Disinformation undermines the credibility of conventional media and the authority of government officials, contributing to the destabilization of democratic systems. The coronavirus pandemic has accelerated these processes; people have been forced to function intensively in the online space, with a related increase in the time spent on social networking sites. At the same time, the so-called infodemic has been unleashed. The amount of fake news – especially dubious information related to the coronavirus – has increased significantly. The most effective protection against fake news is continuous education and the development of critical thinking. Traditional educational approaches are not always sufficient and fail to adapt quickly enough to the dynamic development of technology and society. Educational games can effectively reach young audiences, and therefore they are coming to the fore. These educational games include the card game Follow Me, which focuses on introducing the dynamics of social media. The target audience of the game is primarily secondary school students, and it has been developed with an emphasis on effective use within the high school educational process. In the game, players take on the role of social media users in order to gain as many followers as possible, while trying to maintain their credibility and detect fake news published by other players. The game features articles covering four different domains (health, science, geopolitics, and society), and due to this diversity, topics from different domains inevitably emerge during gameplay. The game was published by the Slovak game development studio Impact Games and is currently available in print in Slovak language, with English, Croatian and Slovenian translations already available online. The aim of this paper is to introduce the game Follow Me and analyse its game mechanics, mainly focusing on the educational elements. The main contribution of the study is a deeper understanding of game mechanics that can develop critical thinking and an estimation of their effectiveness in educating players about the safe use of social media.</p> Vajk Pomichal Andrej Trnka Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Games Based Learning 2022-09-29 2022-09-29 16 1 455 462 10.34190/ecgbl.16.1.586 Unlock Financial Knowledge in Managers Through Games <p>Financial literacy for managers and owners of Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (MSMEs) is defined as the combination of awareness, knowledge, skills, attitudes, and behaviours that a potential entrepreneur or business owner should have to make effective financial decisions to start a business, run a business, and ensure its sustainability and growth (OECD, 2020). To ensure this combination of financial knowledge and skills, different educational perspectives may emerge as the solution. The use of gamification and digital game-based learning (DGBL) are educational methodologies largely used in formal and informal environments, for different target audiences and different fields of knowledge, including finance. However, it is largely used by children and younger people in the same contexts described above. We find a gap that justifies further research on the formal use of DGBL in the adult population, namely for the development of financial literacy. For the use of gamification in this context to be effective is essential to identify which knowledge, skills and attitudes are required for MSMEs managers. The OECD (2020) questionnaire is an example of an instrument used to measure adult financial knowledge namely in managers, owners and future entrepreneurs of MSMEs. The financial literacy content for managers includes questions on basic concepts of asset management, inflation, investments, cash flows and risk analysis. However, at the top of our knowledge, we find little research to support how can we actively develop this awareness and knowledge through games. In this study, through exploratory analysis of government documents and literature, we sought to understand the three scales for measuring financial literacy, namely, financial knowledge, financial attitudes, and financial behaviour, which are the main contents that should be included in the pre-game’s assessment and on the learning objectives. The second concern is how to include these scales in the game to positively impact the behaviour, attitudes and knowledge of the managers of MSMEs. Thus, the contribution of the study is to create through the metrics used to measure financial literacy and the game mechanisms used a proposal for a model for designing digital games for financial literacy. Policymakers, private associations connected to MSMEs, and other players may take, for sure, lessons to be learned to prepare better managers to guarantee stable and sustainable enterprise support.</p> Jéssica Reuter Marta Ferreira Dias Maria Jose Souza Ahmad Ryad Soobhany Amjed Hendi Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Games Based Learning 2022-09-29 2022-09-29 16 1 463 472 10.34190/ecgbl.16.1.842 Finding Appropriate Serious Games in Vocational Education and Training: A Conceptual Approach <p>Stakeholders in vocational training are required to provide appropriate learning opportunities that can be used to develop the needed skills induced by technological change and thereto affected changes in the type of jobs, skill needs, activities, and other economic effects. In light of this, serious games have enormous poten­tial, as they can simulate complex real-life situations without disrupting operations, but in a playful and motivat­ing way, and with adaption to the individual needs of the users. This paper explores the question, how to find appropriate serious games matching the needs for a specific job and skill level. Within the research project “Serious Games for Vocational Education and Training” funded by the German Ministry for Science and Educa­tion, the Serious Games-Information Center (SG-IC, a classical web-based information system in form of a portal) and its under­lying Serious Games Metadata Format (SG-MDF), as semantic basis for the description and retrieval of serious games, is enhanced according to the characteristics and needs in the field of vocational education and training (VET). Educational stakeholders can use the search engine to identify personalized game-based learning oppor­tunities for their individual target groups. The identification of appropriate educational games is based on classifications of occupations, and skill levels on the learning side, and metadata information for the games on the gaming side (i.e. target user group, game genre, learning topics and additional keywords). The paper moti­vates the use of metadata and classification systems and presents the results of a literature search and overview of established classification systems of occupations, with a focus on Germany, but with correspondence to inter­national systems. Based on that analytic work, an application profile ‘vocational education and training’ as an added ‘variant’ of the SG-MDF has been elaborated and integrated within the SG-IC as search engine for educational games for vocational training. Hereto serious games are matched with a database of occupational fields as defined by the Federal Institute for Vocational Education and Training, and main activity as defined by the microcensus, the largest annual household survey of official statistics in Germany.</p> Elisabeth Rotter Philipp Achenbach Birgit Ziegler Stefan Göbel Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Games Based Learning 2022-09-29 2022-09-29 16 1 473 481 10.34190/ecgbl.16.1.577 Gamification for the Development of Competencies in Tec21 Based on Mixed Reality <p>Currently, university students expect to obtain not only valuable knowledge about their majors, but they also want to develop different skills that will allow them to develop and stand out in the highly competitive world of work in which we find ourselves. To achieve this, Tecnologico de Monterrey implemented the Tec21 model, a challenge-based learning system focused on the development of both disciplinary and transversal competencies. Among the innovative tools used to promote these competencies we can find, after our research, the gamification: a technique that uses the resources of a game to promote student learning in an unconventional way, resulting in an excellent means for the development of the competencies. At the beginning of the pandemic, educational institutions reinvented themselves through innovation to make distance learning efficient. At Tecnologico de Monterrey, we have sought to develop problem-solving competencies through the implementation of two gamification strategies: an Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) simulator that emulates the processes of a scale car model manufacturing line and a role-playing game in which students solve problems through a scenario. Three important factors were considered for gamification: engagement, academic rigor, and the development of competencies, all this has been enhanced with the use of emerging technologies such as immersive, augmented, and virtual reality, which allow students to have access to Laboratories at a distance and at any time. The theoretical concepts used, the situations or problems selected, the dynamics of the game, and the use of technological elements such as augmented reality and the use of the Tec Virtual Campus, have made this project an enrichment experience for the users, since the students spent an average of 32 hours of practice per week, improved their confidence in the application of problem-solving methodologies and developed teamwork, problem-solving, and information analysis skills. One of the greatest achievements, additional to the academic aspect, was the increased emotional stability of the students, which had been affected by episodes of depression derived from the confinement.</p> Claudia Lizbeth Salas Rivas Hugo Kenji Fukumura Pérez Luis Javier Morales Rivas Carlos Alberto González Almaguer Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Games Based Learning 2022-09-29 2022-09-29 16 1 482 490 10.34190/ecgbl.16.1.679 Learning by Co-Designing Environmental (In)Justice Games <p><strong>Abstract:</strong>&nbsp;This paper describes undergraduate students' learning after researching environmental topics and co-creating and disseminating environmental justice games to fulfill their course and university service-learning requirements. Post-play reflections revealed motivation toward improvement in providing a game format that audiences would find engaging while learning about the seriousness of the environmental topic. Further, evidence of students' critical thinking, reflecting on the lack of environmental justice was noted. Students remarked that disseminating information by "spreading the word" is a key to raising awareness about environmental injustices. Essays also revealed students' intrigue with the game's co-creation process and enjoyed playing games with others. These findings may benefit researchers and educators interested in game creation as critical pedagogy.</p> Nancy Sardone Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Games Based Learning 2022-09-29 2022-09-29 16 1 491 499 10.34190/ecgbl.16.1.846 Understanding the Elements of Challenge and Skills in Educational Games <p>Although researchers suggest that games have a positive experience in a learning outcome, there is still a lack of investigation on the potential of game mechanics for better flow experience and learning outcome. According to the literature, the flow state in the game creates player engagement which leads to a positive learning outcome. Based on flow theory, challenge and abilities are two crucial game elements to achieve a flow state. This paper discusses the importance of conflict and competition in generating challenges. In gameplay, the players use their abilities demanded by the game to complete the challenge. This paper discusses the role of different skills required to play the game, and through these abilities, the players learn. This paper explains the correlation between challenge and various skills needed to play games. Conflict can be the better approach to generate the challenge because it is endogenous. Knowledge is a crucial ability to incorporate into educational games. This paper also explains the role of prior knowledge, and it is observed that the player achieves a better learning outcome if the game demands some prior knowledge to play the game.</p> Madhuri Sasupilli Prasad Bokil Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Games Based Learning 2022-09-29 2022-09-29 16 1 500 507 10.34190/ecgbl.16.1.655 Automatic Calibration for a Mutual Insurance System in a Multi-Player Serious Game <p>In the context of a serious educational game that motivates children to adopt more sustainable<br>home-to-school mobility habits, we designed and implemented a collaborative multi-player mutual insurance<br>system, with the intent to support low-performing players with the help of high-performing ones. As a<br>preliminary step towards a field study evaluating this new game mechanic, in this paper we present the design<br>and the development for an automatic calibration of the system, simulating the effects of the choices for each<br>parameter in the player&amp;#39;s game progression.</p> Mauro Scanagatta Annapaola Marconi Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Games Based Learning 2022-09-29 2022-09-29 16 1 508 517 10.34190/ecgbl.16.1.536 How to Evaluate Serious Games Concepts: A Systematic Prototyping and Testing Approach <p>The challenge in developing a serious game is to find the perfect balance between learning and playing. The development process should include an appropriate involvement of the target group and enable a systematic evaluation of this balance through prototyping and testing. The goal is to create an entertaining and purposeful learning experience and thus enable knowledge growth. This paper presents the evaluation results of the serious game E.F.A. with the target group – managers in the social service sector. The first prototype was tested in an early phase as a paper prototype by experts in media didactics and subject experts. Early stage testing is a decisive factor for the development of serious games. However, the accessibility of the target group is not always given for fast testing and iterative improvement. After collecting expert feedback and incorporating it into the game, the high-fidelity prototype was created and tested by the target group. Those test runs were followed by group interviews. Their results are the focus of this paper which aims at answering the following research questions: How did the target group experience the serious game and their increase in knowledge? To what extent can the evaluation results with the target group be linked to the early tests with the paper prototype? How does the feedback vary and what conclusions can be drawn from this?</p> <p>The results of the paper show that the serious game was rated very differently among the target group. Some generally praised the playful approach. Others criticized the game as childish and unsuitable for the target group. The feedback obtained from different user groups with the help of different prototypes varied for a set of evaluation criteria such as playing time, remembered knowledge and dialogs. For each evaluation criteria recommendations are given regarding the test group and type of prototype.</p> Cornelia Schade Antonia Stagge Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Games Based Learning 2022-09-29 2022-09-29 16 1 518 525 10.34190/ecgbl.16.1.515 Developing an Evaluation Framework for Analysing Educational Simulation Games <p>Despite the emergence of new methodologies for analysing and evaluating games using usability testing and heuristics evaluation frameworks, there is still lack of inclusive game heuristics for analysing educational simulation games. To address this, we conduct two case studies: professional critic game reviews and focus group interviews. We have looked at the effects of games on players’ gaming experiences in different gaming context (i.e. playing educational versus (vs.) entertaining simulation games).&nbsp; Findings show various game design similarities &amp; differences between playing these simulation games. It also highlights game design issues. In this paper, we propose a new game evaluation heuristics model (GADDIE) that consists of Game Analysis (GA), Design (D), Development (D), Implementation (I) and Evaluation (E). These heuristics were compiled as a result of game design issues identified from the professional critic game reviews and the focus group interviews.&nbsp; On the basis of the data obtained it is argued that the GADDIE model could provide further guidance that leads on from previous research, since it encapsulates research findings, game design principles, human computer interaction, usability testing guidelines, educational perspectives and overall our experiences as educators and game researchers. Consequently, the proposed framework would support our ongoing research project in game evaluation process (educational vs. entertaining), and other researchers, more effectively.</p> Souad Slyman Marco Gillies Vally Lytra Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Games Based Learning 2022-09-29 2022-09-29 16 1 526 534 10.34190/ecgbl.16.1.363 Missions with Monty: A Game-Based Learning Environment to Promote Comprehension Monitoring and Science Achievement <p>While game-based learning environments (GBLE) are an increasingly popular means to engage learners, there remains limited research on the benefits of GBLEs for students’ learning and metacognitive skills in classroom contexts. <em>Missions with Monty</em> is a GBLE developed to engage students as they learn comprehension strategies to support their scientific literacy with targeted Next Generation Science Standards content. The current missions focus on ecosystems, earth and human activity, molecules, and organisms. Students navigate through the game to solve challenges that require the application and transfer of science knowledge. One primary and unique focus of <em>Missions with Monty</em> is to benefit students’ metacognition through comprehension monitoring. Comprehension monitoring is an essential strategy to support literacy and is measured through students’ accuracy in rating their performance on comprehension items. In the game, students are explicitly taught and subsequently practice essential comprehension monitoring strategies. Additional key educational outcomes for students playing <em>Missions with Monty</em> include reading achievement, science knowledge, and transfer of science learning.</p> <p>In this study we examined 10 and 11 year old students’ outcomes as they either played the game (<em>n</em> = 144) or learned the content via a computer-based learning environment (CBLE) without game elements in a comparison condition (<em>n </em>= 80) within classrooms of diverse learners in the United States. Significant gains for science learning were found across conditions, (<em>t</em>(223) = 13.67, <em>p </em>&lt;.001). The primary research question of interest focused on whether students who played <em>Missions with Monty</em> were better able to monitor their understanding of science text after playing the game and therefore we compared monitoring, as measured by bias and accuracy, before and after the game play. Effective metacognition is demonstrated by low bias and high accuracy. Findings revealed that both conditions demonstrated improved bias (<em>t</em>(223) = 4.44, <em>p </em>&lt; .001) and accuracy (<em>t</em>(223) = 11.81, <em>p </em>&lt; .001). Thus, students were better able to monitor their science learning through the game, an essential skill for scientific literacy. Future research should continue to examine the benefits of GBLEs versus CBLEs in terms of benefits for motivation and learning.</p> Rayne Sperling John Nietfeld Samira Syal Taylor Young Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Games Based Learning 2022-09-29 2022-09-29 16 1 535 542 10.34190/ecgbl.16.1.792 Digital Games in Schools: A Qualitative Study on Teacher's Beliefs <p>Games are omnipresent for children and young people. In primary and secondary schools in Switzerland, however, games still eke out a niche existence. Topics such as Game Design, Serious Games, or the Game Culture in general offer enormous potential for teaching, and there are many ways for pupils to experience the world of games together. However, specific training programs for teachers are necessary. For many teachers, these topics are less tangible than they are for children. To develop a new curriculum for in-service teachers, this paper addresses the prerequisites for a transversal games-curriculum for primary and secondary schools in Switzerland. In this endeavour, first, links between games and the Swiss Curriculum 21 are presented. Second, recent literature on games in the school context is reviewed, and finally, interviews with teachers on their beliefs and ideas about digital games are analysed. The results show that although teachers often have a limited idea of games in the classroom, they consider the topic relevant and sometimes already use game-based approaches.</p> Bernadette Spieler Adrian Degonda Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Games Based Learning 2022-09-29 2022-09-29 16 1 543 551 10.34190/ecgbl.16.1.653 Training team creativity with Lego Serious Play: Upside and downside of team diversity <p>We trained 40 teams using Lego Serious Play (LSP), a facilitated workshop method in which the aspects of visual­ization, com­mitment, fun and shared storytelling are used. LSP improves open and participatory communication, collaborative learning and intuitive imagination and reduced ‘free ridership’ in innovation teams; it was easier to achieve a ‘train of thought’ or ‘flow’ within a team. LSP is a promising creativity method, although its effi­cacy is influenced by conditions. Teams can enhance or disrupt creative performance. Different mindsets within creative teams may lead to a broader pallet of new per­spectives in the ideation phase of inno­vation in which divergent thinking is important to explore novel viewpoints. However, diversity may lead to relationship conflicts in a team. We address the dilemma of achieving synergistic benefits from team diversity while managing negative interpersonal tensions between heterogeneous team members in relation to motivational aspects and team climate and summarize this in a significant three-path mediation model. We found a highly significant path with team performance of team diversity, com­mitment, and ‘voice’ (i.e. the extent to which team members are encouraged to express their views in the team). Team diversity has a potentially upside effect on creative performance, as well as a practical down­side effect: it can be a source of interpersonal tension and intergroup biases and consequently less commitment leading to a less open team climate, resulting in lower team performance.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>:</p> Frans STEL Peter Van den Berg Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Games Based Learning 2022-09-29 2022-09-29 16 1 552 561 10.34190/ecgbl.16.1.786 Game-based Learning. A tool that enhances the collaborative work. Case study: undergraduate students <div><span lang="EN">The way a professor teaches in the classroom mostly at the undergraduate level is constantly changing, and this is reflected in how pedagogical resources are transformed. What was previously unthinkable to use in the classroom is now standard, including an impactful tool, the video games. This digital tool, over the years, has positioned itself as an element that goes beyond entertainment, and have proven that thanks to the interaction that it provides the alumni has gain more capacities and tools beyond the academic goal. The objective of this work was to delve into the relevance of <em>Game-Based Learning</em> (GBL) and how it affects students to develop and acquire teamwork competency and strengthen peer collaboration. This paper aims to show the results obtained from the research and analysis of 99 undergraduate students enrolled in creative studies; specially, the majors that are included are: communication, digital art, marketing, musical production, architecture, and industrial design, all these students are part of private college in Puebla, México. The quantitative methodology used a six-item, Likert-scale instrument. This questionnaire was applied to undergraduate students in academic programs related to the creation of multimedia and transmedia content and other creative areas. The results indicated that the students appreciated the educational methodology of using video games as a didactic tool and this creates that the students get more involved not only with the classes, but with their own learning. It must be cleared that this kind of methodology must be applied during the sessions, and, of course, it helps if cooperation exists among the class members inside and outside the classroom. Also, this tool supports teachers in improving class dynamics and the way of teaching changes allowing them to assume a new role as a guide to knowledge and encourager of more student interactions. Thus, recreational activities utilizing video games in various activities potentiates educational innovation. These tools positively impact </span></div> Rodrigo Urcid Puga Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Games Based Learning 2022-09-29 2022-09-29 16 1 570 577 10.34190/ecgbl.16.1.419 Gamification in Cybersecurity Education: The RAD-SIM Framework for Effective Learning <p>The effectiveness of gamification in educational technology and digital learning environments has been the subject of research for over a decade. Gamified interventions encourage active learning by promoting role-playing, mentalisation, and experimentation. Learner-centred approaches have been shown to increase learning outcomes compared to traditional methods in some domains. Although the behavioural drivers associated with gamified learning are now well documented, practical advice for game designers who produce workplace training is much less common. This paper proposes the RAD-SIM framework for behaviourally effective cybersecurity games design, whereby psychological and behavioural principles are combined with learning theories to facilitate practical game-based learning. Using the framework will increase the engagement and retention of knowledge of the end-user. Although designed with cybersecurity training in mind, there are implications for educational game design in general. Future avenues for research, including potential case studies in practice, increasing the customisability of gamified interventions, and utilising natural data from organisations are considered.</p> <p>Social Machines conducted this work funded by the Research Institute for Sociotechnical Cyber Security (RISCS).</p> Lily Thompson Nicholas Melendez Justin Hempson-Jones Francesca Salvi Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Games Based Learning 2022-10-18 2022-10-18 16 1 562 569 10.34190/ecgbl.16.1.504 Player perceptions of informal learning in non-educational games <p>The potential of non-educational games in learning is well-established, but there have been relatively few empirical studies attempting to explore the kinds of informal learning take place in non-educational games outside of formal education. Simultaneously, student motivation is known to have a connection to learning outcomes, but there is a lack of research on the relationship between gaming motivations and informal learning in games. This paper aims to fill the gap in research by, firstly, forming an empirically-based understanding of what players perceive they are learning from playing non-educational games, and secondly, exploring the potential connections of self-articulated learning outcomes with motivations to play games and preferences for gameplay activities.</p> <p>The research data was collected through an online survey panel. The respondents were asked to describe in open-text answers what they had learned by playing games, and their motives and gameplay activity preferences were measured using two psychometric instruments, Motives of the Autonomous Player, MAP (Vahlo and Tuuri, submitted) and the gameplay activity inventory GAIN (Vahlo et al, 2018).</p> <p>The open-text responses analysed using data-driven content analysis, which resulted in 11 main categories of learning outcomes. Cluster analysis of the main categories revealed three clusters indicating informal game-based learner types: (1) Learning perseverance, learning mainly related to coping skills and self-enhancement, (2) Learning practices and communalities, focusing on practical and interpersonal skills, and (3) Learning to perform, emphasising cognitive and sensori-motor competencies.</p> <p>Comparisons of the learning outcome clusters with motives and gameplay preferences revealed the learner types had distinct profiles which denote differences between learner types in the overall motivation to play games, in certain motivational factors, and in preferences of gameplay activities. Based on this analysis we suggest the existence of two distinct continuums, transfer of learning, and the situational dependence to gameplay activities, where these learner types are located.</p> Tanja Välisalo Jukka Vahlo Kai Tuuri Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Games Based Learning 2022-09-29 2022-09-29 16 1 578 587 10.34190/ecgbl.16.1.745 How to Welcome First-year Students: Best Practice of a Gamified Orientation Day <p>Various difficulties characterise students’ adaptation to university. It is crucial to engage first-year students from the first moment of university entrance, to support their transition from secondary to higher education, and to facilitate their learning experiences and learning outcomes. This study starts from the dual premise that orientation activities offer first-year students important transitional support to cope with the stressful challenges while enabling a sense of community, and that, as students sometimes consider orientation activities as tedious, gamification might make participation more enjoyable, while stimulating students’ motivation and information retention. Based on educational literature on gamification of learning settings, this study presents the design, implementation, and evaluation of a gamified orientation day, organised for first-year students. The design of the gamified orientation day is based on the eight gamification features of Apostol, Zaharescu and Alexe (2013): players, story, goals, rules, problem solving, feedback, safe environment, and sense of mastery. The objectives of the orientation day and its practical implementation are explained on the theoretical basis of these eight features. Qualitative survey data (<em>N</em>=1326) were collected to evaluate the strengths of the orientation day and the areas for further improvement. The data show that students perceive the gamified orientation day as a pleasant learning experience. Students appreciate collaborating with peer students and their active participation in knowledge acquisition. This study provides evidence-based best practices for the gamification of orientation days, and aims to inspire other universities in adapting their strategy on facilitating the transition and orientation of first-year students.</p> Lize Vanderstraeten Fanny Buysschaert Viktor De Mulder Delphine François Laure Janssens Ann Maes Grégory Maes Elke Minnaert Evelien Opdecam Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Games Based Learning 2022-09-29 2022-09-29 16 1 588 596 10.34190/ecgbl.16.1.672 Inclusive AR-games for Education of Deaf Children: Challenges and Opportunities <p>Game-based learning has had a rapid development in the 21st century, attracting an increasing audience. However, inclusion of all is still not a reality in society, with accessibility for deaf and hard of hearing children as a remaining challenge. To be excluded from learning due to communication barriers can have severe consequences for further studies and work. Based on previous research Augmented Reality (AR) games can be joyful learning tools that include activities with different sign languages, but AR based learning games for deaf and hard of hearing lack research. This paper aims to present opportunities and challenges of designing inclusive AR games for education of deaf children. Methods involved conducting a scoping review of previous studies about AR for deaf people. Experts were involved as co-authors for in-depth understanding of sign languages and challenges for deaf people. A set of AR input and output techniques were analysed for appropriateness, and various AR based game mechanics were compared.&nbsp; Results indicate that inclusive AR gameplay for deaf people could be built on AR based image and object tracking, complemented with sign recognition. These technologies provide input from the user and the real-world environment typically via the camera to the app. Scene tracking and GPS can be used for location-based game mechanics. Output to the user can be done via local signed videos ideally, but also with images and animations. Moreover, a civic intelligence approach can be applied to overcome many of the challenges that have been identified in five dimensions for inclusion of deaf people i.e., cultural, educational, psycho-social, semantic, and multimodal. The input from trusted, educated signers and teachers can enable the connection between real world objects and signed videos to provide explanations of concepts. The conclusion is that the development of an inclusive, multi-language AR game for deaf people needs to be carried out as an international collaboration, addressing all five dimensions.</p> Thomas Westin José Neves Peter Mozelius Carla Sousa Lara Mantovan Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Games Based Learning 2022-09-29 2022-09-29 16 1 597 604 10.34190/ecgbl.16.1.588 Evaluation of Empirically Collected Feedback from a Simulation Game for Digitalised Production <p>Digitalisation causes a fundamental change in industrial production and brings new challenges for which employees in the manufacturing industry must be trained. A simulation game developed by researchers of the Fraunhofer Institute for Manufacturing Engineering and Automation IPA supports this change process, from lean production to digitalisation in production through a game-based qualification. To evaluate how qualified employees are and to what extent they accept digital transformation, a quantitative survey was designed and filled out by the participants after each simulation game workshop. This paper aims to examine the mindset of different focus groups regarding their awareness of ongoing challenges concerning digital transformation. The survey results show that despite challenges due to the changes in production technologies and environments caused by Industry 4.0, the simulation game has generally contributed to a better understanding of the impact of digitalisation and the acceptance of the changes in production caused by the digital transformation.</p> Ozan Yesilyurt Henry Himmelstoß Andreas Bildstein Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Games Based Learning 2022-09-29 2022-09-29 16 1 605 611 10.34190/ecgbl.16.1.580 Let's Jazz: a Case Study on Teaching Music with Educational Escape Rooms <p>Escape rooms have been proven to be a functional game-based approach to teach a variety of subjects. Teachers as well as students are eager to play escape rooms in the classroom; field studies have demonstrated how escape games are a memorable activity with a high retention rate, especially if followed by a proper debriefing session, in which learnings emerged and are made consistent. In recent years literature on educational escape rooms has grown, yet there is little body of research on educational escape rooms on music education. In this paper we present an educational escape room about Afro-American music at the beginning of the past century. The players are asked to solve a murder case happened in the backstage of a jazz club in New Orleans. Such scenario gives the players/students the opportunity to "experience", within the escape room context, cultural and historical details and characteristics related to this musical genre. The puzzles within the escape room are formally related to jazz and Afro-American music, giving players/students the possibility to learn and have a "first-hand" experience with concepts that would otherwise remain purely theoretical within a normal classroom environment. Learning has been measured by the means of a 3-step test design: the pre-test was administered before playing the escape room, the first post-test was administered right after playing the escape room and before the debriefing, while the second post-test was administered two weeks after the debriefing phase. From a qualitative point of view the teacher has noticed high motivation while playing the game, with respect to a normal classroom activity. The quantitative results of the second post-test have shown students have retained many of the concepts presented within the escape room and this highlights the importance of a debriefing phase to consolidate learning after playing an educational escape room.</p> Masiar Babazadeh Luca Botturi Giacomo Reggiani Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Games Based Learning 2022-09-29 2022-09-29 16 1 656 665 10.34190/ecgbl.16.1.854 Digital Escape Games in Educational Programs for Financial Literacy <p><em>Escape from the Castle</em> is a digital escape game created with the collaboration of the Museum of Saving in Turin (Italy), Neuroscience Lab Intesa Sanpaolo Innovation Center, and the GAME Science Research Center of IMT School for Advanced Studies Lucca. In the escape game, players must help Mica, the mascot of the Museum, to run away from the Ghost of the Baroness, from its Castle. To do that, every player has to solve four puzzles in four different rooms. Each room is correlated to a financial issue, such as saving strategies and planning. The game aims to increase the awareness that money represents a means for achieving a purpose (i.e., use value of money) and not an end, from a behavioural and neuroscientific point of view. So we built a study about the behaviour of teenagers. According to the literature, the cooperative approach proposes emotional and cognitive involvement as a tool to strengthen learning, increases awareness of self-efficacy and, when applied to money management, increases the self-perception of being able to make consumption choices. To better understand the mechanisms of cooperation, we built an experiment with 118 students from eleven to fourteen years old, that played the game during a visit to the Museum. We divided students into two groups: one in which students could collaborate with each other in solving the puzzles (treatment) and one in which they had to play individually (control), and we collected score and time of play (behavioural data). In each group, two students wore eye-trackers to record pupil dilation to collect neurophysiological data. Here we present mainly the behavioural results that show that the students who were allowed to collaborate obtained, on average, double the score compared to those who played individually. Furthermore, those who collaborated finished the game in less time than those who have not played as a group. Moreover, combining behavioural data with neurophysiological data, there are indications that high pupil dilation is correlated with high engagement in play, and this is often true in collaborating groups.</p> Matteo Bisanti Roberto Di Paolo Veronica Pizziol Sebastiano Accardi Francesca Maggi Giovanna Paladino Emiliano Ricciardi Ennio Bilancini Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Games Based Learning 2022-09-29 2022-09-29 16 1 666 674 10.34190/ecgbl.16.1.857 The Burden of Choice: Using Games to Teach Ethics as a Skill <p>Learning and teaching ethics often presents a series of challenges that are not found in other topics. In order to teach (and learn) ethics as a skill, descriptive approaches are often not enough, and a more direct experience to ethically-relevant situations that prompts for subjective reflection is needed. Examples of relevant scenarios might be used to strengthen the learning of ethically-relevant matters, but even in these cases, the spectator is still a sort of &amp;quot;back-seat driver&amp;quot; with no agentivity. However, interactive media, such as digital games, can sometimes require the player to decide, up to a point, the way a fictional story is tailored. This added agentivity can allow for the appearance of a feeling of responsibility towards choices and outcomes, and can be helpful to foster genuine reflection on the ethically-relevant dimension behind. This paper explores how different game design approaches can be used to prompt genuine ethical reflection in their players. This exploration focuses on the design of meaningful choices, attachments and spaces for reflection as the key elements in order for a game to be used as a gateway to learning ethics by subjective exposure. The paper starts by considering how different techniques have be used in commercial games in order to do create genuine moral involvement. The insights taken from these considerations are then applied in the design and implementation of a prototype of an interactive narrative, currently under development, aimed to be used as a complementary tool to teach (and learn) ethics as a skill.</p> Joan Casas-Roma Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Games Based Learning 2022-09-29 2022-09-29 16 1 675 683 Eco Tetris: A Serious Game on Sustainability <p>Recycling has grown to be extremely relevant for the maintenance of our planet, but also for our well-being. Sustainability is a key issue in modern societies, relying on intergenerational care and education to promote recycling habits and social responsibility. Raising awareness towards recycling and healthy environmental habits, and motivating people to become more responsible about sustainability and the environment might be achieved through a game, designed to be simple and intuitive and to enhance the learning process. Eco Tetris is a game, designed to teach about the importance of recycling. Based on the well-known Tetris game, Eco Tetris builds upon this by adding card collecting mechanics and integrating the game with the real world via geo-referencing, beacons, and augmented reality experiences. The main goal of this game is to raise awareness and make the players more conscious of their environmental decisions and habits, while also being entertained. Our primary focus is the older generation, for whom the game is kept simple, in terms of both usability and design. Eco Tetris is a game whose main concern is to transmit knowledge on how to recycle and its importance for our planet. In this game, players are challenged to place the garbage in the right recycling bin. The mechanic is virtually the same as when recycling. Our goal is to imbue the player with recycling habits. The core gameplay loop will have the player doing the sorting exercise – separating garbage in-game, mentally associating it to its right colors. The bridge between the in-game and real-world is achieved via geo-reference modules and beacons. When visiting an eco-point, the player will have access to additional content, like an augmented reality experience, that provides positive reinforcement and knowledge about players’ actions and the environment in general. We expect this game to promote ecological responsibility and a major view of one’s role in the recycling process. The game is developed towards the enhancement of decision-making, memory skills, awareness, responsibility, and learning of its players.</p> Paula Escudeiro Maria de Sá Escudeiro Márcia Campos Nuno Escudeiro Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Games Based Learning 2022-09-29 2022-09-29 16 1 684 692 10.34190/ecgbl.16.1.836 Room2Educ8: A Conceptual Framework for Designing Educational Escape Rooms <p>Despite being a relatively new concept, escape rooms are used in academia as learning and collaborative tools. Research findings have established that educational escape rooms (EERs) can create immersion as they combine the strengths of storytelling and gameplay, therefore eliciting high motivation and engagement and so promoting successful learning. Yet evidence demonstrates that there is little consistency in the approaches adopted in this emerging field. A major obstacle faced by educators is the lack of practical design frameworks for EERs. To address this, we propose Room2Educ8, a user-centred conceptual framework based on Design Thinking principles to operationalise the development of EERs. This framework provides heuristics for empathising with learners, defining learning objectives and constraints, adding narrative, designing puzzles, briefing and debriefing participants, prototyping and playtesting, documenting the whole process, and evaluating the escape room experience. It delivers an easy-to-follow guideline that can be adopted and adapted in various learning contexts to create immersive learning experiences. Room2Educ8’s prescribed nature makes it also approachable for commercial escape room designers who consider moving into Serious games territory. To validate the integrity and use of the proposed framework, 104 participants with no prior experience in EER design used Room2Educ8 from 2018 to 2022 to develop 26 EERs. Feedback was obtained through a combination of surveys and focus groups. The framework validation suggests that Room2Educ8 can be proposed as a valid tool for EER design. Participants found the framework very detailed, with clear and understandable steps that were easy to follow regardless of lack of prior experience in EER design. It can be used to develop a wide range of EER types covering different topics and allows designers to get a deeper understanding of the people they are designing for.</p> Panagiotis Fotaris Theodoros Mastoras Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Games Based Learning 2022-09-29 2022-09-29 16 1 693 701 Students’ Learning Experience in Online Games-Based Sex Education in Thai Secondary Schools <p>In sex education, traditional teaching approaches that place the teacher in the centre of learning provide little opportunity for promoting the development of students’ sexual knowledge, maturity, self-confidence, communication skills, and well-rounded personalities. In Thailand, this traditional approach has an impact on teenage students’ effective learning for the Comprehensive Sex Education (CSE) curriculum through their behaviours and attitudes about sex-related topics. Moreover, CSE does not cover many approaches such as discussions and debates to promote students’ analytic and critical-thinking skills related to sexual-related topics. (MSDHS, 2019 ; UNESCO, 2021 &amp; UNICEF, 2016). This study <u>i</u>nvestigates students' learning CSE through embedded digital Games-Based Learning (GBL) module that is delivered to Grade 7 (age 12-14) secondary school students in the north of Thailand. Researchers in this study developed a game that aims at encouraging and stimulating students’ skills to analyse and critique their understanding of CSE. The purpose of this paper is to investigate how the levels of Bloom’s Taxonomy have been manifested with students’ learning using GBL. In the course of the study, 1152 students responded to answer pre and post-tests. The statistical findings show that students’ scores in the post-test were significantly higher than those of the pre-test (withought GBL). This paper concludes that, GBL facilitated opportunities for students to conceptualize, apply, analyse, synthesize, evaluate and create their learning actively and skilfully. However, the statistical data highlights that the development measured after the use of CSE gamified syllabus does not occur at the same rate and that some skills developed at a higher rate than others. Importantly, the study found that GBL is not a standalone approach to teach CSE, other pedagogical approaches (e.g., enquiry-based learning) need to be embedded. These approaches can be implemented with or without technology, but they need to be planed ahead. Final study conclusion is that, efficient teaching of CSE is not down to students only, collective efforts of other stakeholders (e.g., parents, policy makers, etc), are needed.</p> Nashwa Ismail Gihan Ismail On-Anong Thammajinda Kanyapat Chaeye Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Games Based Learning 2022-09-29 2022-09-29 16 1 702 712 10.34190/ecgbl.16.1.866 Gamification of Strategic Thinking: Using a digital Board Game on Steam <p>This is the third article in a series of articles reflecting on implementing the Commercial Off The Shelf (COTS) Board Game "Scythe" in an educational setting. It reflects on the evolution of a Game-Based Learning (GBL) approach teaching fundamental management methods and training 21st Century Skills. The first iteration of Scythe as the board game platform to train and educate students in OODA-Loop and decision support techniques was planned as a three-day on-premise workshop in February 2020. The kick-off was in November 2019 and was followed by a long self-study preparation phase. It transformed into a fully distributed learning event on short notice due to the advent of COVID-19. The second iteration, from November 2020 to March 2021, was a four-month closely supervised distributed learning experience featuring SWOT-Analysis, Kanban-Board, Scrum and other agile management methods next to the OODA-Loop. These two iterations had one thing in common. The board game Scythe was used as an analogue board game, and a Slack Workspace was used to submit pictures of the physical board game to reflect on the current situation. In the second iteration, Steam licences for the digital version of Scythe (Digital Scythe) were provided to students as a decision support tool. From November 2021 to February 2022, the third iteration implemented Digital Scythe entirely. Therefore, the final tournament and highlight of the learning experience were also fully digital, with new challenges for facilitation. This complete digitalisation also provided unique learning opportunities, particularly concerning 21st-century skills. Overall, this new seminar prototype was a huge success, and the demand for this kind of learning experience looks pretty high. It emphasises virtualisation using the popular gaming platform Steam. This article also applies a framework for distributed wargaming.</p> Thorston Kodalle Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Games Based Learning 2022-09-29 2022-09-29 16 1 713 722 10.34190/ecgbl.16.1.898 Modelling Core Personality Traits Behaviours in a Gamified Escape Room Environment <p>Personality Traits are one of the most important aspects of human behaviour analysis that can be widely used in a plethora of scientific fields. Nowadays, a variety of industries use self-assessment techniques to evaluate their employees or candidates to form effective teams based on the relationships between the personnel. The Big Five personality traits, also known as the OCEAN Five model, encompass an individual’s behaviour on five factors: Openness, Conscientiousness, Extraversion, Agreeableness, and Neuroticism. Currently, the evaluation is based on questionnaires, which are prone to subjectivity and can be biased. In this paper, we analyse the behaviours on which each trait is based, in a series of 3D Escape Rooms with the aim of collecting metrics in a number of settings/situations to effectively assess them, with the use of gamification. Each Escape Room has unique features and simulates special occasions to monitor the player's reactions as well as gameplay style to generate specific models that calculate the level of each personality trait. The final profiling, however, is based on a combination of metrics from the different rooms since the behaviours are common and overlap with each other but can be evaluated in different situations. Results validate the mathematical models of metrics for each behaviour and crystallise the nature of the situations in which these behaviours can be modelled. Therefore, through gamification, a new generic model for categorising players, based on the Ocean five personality trait model, is generated.</p> Georgios Liapis Katerina Zacharia Kejsi Rrasa Aikaterini Liapi Ioannis Vlahavas Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Games Based Learning 2022-09-29 2022-09-29 16 1 723 731 10.34190/ecgbl.16.1.602 University Students’ Video Gaming - Reasons, Preferences, and Behavioural Effects <p>Research on players’ reasons for video gaming, their video game preferences, and the behavioural effects of video gaming on the players tends to study those issues separately. &nbsp;This study attempts to explore all those issues collectively with the aim of facilitating game designers to develop appealing educational games for university students without inflicting negative behavioural impacts on the students.&nbsp; Relevant data from 100 undergraduates were collected from an online survey.&nbsp; Cluster analysis of the eight major reasons for playing video games resulted in grouping the respondents into five clusters. The cluster that rated <em>peer effect</em> as the major reason for playing is male-dominated whereas the cluster that rated <em>family influence</em> as the major reason is female-dominated. A similar analysis of the respondents’ video game genre preferences reveals that the cluster favouring fighting and battle games is male-dominated, whereas the cluster favouring family entertainment games is female-dominated. &nbsp;Both genders enjoy playing challenging adventure-strategy games. Most respondents perceived that their cognitive functioning had improved through video gaming, but no conclusion can be drawn as to whether video gaming can improve their social and psychological functioning. Except for poor sleeping habits, most respondents had not experienced any significant negative effects from playing video games. No statistical evidence supports that playing violent video games would induce aggressive behaviours. &nbsp;As games that involve a high demand for players’ motor skills may not be a good choice for educational games and violent games may induce poor sleep quality, it is concluded that challenging adventure games and strategy games are suitable educational game genres for undergraduate students.</p> Kian Millamena Alvin Kwan Nicolei Panlilio Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Games Based Learning 2022-09-29 2022-09-29 16 1 732 741 10.34190/ecgbl.16.1.856 The Contribution of Game-based learning: Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Dyscalculia <p>This paper explores the potential of games to mathematics learning and promotion of global<br />psychomotricity, relational/social skills in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and/or Dyscalculia students of Basic Education in Portugal. Inspired by Space Adventure: Defend the Planet! (SADP), an educational research-based game to children&amp;#39;s primary mathematics’ learning [PTDC/COM-CSS/32022/2017], a game-based intervention was created to psychomotricity sessions at school facilities. The study was conducted by the researcher, Superior Technician of SEN and Rehabilitation. A mixed method approach is used to research: what impact does the intervention have on participants&amp;#39; motivation, engagement, learning of mathematics and development of participants? Five schools in Portugal participated in the study, between December 2021 and March 2022, with 12 sessions, one session/week, 45 minutes. The sample: 19 participants: 12 boys, 9 with ASD and 3 with Dyscalculia; 7 girls, 2 with ASD and 5 with Dyscalculia. The average age is M=8.6 with SD=1.8. Prior to the intervention, the following instruments were applied: pre-tests of math skills, communication and social interaction, receptive and expressive language; Childhood Autism Rating<br />Scale; a Battery Movement Assessment Battery for Children; questionnaire Technologies/Video Games and Questionnaire of Support Measures for Learning and Inclusion. During the intervention, an observation grid and alternative communication materials were used per session. A PC, the SADP, gymnasium/relaxation room with a chair, table and gym supplies. From the results, computers, tablets, and mobile phones are the most frequently used by children. GRID/ABC Autism, Bini ABC/Human Body, and Minecraft/Troll are video games often played by participants. One girl aged 12 explained to the researcher how to create worlds on Minecraft, which is an indicator that “good” video games could be beneficial for ASD. “I feel free to explore my imagination!”- she said. Most children expressed rich verbalizations about SADP: “I love it”, “This game is interesting”. As preliminary results children were motivated, participative, engaged with learning math, and able to co-create motor activities inspired by SADP challenges. The data analysis of the present study is in progress and will be presented.</p> <p> </p> Vera Pradiante Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Games Based Learning 2022-09-29 2022-09-29 16 1 742 749 10.34190/ecgbl.16.1.620 Who Stole the Book of Kells? Description and Player Evaluation of a Cryptography Game for Primary School Students <p>Several studies suggest the need to develop technology skills from a young age. The development of computational thinking enhances multidisciplinary abilities, such as abstracting and decomposing a problem into smaller parts to find a solution. Among various tools, educational games can be implemented to efficiently stimulate the development of technology skills in primary school students. The current paper describes an educational game designed to motivate players to learn and reflect on cryptography, a collection of computer science techniques adopted for data protection. <em>The Code of Kells</em> is a mystery game that aims to support the development of computational thinking and maths abilities for primary school students. In this collaborative game, 10-12 years old players use cryptography techniques to discover who stole the Book of Kells – an ancient manuscript kept in the Trinity College Library in Ireland. To identify the criminal's identity, the players should work on teams and follow a map of Dublin city to collect encrypted clues hidden in popular locations, such as Phoenix Park and Dublin Castle. The participants should follow guidelines provided by a cipher sheet that illustrates cryptography techniques such as Caesar's Cipher, Polybius Cipher, Pigpen Cipher and the Morse Code. Each clue leads the player closer to the revelation of who stole the book of Kells. In this study, 80 primary school children (10-11 years old) evaluated <em>The Code of Kells</em> by sharing their experience through an adapted version of the Game Experience Questionnaire (GEQ). Nine dimensions of the questionnaire were assessed considering children’s previous mathematics and literacy scores, besides their levels of maths anxiety. Results suggest that children with higher mathematics performance positively perceived the game and found it challenging. However, results also indicate that maths high achievers students also felt tense while playing. Students with high levels of maths anxiety perceived the game as a sensory and imaginative immersive activity.</p> Mariana Rocha André Almo Pierpaolo Dondio Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Games Based Learning 2022-09-29 2022-09-29 16 1 750 757 10.34190/ecgbl.16.1.438 A Reflective Game Design framework for Game-Based Learning <p>Reflective practice is the ability to revisit and reassess one's previous actions to engage intentionally in the process of learning. The concept of reflection leads from unconscious aspects of learning or experience to mindful awareness, giving an individual the power to absorb everyday experiences to make appropriate conscious choices. Digital games in game-based learning (GBL) offer interactive learning with authentic practice and a high retention rate. Digital games are also considered an immersive and safe medium of stealth learning with the freedom to identify, explore, fail, and then retry. Main game elements such as feedback in a user interface (UI), head-up displays (HUDs), maps, prompt messages, and social discourse are reflective in nature; therefore, by default, games are reflection machines and appropriate mediums for triggering and supporting reflective learning. However, despite reflective learning having the ability to improve teaching and learning experiences in a practical form, work dedicated to reflective design in GBL is still limited. Previous studies have incorporated reflective practices into a learning environment to improve the learning rate. These practices may vary over domains and yield different outcomes that are not converged yet. While current game design comprises all features that facilitate reflection "as a whole set", it misses individual reflection differences. However, getting maximum usage of the reflective nature of games with authentic learning content while maintaining the fun criteria can be challenging. Hence, a sound design methodology and guidelines are needed to assist the game designer in aiding effective learning with reflective practices. In this paper, our primary purpose is to align reflective learning practices with existing GBL approaches and then provide a framework to incorporate reflective learning practices into designing GBL. The intention is that this framework will help designers, educators, and researchers to design game-based learning experiences following reflective design practices.</p> Anjuman Shaheen Frida Halvorsen Dr Panagiotis Fotaris Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Games Based Learning 2022-09-29 2022-09-29 16 1 758 765 10.34190/ecgbl.16.1.876 Adaptability and Procedural Content Generation for Educational Escape Rooms <p>We present a literature review that aims to understand the role of the Educational Escape Room (EER) in improving the teaching, learning, and assessment processes through an EER design framework. The main subject is to identify the recent interventions in this field in the last five years. Our study focuses on understanding how it is possible to create an EER available to all students, namely visually challenged users. As a result of the implementation of new learning strategies that promote autonomous learning, a concern arose in adapting educational activities to each student’s individual needs. To study the adaptability of each EER, we found the EER design framework essential to increase the student experience by promoting the consolidation of knowledge through narrative and level design. The results of our study show evidence of progress in students’ performance while playing an EER, revealing that students' learning can be effective. Research on Procedural Content Generation (PCG) highlighted how important it is to implement adaptability in future studies of EERs. However, we found some limitations regarding the process of evaluating learning through the EERs, showing how important it is to study and implement learning analytics in future studies in this field.</p> Diana Sousa António Coelho Manuel Torres Ana Garcia Tiago Paula Pinto Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Games Based Learning 2022-09-29 2022-09-29 16 1 766 773 10.34190/ecgbl.16.1.618 Dark Pattern: A Serious Game for Learning About the Dangers of Sharing Data <div><span lang="EN-GB">Dark patterns refer to tricks built into websites and apps to manipulate users into acting unintentionally and detrimentally. An important issue is how such patterns might affect behaviour when actors are manoeuvred towards the sharing of their personal data, as exemplified in choices we face when downloading Apps or signing up for services provided on the internet. This paper presents our exploratory research into understanding the intention and subsequent actions of older teenagers responding to issues of personal data collection and (mis)use. The research is based on the competitive board-game <em>Dark Pattern</em>, in which players install apps, draw dark pattern cards, and make choices about the sharing of personal data. To win the game, a player must share as little data as possible and play cards that punish other players. We were interested to find out the extent to which the game was able to convey types of dark patterns to the players. Additionally, we wanted to explore how players’ perceptions of risks in data-sharing associated with their intention to protect their personal data. Finally, we were interested to explore potential gender difference, and whether this might be associated with intention to protect personal data. 56 of the students who played the game answered a subsequent survey with questions about their experiences and the data was analysed using Partial Least Squares – Structural Equation modelling (PLS-SEM). Despite the findings showing that playing the game had only limited impact on knowledge about dark patterns matters, the analysis of the relationship with the factors in our model shows that knowledge has a significant contribution on behavioural intention, demonstrating that students with high dark pattern knowledge also report higher intention to take steps to protect their data. </span></div> Ingvar Tjostheim Vanessa Ayres-Pereira Chris Wales Angela Manna Simon Egenfeldt-Nielsen Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Games Based Learning 2022-09-29 2022-09-29 16 1 774 783 10.34190/ecgbl.16.1.872 Pure Gamification: An Energy Case <p><em>Dutch energy suppliers are obliged to cooperate in reducing consumption by stimulating energy saving behaviours among their customers. One important strategy for this context is personalized gamification. We investigate how a personalized gamified energy saving application can be designed based on individual preferences within the context of an energy supplier. To design a personalized gamification application the proposed method of Knutas et al. was adapted by leaving out the parts about machine learning and adding an evaluation phase. We show that customization by users can be a valuable alternative for using machine learning personalization strategies. We used this iterative design process to focus on personalizing, in this use case for the three main user types of the customer base of a Dutch energy supplier. The design of the gamified application was adapted using feedback of both stakeholders and customers using interviews and focus groups. This resulted in two final designs designed to stimulate energy saving behaviour among customers. The design had a dashboard which allowed for personalization within gamified elements, and an energy editor in which users can change characteristics in their households to learn about the effects of actions on their energy consumption. These two final designs were validated using an interactive prototype along with interviews. The added value of this study is that it shows that the Hexad framework with its proposed gamification user types is suitable to understand the main motivations of a target group. Results suggest that designing within gamified mechanics based on a user type’s main motivation is an effective strategy for personalization. Motivation-based design is not the only successful personalization design strategy but adapting designs to personal situation and existing energy saving behaviour might also motivate users.</em></p> Laura van der Neut Ton Spil Robby van Delden Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Games Based Learning 2022-09-29 2022-09-29 16 1 784 792 10.34190/ecgbl.16.1.683 Literacy Educators’ Attitudes on Video Games and Learning <p>This research used a survey design methodology (Dillman, 2011), which is a “nonexperimental research based on questionnaires or interviews” (Johnson &amp; Christensen, 2013, p. 249) to investigate elementary literacy teachers’ attitudes on video gaming and learning. 328 teachers from a Midwestern state in the United States completed a 37-item survey, which primarily utilizes five-point Likert scale items to examine their general perceptions of video games, their attitudes on video game-based learning, and their perspectives on utilizing games for literacy teaching and learning. The data were analyzed by examining the distribution and frequency of participant responses as well as overall trends in their perspectives (Iarossi, 2006). Results indicate that the teachers believe children enjoy playing video games, view games as an important aspect of youth culture, and generally believe that video games can promote student motivation, engagement, and learning. However, only 38% of participants either agreed (32.0%) or strongly agreed (4.6%) that they regularly integrated video games into their literacy teaching and approximately a third were skeptical about integrating video games into their literacy teaching (26.8% agreed and 7.3% strongly agreed). Additionally. 57% were interested in learning more about how to effectively integrate video games into their literacy teaching (47.9% agree and 10.1% strongly agreed). This finding makes sense given that only 14% of participants indicated they learned about digital game-based learning during their teacher preparation programs. Ultimately, participants’ positive views on learning through video games aligns with existing reviews of research that demonstrate the effectiveness of game-based learning in a variety of content areas (Clark et al., 2016; Thompson &amp; von Gillern, 2020; Wouters &amp; van Oostendorp, 2013). Given that teachers’ views largely align with research that demonstrates games can be effective at promoting student learning in a variety of disciplines, professional development is needed to help teachers develop their abilities to effectively integrate video games into their literacy teaching. Further implications and directions for future research are discussed.</p> Sam von Gillern Brady Nash Carolyn Stufft Hillary Gould Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Games Based Learning 2022-09-29 2022-09-29 16 1 793 802 10.34190/ecgbl.16.1.860 Enhancing information security awareness programs through collaborative learning <p>Information security attacks targeting human nature, such as phishing, are rising rapidly. Information security Awareness (ISA) programs have been proven to be valuable proactive measures that increase Return On Investment (ROI) regarding information security enhancement. These programs tend to focus on concepts and technical aspects. Although these customary instruction methodologies have their preferences, trainees can additionally take advantage of educational techniques that are more intuitive and situation driven. This study aims to increase the efficiency of learning in such programmes by using design science to create an artefact for learning and then testing the acquired knowledge. Design science will be used as a research method. The creative method, a brainstorming technique, and five steps in design science are performed: explicate the problem, define requirements, design and develop artefact, demonstrate artefact, and evaluate artefact to develop a process framework to respond to this problem. The problem is explicated with a literature review and the requirements to be met by Game-Based Learning (GBL) are set. The first artefact, which is an interactive book support quizzes, crossword puzzles, multimedia such as video, and “complete the word” simple games that enhance the learning process. The second artefact is a printed board game with hackers and cards with the goal to support the learning process and assess the ability of the participants to respond and take actions based on this new knowledge. At last, limitations that exist in security education such as lack of user-centered modules and limited guidelines from learning theories are elaborated and future work is also presented.</p> ADAM FILIPPIDIS Thomas Lagkas Haralambos Mouratidis Sokratis Nifakos Elisavet Grigoriou Panagiotis Sarigiannidis Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Games Based Learning 2022-09-29 2022-09-29 16 1 803 810 10.34190/ecgbl.16.1.896 Wargaming Simulator MASA SWORD for Training and Education of Czech Army Officers <p>The article deals with expanding the capabilities of the University of Defence in the field of training and education of new officers of the Czech Army using newly introduced simulation technology. First, it looks at the beginnings of the use of simulations to support and develop teaching. One of those steps was the&nbsp;establishment of a professional-level computer games group. This gave students the opportunity to gain experience in commanding and managing combat while playing computer games such as Counter-Strike. Currently, students have the opportunity to deepen their command and tactical skills during practical field training or in virtual environments while playing games based on virtual and constructive simulation. Another section explains the importance and role of these simulations in teaching professional soldiers. It is very important for future combat commanders to gain as much experience as possible in commanding and&nbsp;directing combat activity in the conduct of military operations before they occur. Finally, it deals with the&nbsp;newly acquired MASA SWORD simulator, which offers another and much more complex tool for gaining valuable experience. MASA SWORD, unlike the software currently in use, can be controlled by only one user without the need to connect other users or perform control exercises. It includes a scenario building tool, constructive simulation and analytical tools for evaluating created simulations. In addition to its use in teaching and educating students, the simulator can be used for staff training, support for commander planning and&nbsp;decision-making, analysis and, last but not least, operational research. In the last section, the article evaluates the usefulness of simulations for teaching, science and research. It also reports on ongoing qualitative research methods to predict the next direction of development and possible connectivity with other simulators.</p> Tomáš Havlík Martin Blaha Ladislav Potužák Ondřej Pekař Vlastimil Šlouf Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Games Based Learning 2022-10-11 2022-10-11 16 1 811 815 10.34190/ecgbl.16.1.914