A Conceptual Study of TOE and Organisational performance


  • Idayuwati Binti Ahmad Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia.
  • Siti Sarah Omar Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia
  • Muazam Ali Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia
  • Sabir Ali University of Baltistan, Skardu




SMEs, TOE, Technology & Digitalisation


The COVID-19 pandemic has changed everything and created a big challenge for all the enterprises including the
SME’s. The use of technology becomes crucial for the survival of the business activities because the mode of payment and
receiving mostly shifted towards the digital method. However, the SME’s sector still facing the challenge of technology
adoption particularly in the native areas. The basic motive of this research is to examine previous studies to find the role of
technology, organisation and environment (TOE) in organisational performance. This study analysed various theories of
technological innovation while focusing the theory of TOE. The main factors studied in this research are the Technological,
environmental and organisational variables. This research study will follow the qualitative research method. In this research
study we have followed the systematic “Meta-narrative” of literature review method introduced by Kuhn. To study and find
the relevant article we have used the key words of SMEs, TOE, technology and adoption. Moreover, the study period covered
in this research was from 2011 to 2023. This study highlights the important aspect of TOE and its application in SMEs.
Moreover, this research contributes in the theoretical understanding of SMEs success factors while critically studying the
theory of TOE.