European Conference on Innovation and Entrepreneurship 2022-09-07T13:37:31+00:00 Louise Remenyi Open Journal Systems <p>17th European Conference on Innovation and Entrepreneurship - ECIE 2022<br />15-16 September 2022<br />Pafos, Cyprus</p> Innovation and Entrepreneurship of Professors in Public Universities: Case Study in Brazil 2022-05-24T16:21:50+00:00 Paula Coelho Márcia Rapini <p>In the literature on academic entrepreneurship, the creation of academic spin-offs is one of the Knowledge and Technology Transfer (KTT) channels most studied. The use of different KTT channels and the creation of spin-offs can be a source of opportunity for the overflow of knowledge and innovation with wealth creation. Although with a broad spectrum, research on academic entrepreneurship still has gaps to be explored in the literature. In Brazil, there is a lack of studies that explain more specifically how the professor at the public university transfers knowledge and technology and undertakes entrepreneurial activities. The main motivations of the doctoral research presented in this article are the lack of studies concerning the trajectory of successful entrepreneurial professors and the exploration of the use of different KTT channels in academic entrepreneurship for wealth creation. The general goal of the research is to identify the strategies used during the innovation trajectory of entrepreneurial professors in Information Technology (IT), who converted knowledge and scientific assets into wealth. To meet this goal, an adapted retrospective roadmapping approach was used to collect data, to map and to analyze the life trajectory of innovation of six professors from three Brazilian Public Universities in the IT area. The results made it possible to understand how professors innovated, became entrepreneurs and transferred knowledge and technology. They mobilized 136 strategies using different channels (e.g., Entrepreneurs Training, Collaborative Research and Development Projects, Technology Residency, Academic Spin-offs Creation, Academic Consulting). The professors' strategies resulted in a value distribution, with considerable wealth (tangible and intangible). The results showed that although there is no pattern in the professors' trajectories of innovation and entrepreneurship, there are several strategies common to the cases. One of them was to train qualified personnel at the university, based on intensive research in knowledge seeking to solve real market problems.</p> 2022-09-07T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Innovation and Entrepreneurship University Science Parks as an Innovative Tool for University-Business Cooperation 2022-05-17T11:28:38+00:00 Klaudia Glittová Miroslav Šipikal <p>Collaboration between universities, business and government is important in creating innovation, but often they face barriers which block the successful cooperation among institutional spheres. To improve and strengthen collaboration and overcome existing barriers were created hybrid organizations (like university science parks, research centres or incubators) to address innovation blockages. With the growing popularity of this tool among regional policy makers, there is a need to specify their roles and functions in regional innovation systems. The main goal of our paper is to examine the contribution of university science parks and research centres in Slovakia, which were built thanks to financial support from European Structural and Investment Funds (ESIF). University science parks (USPs) and research centres (RCs) are tools for connecting the university, industry and government sector in a Triple helix framework. They create a suitable space for generating innovation with existing resources at universities, research institutes, research departments of&nbsp;companies and governments, and improve them through mutual interactions. We applied the method of&nbsp;quantitative research – an online questionnaire survey complemented with interviews, which we used to&nbsp;collect basic data on all science parks in Slovakia. The key question in the article is whether research infrastructures represent effective investment with long-term sustainability. We evaluated the current functioning of the parks in terms of fulfilling the functions that contribute to innovation creation, because quality and modern infrastructure is a prerequisite for the implementation of research, the results of which have a high development and innovation potential. We found that the research infrastructure doesn’t perform the required functions, which were declared during their creation. The main barriers to development include insufficient funding for research, technological infrastructure and long-term financing of professional staff. Unclear conditions for the continued operation of parks and uncertain position of government support shows that these investment projects financed by the European Funds are not independently viable after the end of the sustainability period.</p> 2022-09-07T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Innovation and Entrepreneurship Innovative practices for pollution prevention and control implemented by companies in Romania 2022-08-30T12:43:46+00:00 Andreea Maria Gabriela Militaru Andreea-Mihaela Rotărescu Bogdan Fleacă Elena Fleacă <p>This paper explores the practices of companies present on the Romanian market which are preventing and controlling the pollution in their areas of expertise. Many of the companies are trying to find solutions to implement the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals, some of them pleading for the importance of keeping the environment safe, the ecosystems protected, and the degree of pollution at a lower level.</p> <p>Given the massive use of fossil fuels and other non-renewable resources and the international commitment to the Sustainable Development Goals, care for natural resources and pollution reduction becomes essential in ensuring access of future generations to a safe and healthy life. In today’s time, technology plays an essential role in the management of a company, naturally it cannot be absent from the solutions thought to reduce air and water pollution. Hence, the importance of the existing solutions which could be considered innovative measures.</p> <p>The purpose of this paper is to determine the pollution situation and the factors that contributed to it. At the same time, it will present the evolution of the practices applied by companies to combat water and air pollution, so far. The methodology is based on an analysis of the public sustainability reports from the past years, of the activity of the companies on the Romanian market. Through sustainability reports, large companies present the evolution and results of the applied solutions. Anti-pollution practices can be classified according to their field of activity and type of activity. The study contributes to the review of the literature by focusing on the practices implemented by companies in relation to work and the natural environment at the borders of Romania.</p> <p>Companies embrace the fight against pollution, including this as part of their sustainability strategy, as a goal which can be achieved only with teamwork, with the stakeholder’s involvement: employees, customers, suppliers, and all those stakeholders who stand for the same values, taking action and using concrete facts to follow the strategy to make an impact for the better.</p> 2022-09-07T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Innovation and Entrepreneurship Consumer innovativeness: cross-cultural differences and influence on acceptance of Product Service Systems 2022-06-01T07:49:08+00:00 Anna Németh <p>Product Service Systems are considered a new, circular business model that could help businesses be sustainable while maintaining economic growth at the same time. Consumer innovativeness can predict and influence acceptance of such novel business models. However, differences in innovativeness can vary across countries and should be considered in research. This study aims to examine differences and influence of consumer innovativeness on consumer acceptance of Product Services Systems based on data collected from Czech Republic, Sweden and Hungary. For the analysis pay-per-wash was chosen, as washing machines are one of the most used everyday products. This paper takes a descriptive and quantitative approach while using regression as a data analysis method.</p> <p>The findings enrich current scarce knowledge of differences and influence of consumer innovativeness on consumer acceptance of Product Service Systems, especially considering that Central- and Eastern European countries are underrepresented in the literature. For the managerial contribution, the study offers insights for more efficient consumer segmentation and targeting for introduction of pay-per-wash services.</p> 2022-09-07T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Innovation and Entrepreneurship Born Green: Drivers and Competencies of Green Entrepreneurship 2022-08-02T18:30:30+00:00 Pedro Miguel Moreira Pimentel Maria José Sousa <p>Sustainable development is one of the most prominent discussions of our times and promoting&nbsp; green new ventures can help reduce ecological footprints and meet the climate change goals. Despite its importance for the next decades, the study of green entrepreneurship (GE) is still very poor and being an emerging field of study can be considered still in its infancy. (Demirel et al, 2019; Sher et al, 2020).</p> <p>The current paper aims at providing a contribute to management science and business management practice by focusing on the research questions: (a) what are the most relevant theoretical frameworks researching drivers that trigger green entrepreneurial intention (GEI), and (b) what are the main theoretical frameworks investigating&nbsp; competencies that might favour or enhance the specific form of green entrepreneurial intention.</p> <p>Several theories have been developed to explain the classic entrepreneurial intention (EI) being the most noted the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) (Ajzen, 1991), and theory of entrepreneurial event (TEE) (Shapero and Sokol, 1982). A different stream of literature focus on&nbsp; individual competencies that can allow key issues to be captured and influence entrepreneurial intentions which are variable and can be acquired and learned over time (Mitchelmore and Rowley, 2010; Man et al, 2002). Nevertheless, these models do not contemplate on the role of the entrepreneurial intentions for a specific form like GE&nbsp; (Sher et al, 2020).</p> <p>We conducted a systematic literature review aiming at analysing quantitatively and qualitatively the relevant articles in indexed journals based on the PRISMA approach - Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses.</p> <p>Main findings are that recent relevant studies mainly adapt TPB to the determinants of GE by inserting &nbsp;new specific precedent variables. As to GE competencies, main authors depart from classic theoretical frameworks and finetune their approach to the more specific and broader dimensions of GE.</p> 2022-09-07T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Innovation and Entrepreneurship The Effect of Entrepreneur's Fear of Failure on firm's Entrepreneurial Orientation 2022-08-10T11:10:46+00:00 Merihan Attia Iman Seoudi <p>This study focuses on the fear of failure (FF) in entrepreneurship and its effect on the entrepreneurial orientation (EO) as a strategic orientation in firms. There has been much research on EO as a predictor of organizations’ performance since it is considered a manifestation of the entrepreneurial direction inside the organization. Yet, the research on the relationships between individual-level variables and EO itself still has room for contribution, especially the internal aspects related to the entrepreneur or the manager. Therefore, this research aims to explore FF in entrepreneurship and its inhibiting and motivating roles. In addition, given that the firm is the unit of analysis in this study, this research explained how an entrepreneur’s FF affects the EO of the firm amidst the COVID-19 outbreak. The study administered a quantitative research design using a structured questionnaire. The results showed a positive influence of the entrepreneur’s fear of failure on the firm’s entrepreneurial orientation manifested in the firm’s innovativeness dimension. However, the other two dimensions that contribute to the firm’s EO representation (proactiveness &amp; risk-taking) showed insignificant relationships with the entrepreneur’s FF.</p> 2022-09-07T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Innovation and Entrepreneurship Enterpreneurial, Strategies Enterpreneurial Strategies for the Female Sector: Leveraging Instagram Sales During the Pandemic 2022-06-20T12:59:30+00:00 Rafaela Elias Luciana Reis Thaise Delfino June Fernandes <p>The COVID-19 pandemic significantly influenced the purchasing behavior of consumers, who began to see in the tools available in the virtual environment the necessary allies to satisfy their consumption desires. Given the relevance achieved by the virtual environment, organizations began to explore more intensively the various digital platforms to enhance their reach to their customers. The traditional electronic commerce then evolved into what we call Social Commerce (S-commerce), which allowed a substantial increase in the way of interacting and promoting sales. Despite the limitations and incipient studies on how organizations use their strategies and explore digital media tools to leverage sales, it is perceived as relevant to understand how the process of joining these organizations to digital media and the influence they have passed to exercise in the reformulation of its strategies and business models. Focusing on the Instagram environment, the objective of this research is to characterize the sales strategies used by three female-owned enterprises, through Instagram, during the&nbsp;pandemic by COVID-19. As a methodological research strategy, the study of multiple cases was used. Three Brazilian female-owned enterprise were analyzed, being: a jewelry company, a women's adult footwear company and a beauty salon. The entrepreneurs responsible for the companies were submitted to a semi-structured questionnaire, which was conducted in loco. As a result, it was observed that the most used Instagram tools are feed resources, stories and metrics. On the other hand, the sales strategies most used by entrepreneurs were e-WOM, recommendations and feedbacks and, finally, encouraging user participation. In conclusion, it was noticed that both the entrepreneur and the company that wants to implement sales strategies in digital media, need to understand the functions and objectives of the set of tools made available by Instagram. Once the functionalities present in these resources are understood, entrepreneurs and managers can formulate their strategies in an assertive way, being more efficient in their commercial transactions, since the actions aim to promote involvement with the public that follows the business. Instagram proved to be a tool with great potential for business in the female sector.</p> 2022-09-07T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Innovation and Entrepreneurship A case study of the entrepreneurial education in a Sino-foreign university in China 2022-05-27T13:01:09+00:00 Yimei Mi <div><span lang="EN-GB">This paper mainly focuses on entrepreneurial education in higher education. A case study is presented in this paper to investigate the current situation of entrepreneurial education in Chinese universities. The primary research method of this case study is interviewing. Four participants were interviewed in this paper, and they are students from the target Sino-foreign university</span></div> <div><span lang="EN-GB">, which was constructed by Xi’an Jiaotong University (XJTU) and Liverpool university in the UK. The results indicate that this Sino-foreign university provides a professional platform for students to establish their own businesses. Compared with other traditional universities, this university educates students with more innovative ideas and gives them more opportunities to practice their business’ ideas. Moreover, this Sino-foreign university also designs entrepreneurship education as a module in students’ learning activities. The students can join in the competition for earning a shop in the opening student entrepreneurship parks and start their businesses. </span></div> <div> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Entrepreneurial education, Chinese higher education, Sino-foreign university, case study, interviews, entrepreneurship parks.</p> </div> 2022-09-07T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Innovation and Entrepreneurship Effectuation in Practice: How is it Embedded in Innovation-driven Start-ups? 2022-05-18T13:09:28+00:00 Andreas Hinz Stefan Philippi Laila Kabous <p>Effectuation suggests that entrepreneurs decide which goals to pursue based on available means. Instead of following rigid plans and acquiring means as is the case with causation, they get to work immediately with available means and exploit arising opportunities. Various research directions of effectuation are discussed in the literature and this work-in-progress paper focuses on effectual behaviours. Drawing on the extant literature, typical behaviours relate to forming partnerships, exploiting contingencies, using experimentation and defining affordable loss. These behaviours appear to be relevant for innovation-driven entrepreneurs and this work seeks to examine how they are embedded in Swiss start-ups. To gain insights, semi-structured interviews will be conducted with entrepreneurs participating in an innovation competition in Switzerland.</p> 2022-09-07T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Innovation and Entrepreneurship Start-up Incubators for Refugees: How to Develop and Deploy Entrepreneurial Skills to Generate Impact 2022-04-28T10:57:55+00:00 Andreas Hinz Claus-Heinrich Daub <p>Refugee entrepreneurs play an increasingly important role in the ecosystem. However, they may find themselves unable to use their potential because they lack relevant skills, encounter language barriers, have weak local networks and deal with personal problems. Start-up incubators for refugees address these challenges by offering programmes that empower them to develop and deploy entrepreneurial skills for business creation. This work-in-progress paper presents initial insights on skill-related programme elements which will be extended into a detailed analysis of resulting types of economic impact.</p> 2022-09-07T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Innovation and Entrepreneurship Linking effectuation logic with business model innovation in the context of Swiss start-ups 2022-05-16T12:35:45+00:00 Laila Kabous Andreas Hinz stefan Philippi <p>Effectuation and business model innovation (BMI) are research topics that are frequently discussed in the literature. While effectuation describes the effectual behaviour for founding a start-up with an emphasis on using currently available means, BMI is considered a way of creating a business model with long-term competitive advantages. Both approaches are valuable for start-ups pursuing growth in an uncertain environment. This work-in-progress paper presents insights from the reviewed extant literature. Further research will investigate effectuation and its enabling impact in designing innovative business models in the context of Swiss start-ups. &nbsp;</p> 2022-09-07T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Innovation and Entrepreneurship Impact of Collaborative Problem Solving on Youth Social Entrepreneurial Intention 2022-05-16T14:47:33+00:00 Ronan McArt Veronica McCauley Paul Flynn <p><strong>Abstract:&nbsp; </strong>Social Entrepreneurship has been recognised as a means of improving the welfare and quality of life for marginalised and neglected communities around the world. Social entrepreneurs apply entrepreneurial approaches to identify problems; create solutions and marshal the necessary resources to form social ventures. To meet an increased demand for socially driven entrepreneurs we need to increase the supply of citizens armed with the competencies and desires to address future social issues. Society’s capacity to solve both social and economic problems can be augmented through the implementation of carefully designed, multidisciplinary educational programmes in second level education.</p> <p>This paper presents the findings of the theoretically informed Design Thinking process, that sought to explore how adolescent learners develop shared meaning through collaborative, social interactions centered around solving localised societal challenges. This pedagogical approach, informed by a social constructionist paradigm, required students to collaborate in teams for the creation of an artefact that addressed the sustainable transport needs of their community. The study employed a mixed methods data collection strategy that included both the student and the teacher voice. Data sources included interviews, questionnaires, lesson evaluations and classroom resources. Results from the Social Entrepreneurship Pilot Programme conducted with a teacher and 20 students in small rural post-primary school revealed that social learning is an effective approach to increasing Social Entrepreneurial Intention, 47% of students would consider starting a social venture with their group. Collaborative approaches to problem solving proved an effective means of enhancing student efficacy, empathy, and engagement. 82% of students reported confidence in solving social problems in groups but students reported a decline Social Entrepreneurial Self-Efficacy – indicating collaborative learning works better to increase Perceived Collective-Efficacy. It is anticipated that the research will be of interest to those involved in the delivery of Social Entrepreneurship education and applied research within this field.</p> 2022-09-07T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Innovation and Entrepreneurship EntreComp and GreenComp for Entrepreneurship. What is the ‘Real’ Relationship? 2022-09-06T15:29:16+00:00 Christopher Moon Andreas Walmsley Nikolaos Apostolopoulos <p>This paper seeks to explore the relationship between two educational frameworks: EntreComp, the European entrepreneurship competency framework (Bacigalupo et al., 2016) and GreenComp, the European sustainability competency framework (Bianchi et al., 2022). At first sight the relationship is just a matter of competency addressing entrepreneurship and sustainability respectively. Thus, a simple comparison between the two lists of competences would reveal two similar but different competency lists, perhaps aimed at different audiences? The reality though, we posit, is that there is an underlying conceptual emphasis on responsibility which is yet to be fully explored. This paper provides the above comparison but then explores this conceptual underpinning in the light of what we term Responsible Entrepreneurship Education.</p> 2022-09-07T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Innovation and Entrepreneurship Exploring Legitimacy in Entrepreneurship Education: Towards a Theoretical Framework 2022-07-07T13:59:19+00:00 Andreas Walmsley Birgitte Wraae <p>Adopting Suchman’s (1995) conceptualisation of legitimacy within organisations, this study seeks to understand firstly, how entrepreneurship education itself has been legitimised, secondly, how entrepreneurship educators are legitimised, and lastly, how pedagogical approaches in EE are legitimised. The theoretical framework for the paper distinguishes between institutional legitimacy and strategic legitimacy. We seek to both understand how societal institutions (e.g. policy makers, industry) frame entrepreneurship and entrepreneurship education, and how HE institutions in turn respond strategically to this framing. These legitimisation strategies can be framed as being ‘pragmatic’, ‘moral’ and ‘cognitive’ (Suchman, 1995). The study will draw on data drawn from the UK in the first instance.</p> 2022-09-07T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Innovation and Entrepreneurship An Empirical Study of Entrepreneurial Intention and Youth Entrepreneurship Policy in Hong Kong 2022-07-14T03:18:39+00:00 Hongyi Sun Jiahao Zhuang Rui Xiong <p>Young entrepreneurship is the future of the economy in terms of increasing employment and creating economic value. This paper will report the milestone results of a pilot survey study on entrepreneurial intention and preparation of young people in Hong Kong with a view to explore potential recommendations to develop youth entrepreneurial policy for the Hong Kong Government. The target of this survey is those young people from 18 to 40 years old. 244 copies of valid questionnaires were collected via e-mail, face-to-face seminars and online platforms. The study was designed based on the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) and covered entrepreneurial personality traits, family background, entrepreneurial education, entrepreneurial preparation, and the perception of the entrepreneurial environment in Hong Kong. Implications for education institutions and the government will be discussed finally.</p> 2022-09-07T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Innovation and Entrepreneurship Gender Bias in Idea Generation and the Evaluation of Creative Ideas: An Online Behavioural Experiment 2022-09-07T09:28:42+00:00 Jo'Anne Langham Caihui Lin Anna Jenkins Ivano Bongiovanni Karolina Mikolajewska-Zajac Neil Paulsen <p>Generating and selecting profitable ideas to solve complex problems, is essential to entrepreneurship. However, such choices are heavily influenced by personal bias. Entrepreneurship is framed as a “masculine world” (Bird and Brush, 2002). Entrepreneurs rely heavily on creativity, risk-taking and divergent thinking which are deemed to be predominantly masculine traits (Cropley, 2006). The majority of investment decision-makers are also male (Brush et al., 2018). Investors are critical in determining whether an idea will be further developed. The compounding effect is the inequitable distribution of funding and low rates of success for female founders. A significant factor in the divergence of treatment between men and women entrepreneurs is gender bias. However, we believe that innovative ideas are also gendered and that this is what influences selection. We conducted experiments to understand the impact of gender bias in creative group processes when using the divergent-convergent (diamond) approach for ideation. Our aim was to explore whether individuals selected ideas due to the creator’s identity or whether ideas perceived as “feminine” or “masculine” influences choice. Furthermore, we examined whether males were more creative and produced more divergent ideas than females. Using an electronic brainstorming system (EBS) we engaged 230 innovation and entrepreneurship university students in vignette-style ideation and evaluation challenges. Results showed no significant differences between genders in creativity, novelty, or usefulness<br>ratings. However, “feminine” ideas were rated higher by females on all (but one) criteria and males rated “masculine” ideas higher on all criteria. Our results demonstrate a sex-based preference for gendered ideas in both sexes. Females were rated higher on divergent ideas and males higher on convergent ideas, which conflicts with the established view of male dominance. The experiment showed that the EBS system mitigated social cues around identity and reduced the impact of gender bias on creative evaluation. This research raises concern about investment in innovation and whether “masculine” preferred solutions are inevitable in a male-dominated funding environment. This research contributes to an understanding of the influence of finance on the success of economic or profit-focused innovations (masculine) as opposed to those that address social outcomes or community good (feminine).&nbsp;</p> 2022-09-07T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Innovation and Entrepreneurship Non-formal social ties as threat to the implementation of innovations 2022-06-01T13:41:32+00:00 Aleksandr Aksiutin Konstantin Bagrationi Michael Morozov Ilya Trochin <p>This paper aims to provide novel insights about the barrier associated with organizational development, namely, resistance to new management practices implementation which emerges from tightly knit social networks – the “blat”. We follow claims for more empirical studies as we provide Social Network Analysis to present a real-life study of how blat networks of operational management lead to the failure of digital transformation attempt at the Russian metallurgical enterprise. We analyzed underlying forces, but deliberately stayed away from developing theories from our case. The close association with CEO allowed us to benefit from the rich and deep “local knowledge” and present case that provided valuable insights into different forms of behavior of line management and the social dynamics at the time of digital transformation attempt.</p> 2022-09-07T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Innovation and Entrepreneurship Business Model Innovations in the French Food Sector during the Covid Crisis 2022-09-01T15:10:56+00:00 Laurice Alexandre Nathalie Sarrouy-Wattkins <p>This article attempts to answer the followed research question : how did the restaurants innovate their business model in order to adapt it to the COVID crisis?. A study of two cases shows that the activities, the resources and skills, the revenue model, and the beneficiaries have been transformed even sometimes reinforced in order to keep the business on. In the two cases, the inner resources were mobilised and the offer was changed. As regards the suppliers, their profiles have been changed because of the take away offer which pushed the restauranteurs to have new recipients and new materials in order to adapt their offer.</p> 2022-09-07T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Innovation and Entrepreneurship Learning based on co-creation processes: a glimpse of the (Demola) Pedagogical Innovation Training course at IPV 2022-04-14T13:56:30+00:00 Fátima SUSANA Amante Rosina Fernandes <p style="font-weight: 400;">The development of technologies, services and products in our increasingly global, interconnected, and digital world implies the training of future professionals capable of solving challenges, embracing diversity, and co-constructing innovative and disruptive scenarios. Higher Education (HE) has been adapting to these times of change and, consequently, the academy has started to open doors to partnerships with local organisations, in synergies that go beyond internships to include research and a modernisation agenda, with clear benefits for all the stakeholders and with positive effects on the national economy. Thus, pedagogical practices need to be updated, and Demola model aims at contributing to innovation processes by fostering academia-industry collaboration. In this study, we will focus on the first edition (January-June 2021) of the project entitled “Learning based on co-creation processes,” funded by POCH, developed in a partnership with Demola Global, and in close connection to another project, Link Me Up, integrated in a consortium of 13 Polytechnic Institutes, including the Polytechnic Institute of Viseu (IPV). Specifically, we will focus on 1) the Demola methodology and tools used by the participants in the Pedagogical Innovation Training course at IPV, Viseu, Portugal; 2) the questionnaires applied to the team of IPV trainees/facilitators; and 3) the reports they wrote at the end of the process to a) analyse the profile of the teaching staff seeking alternatives to improve their teaching practice; b) assess their perception of the Demola pedagogical innovation course, and c) the implications on their future practices. Our findings reveal that this project that offers pedagogical innovation is highly valued by the participants at IPV, as they feel they are more open: to collaboration within and outside the academia; to use innovative tools and platforms; to acknowledge the need to accept and manage uncertainty and to facilitate societal challenges in multidisciplinary teams of (inter/)national students.</p> 2022-09-07T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Innovation and Entrepreneurship Factors Enabling Student Start-ups to Commercialise Scientific Research for Demonstrating Social Impact 2022-08-29T10:20:54+00:00 Dwitya Amry Ali Ahmad Dawei Lu <p>This research highlights contributions of student actors’ research commercialisation efforts within the academic entrepreneurship (AE) landscape. Our review of the AE literature shows that the potential inherent in campus-based student enterprise activity has not been fully acknowledged within the AE literature. We argue that student start-ups are a viable means for demonstrating the social impact of scientific research. In this research, the aim is to map the student-led enterprise emergence and development mechanism as a vehicle for facilitating university technology transfer. Through a longitudinal case study design, the focal student enterprise’s enacted process to commercialize university generated scientific research is investigated. It is shown how new technology stemming from university research was able to enhance the livelihoods of local fish farmers through the agency of student entrepreneurs. Light is shed on the enabling factors and wider university level arrangements that triggered and subsequently facilitated the case entrepreneurial endeavour. We find that an interplay of both micro- and meso-level factors enabled the case enterprise to achieve both commercial success and demonstrate social impact.</p> 2022-09-07T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Innovation and Entrepreneurship Health digitalisation and innovative entrepreneurship status. A qualitative exploration of private sector in Greece and synthesis of main issues 2022-05-12T21:36:41+00:00 Sotiris Apostolopoulos Ilias Makris Stavros Stavroyiannis <p>This primary research aims to examine to what extent Greek health entrepreneurs, as they looking for options to grow their businesses, have realized the opportunities offered to them by the new technologies. Furthermore, to which level they have implemented innovative practices, based on the potential of digitalisation, to improve the operation of their entrepreneurial activities in providing treatment services to the citizens as well as to cooperate with other structures and other organisations. The research explores the views of the entrepreneurs on using digital practices at their services and their impact regards to the reduction of operating costs, the control of materials and the change of the patient-doctor cooperation grid. A qualitative study was conducted with semi-structured interviews in twelve healthcare companies from various regions of Greece. The selection of the sample was made with the Convenience Sampling strategy. The interviews were conducted in Greek with the owners or managers of these healthcare units and the duration was 45 minutes. The content of the semi-structured interviews was classified into three thematic categories. The first section dealt with innovative digital interventions in relation to suppliers, materials, wares, supplies and payments. The second section is concerned with innovative digital interventions compared to the public services and self-administrative authorities, insurance funds and public health structures. The third section is concerned with the innovative digital interventions in relation to the quality care of the patient, his treatment and upgrading the offered health services. The research showed that there were discrepancies in the development of innovative digital activities among the examined companies. Innovative digital interventions were developed by health enterprises, especially in the field of their internal operation and in the service of their patients. On the contrary, many digital interventions could not be completed since there has been an incompatibility with public services and public health structures where the digital transition has not progressed in the same level. Entrepreneurs who preferred traditional forms of operating and offering services to their patients, they did so by fearing that innovative digital activities required more financial capitals and new qualified staff that would surely increase their operating costs.</p> 2022-09-07T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Innovation and Entrepreneurship The inevitable but altered roles of universities within an innovation ecosystem 2022-07-26T11:11:30+00:00 Linde Baaijens Maria Freidel Denice Groenen Antonios Matzakos Chorianopoulos Jordan Vasseur Matthijs Zwemmer Emőke Takács Antonie Abcouwer <p>It is evident that for an organisation, the most successful way for operating is being part of business ecosystems and creating more value than on its own. Universities play a specific role in this field. We undertook this research to verify the universities’ role in an innovation ecosystem where they work together with businesses to create and share new cutting-edge knowledge. Our theory-based research offers scientifically underpinned suggestions for innovators and entrepreneurs in developing innovation ecosystems with a specific focus on the altered role of universities. The article focuses on the roles of universities to discovers how it can become more resilient to adapt to the ever-changing demands of an innovation ecosystem. How can it provide professional knowledge sharing on an equal base within the ecosystem whilst remaining its leading role in innovation and knowledge development? This approach breaks with the traditional view of universities as the primary source of knowledge in society.</p> <p>Universities take several roles in a business ecosystem, which we conclude in this paper. To let universities stay strong in innovation, they must adapt their traditional role to suit to the ever-changing demands presented by the ecosystem. They need to focus on knowledge sharing instead of knowledge delivery to achieve a sustainable growth. The changing approach fits better the innovation and entrepreneurship by working within a knowledge ecosystem. Additionally, organisations must stay proactive by evaluating partners better, building meaningful relationships, and adopting a business-like mentality.</p> <p>Organising such a knowledge ecosystem will stimulate innovation and facilitate entrepreneurs in searching for new markets in an increasingly sustainable and circular world.</p> <p> </p> 2022-09-07T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Innovation and Entrepreneurship Innovation as a Challenge for Peripheral Regions: an Israeli Case 2022-08-26T16:00:06+00:00 Raphael Bar-El Sharon Hadad Liran Maymoni Ran Ben Malka Reut Megidish <p>Peripheral regions are now confronted with the worldwide prominence of innovation and high technology driving economic growth. It is crucial that they integrate the new trends for their economic sustainability and for the narrowing of social gaps. Research has focused on factors influencing the concentration of technology in metropolitan areas. Other analyses have highlighted the advantages for peripheral or rural regions if they integrate into this process. In our article, we aim to contribute to the discourse by suggesting a unique approach, testing it empirically with a peripheral region in Israel.</p> <p>Our approach contains the following elements: First, instead of considering innovation as knowledge creation or practical implementation (as generally considered), we prefer the indicator of a knowledge-based economy, as a better proxy for advanced economic growth. Second, we make a distinction between the changes in the economy of the periphery as indicated by prevailing types of occupations, and the changes in the economy of the resident’s workers as indicated by their actual occupations, working in or out of the region (as in the distinction between GDP and GNP).</p> <p>Using time series for the last two decades, we compare the southern region of Israel and its main central region, using a classification of occupation types into three levels.</p> <p>The results showed a positive response of the peripheral region to the technological trend challenge. They improved skills and reacted to public policy measures. The economic structure of the periphery improved, providing occupations at higher wage levels. However, such improvement did not sufficiently respond to the improvement in labor supply by resident workers, leading to an increase in dependence on employment of high-level workers from other regions. We also detected an increase of internal gaps within the periphery.</p> 2022-09-07T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Innovation and Entrepreneurship Innovation in the circular economy 2022-07-08T08:22:55+00:00 Lukáš Blažek <p>The circular economy (CE) is an area that is increasingly resonating across different sectors. This is one of the principles of the sustainability strategy. CE deals with ways to improve the quality of the environment and human life by increasing production efficiency. In the future, it is intended to replace the linear economy, in which a large percentage of products, in the first place, end up unnecessarily after consumption in landfills or incinerators. It is necessary to deal with the observance of the principles of the circular economy, mainly for the sake of nature protection in connection with the visibly changing climate and stocks of raw materials. In the context of global trends, sustainability strategies are a necessity for more and more companies. It is therefore a presentation of the concept of environmentally sustainable economy, technology and production chain in today's globally burdened environment.</p> <p>Accessing CE in terms of cost, material and energy savings can be a great motivation for companies. Companies are trying to reduce costs associated with production and waste management and are looking for new business models. As part of the transition from linear to CE principles, procedures and opportunities for a step improvement compared to the existing competition in the form of the implementation of innovative proposals can be recommended.</p> <p>There are not only ecological but also economic arguments in favor of CE. The economy requires resources to produce goods and services and ultimately to create value for society. Unless companies radically use recyclable materials more often and adhere to CE principles, they will face a shortage of resources that will complicate their operations in the medium to long term.</p> <p>In order for companies to become part of the circular economy, they must carry out a complete overhaul of their business models. Based on analyzes of the economic and social environment, the presented article provides an overview of the possibilities of innovation and eco-innovation within CE. The subject was to determine the development of the implementation of innovations in CE in today's society, as one of the latest approaches to the production, consumption and subsequent processing of waste.</p> 2022-09-07T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Innovation and Entrepreneurship Economics of Data Systematic Review for Planning Strategies in the InsurTech industry 2022-06-30T17:30:54+00:00 Claudio Bonvino Marco Giorgino <div>The knowledge of data enables exploring how value is created from data. Organizations’ strategic planning becomes easier if the value of data is understood and adopted. Unless managers know how to use data, its exploitable value remains limited. Previous studies assessed either data dimensions such as volume, variety, velocity, veracity and granularity, or data management processes. However, many of these topics have been treated with a technical approach and only a few focused on the data value in management, strategy, and planning. The ubiquitous of data has allowed insurance incumbents and startups to exploit technologies, from which InsurTech, leveraging a unique data-driven proposition and often gaining a competitive advantage. The paper aims to explore the economics of data, enabling to strategically plan data management practices. It contributes to the management and strategy literature with an evidence-based systematic literature review that embraces the value generated by knowing data sources, data types, extended data dimensions, analyzes enabling technologies, and extends data management practices for reaching organizations’ objectives in the InsurTech empirical context. In addition to further avenues of research, it provides managers with a theoretical data-valorization framework for data strategic planning, and institutions an overview for guiding the digital transformation. The novelty of this paper is the comprehensive focus on the economics of data at the intersection between traditional and emerging business models.</div> 2022-09-07T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Innovation and Entrepreneurship KIBS Role in the Innovation and Internationalization Processes of Firms: a Bibliometric Overview 2022-07-27T11:29:29+00:00 Alexandra Braga Joana Ferreira Jorge Sousa <p>In recent decades, KIBS have been one of the most dynamic segments of the service sector in European countries and are one of the fastest growing sectors of the European Union economy. KIBS are firms that provide knowledge-intensive inputs to the business processes of other organizations.</p> <p>In the regional and national economy, KIBS have played a central role in innovation as carriers, producers and mediators of knowledge. Consequently, this knowledge has a critical impact on the internationalization of firms. New sources of information and knowledge help firms compete and grow in markets of which they possess little or no prior knowledge. Firms face difficulties in foreign markets, so they need to develop a strong knowledge base to successfully compete across borders. The intensity of knowledge and the diversity of knowledge sources positively impact both the internationalization of firms and their innovation. Knowledge-intensive firms represent a link between their customers and the knowledge base available across the economy, and therefore act as a catalyst for innovation and internationalization.</p> <p>Recognizing the important role played by KIBS and to provide as overall picture of the research field, a bibliometric approach was performed, based on a mapping of scientific publications, intellectual structure and research trends related to the area under study, highlighting the current approaches of reference on the subject of innovation, internationalization and knowledge. In light of this consideration, the main objective of this study is to identify some of the most relevant research in this field and some of the newest trends, according to the information found in the Web of Science database, thus contributing to the enrichment of the existing literature. The specific objectives of this study are as follows: (1) to identify how the concepts of KIBS, innovation and internationalization are defined in the literature and assess the evolution achieved in the field of research; (2) to identify and measure research productivity, the trend of collaboration between countries, and the main and most relevant journals and authors; and (3) to analyze and map co-citations and research topics to identify the intellectual structure of the literature.</p> 2022-09-07T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Innovation and Entrepreneurship Psychological capital and entrepreneurial tendencies 2022-06-08T05:12:08+00:00 Tiina Brandt <p>This study is interested in psychological capital and entrepreneurial tendencies. Psychological capital is an individual's attitude and tendency towards Hope, Optimism, Resilience and Self-Efficacy. It has been connected with several positive outcomes in individuals’ working life, e.g. career progress, work satisfaction, wage and well-being. However, in the relationship with entrepreneurial tendencies and especially with growth orientation there is still need of more studies. The study focused on the 457 adults’ psychological capital and entrepreneurial tendencies, most of them were women (64%).&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p>The correlation analyses produced several statistically significant results, indicating that psychological capital is connected to entrepreneurial tendencies and growth orientation.&nbsp; Psychological capital can be increased with interventions, thus the entrepreneurial education at the higher education institutes could consider focusing also on individuals’ psychological qualities and increasing for example students’ psychological capital with interventions.</p> 2022-09-07T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Innovation and Entrepreneurship Insights on Creative Networks: A Social Network Analysis of Five Arts Organisations 2022-06-16T14:33:41+00:00 Fraser Stuart Bruce Shaleph O'Neill Sharifa Hawari-Latter <p>Many arts organisations can generate large amounts of value through their activities and networks, but often find it difficult to gather, analyse and evidence the data that can inform business decisions and leverage opportunities for product and service innovation. Compared to larger corporations, the creative ecosystem in which they operate depends on “quick business” and requires them to be more agile, adaptive and faster when identifying hidden potential within their networks. Moreover, their interdisciplinary and collaborative ways of working create emerging opportunities for spin-off companies and other entrepreneurial ventures. This study (part of the Arts API Project) aimed to examine the networks of arts organisations to understand some of their defining features and characteristics. The project aimed to show that by visualising and analysing relational data, it was envisioned that arts organisations would be able to operate on a more evidence-based, commercial and entrepreneurial basis, enabling better informed decision making and more defined business strategies. This paper focuses on the role and value of big data in the Arts and Humanities, provides the context and background to the Arts API Project and outlines the methodological approach, presenting one particular aspect of the larger research project. Adopting the technique of Social Network Analysis (SNA), the networks of five UK-based art organisations were visually mapped and analysed using measures such as Density, Connectivity, Centralization and Clique Participation Index. Within the limitations of the study, the findings reveal valuable insights on the effect of de/centralisation of information flow within creative networks, the importance of maintaining a balance between weak and strong network ties and mitigating risk by distributing responsibility across networks.</p> 2022-09-07T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Innovation and Entrepreneurship Conceptualising Digital Entrepreneurship: Artifacts, Platforms & Infrastructures 2022-06-14T08:45:55+00:00 Anthony Buckley Kisito Futonge Nzembayie <p>In this paper we explore how, in the digital age, the micro-level activities of digital entrepreneurs in new venture creation continue to digitally transform and disrupt economic systems at the macro-level. As digital entrepreneurship and other typologies of entrepreneurship in the digital age become increasingly fuzzy, this paper sets out to define the digital entrepreneurship domain – what it is, what is it not and why it is disruptive and distinct. By unbundling the roles of the differing digital technologies at play, we bring much needed clarity to a domain currently noted for its conceptual fuzziness. Our framework, developed from our research, gives academics and practitioners alike a clearer and more accessible way to understand the digital entrepreneurship domain.</p> 2022-09-07T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Innovation and Entrepreneurship Exploring Business Model Innovation in the Norwegian Grocery Market 2022-07-24T18:34:19+00:00 Beniamino Callegari Adeline Hvidsten Ranvir S. Rai <p>This paper focuses on the under-explored dynamics between physical grocery stores and e-grocery through the lens of business model innovation. While e-grocery is expected to grow, we still know little about how it will affect the existing physical stores - and how these actors are reacting to this potential threat. We draw upon in-depth interviews with senior executives from grocery companies, academics, and experts. The data has been subsequently discussed in the light of market literature and the study’s' theoretical framework. We find that e-grocery and physical grocery operate with two very different business models, where neither would benefit from emulating the other. While some of the physical chains have been developing e-grocery as add-on services, they are not profitable because they are not compatible with the current business model. Seeing this, physical shops are primarily concerned with competing with other physical shops to survive the growth of e-grocery despite of the development from pure e-grocery players. However, these sustaining actions might over time turn consumers digital, as the reduction of number of physical stores might spark the change in consumer behavior needed by e-grocery to accelerate its growth.&nbsp;</p> 2022-09-07T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Innovation and Entrepreneurship Changes in the perception of business risks to the threat of bankruptcy due to COVID-19 2022-07-22T08:20:41+00:00 Martin Cepel Anna Kotaskova <p>The aim of the article is to compare the impact of selected business risks on the threat of bankruptcy of small or medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) before COVID-19 and during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. 688 SMEs from the business environment of the Slovak Republic participated in the research. Business risks, such as market, financial, personnel, operational and strategic risk were examined. Correlation and regression analysis were used to evaluate formulated hypotheses. The results yielded several significant findings. The three most important business risks before COVID-19 include market, financial and personnel risk according to entrepreneurs. Financial risk is the most significant business risk affecting the threat of bankruptcy in the SME segment in the Slovak Republic after the outbreak of COVID-19. The company's financial performance indicators and the ability of respondents to manage financial risk influence the threat of the company's bankruptcy more strongly during the pandemic. The findings are important for state organizations in mitigating the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on the business environment of SMEs in the Slovak Republic, as well as for entrepreneurs themselves and organizations that help SMEs.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2022-09-07T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Innovation and Entrepreneurship A framework for social business models analyses 2022-07-04T13:28:31+00:00 Irene Ciccarino Susana Cristina Serrano Fernandes Rodrigues <p>Social entrepreneurial initiatives (SEI) answer problems and needs that otherwise would remain unattended. Therefore, they provide high collective interest social value achieved by a stable, reliable, and sustainable operation. Because the economic goal is a means to accomplish the social aim, it is hard to overcome resource constraints. SEIs must prove innovation and efficiency to access funding. However, the investment criteria are usually circumstantial or abstract. Additionally, the theory lacks the recommendation to enlighten how to increase the chances to be funded. The literature does not offer consensual, consistent, empirically tested criteria to compare business models. To help address these issues, this paper provides a Delphi analysis of a social business model taxonomy. The following criteria selected interviews from a broad study: 1) have qualitative and quantitative data recorded; 2) represent different SEIs’ types in the taxonomy. Then, four invited scholars blindly reviewed the data. They are experts in social innovation, entrepreneurship, sustainability, and social psychology. Online meetings helped to solve doubts and build synthesis. All Delphi participants described their opinion about the taxonomy fit by e-mail. Results were also compared by previous statistical classification. The Delphi process happened from December 2020 to June 2021. The similarity between statistical and analytical results indicated that the taxonomy is an efficient tool to identify and compare elements of the social business model. The study made the taxonomy easier and more replicable, providing an analytical framework. Evidence can help social agents and investors to frame information and achieve better decision-making.</p> 2022-09-07T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Innovation and Entrepreneurship Benefits of CSR Through Quinoa Biotrade in South American Communities 2022-04-28T16:19:42+00:00 Franklin Cordova-Buiza Jesus Julio Antaurco-Perez Braulio Edson Espinoza-Prieto Lucero Nicole Huerta-Tantalean <p>In recent years, the demand for organic, native products with high nutritional value, that do not contain any type of chemicals or preservatives and that have a certification, has increased. On the other hand, the sustainable development of companies, producers and agricultural areas do not keep pace with this growth. At the same time, companies have begun to make efforts to improve their corporate image by carrying out activities for the benefit of the communities. The main objective of this research is to identify what is known about the benefits of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) through the biotrade of quinoa in South American communities in the scientific literature between the years 2010 to 2020. In addition, it specifically focuses on the importance of CSR in quinoa-producing communities and the benefit of Fair-Trade certification in the populations. This way, the models and strategies found can be replicated in the future. Therefore, a systematic review of the literature was carried out, where information was collected on the CSR and Fair-Trade variables following the PRISMA statement (identification, screening, eligibility and included). For which four databases were used, such as: Redalyc, Ebsco, Google Scholar and Scielo; Finally, under the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 22 scientific articles were selected for this work. The results obtained show that companies that incorporate CSR have better management and a positive impact on the community, in the same way, fair-trade improves the quality of life of the producing community and provides environmental benefits. Finally, The research concludes that CSR through the biotrade of quinoa allows development and progress of the producing communities in South America, improving aspects of education and increasing jobs; at the same time, it generates value and increases the image of organizations. More studies focused on CSR in specific communities and the analysis of their adaptation to the context of the pandemic are recommended.</p> 2022-09-07T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Innovation and Entrepreneurship Strategic Management of E-Commerce in Commercial Companies: A Systematic Review (2016 -2020) 2022-04-28T16:11:29+00:00 Franklin Cordova-Buiza Kiara Hernandez-Zuniga Katherine Julca-Carrasco Lucero Nicole Huerta-Tantalean <p>Currently, electronic commerce has grown rapidly, where technology and the internet intervene to make purchases and sales in a faster and more comfortable way. This modality represents a competitive advantage for small businesses since it allows them to sell their products and/or services to any part of the world on a larger scale and at a lower cost. The objective of this research is to determine what is known about the strategic management of e-commerce in Latin American commercial companies in the scientific literature between 2016 and 2020. Therefore, a systematic review of the literature was carried out following the PRISMA statement, for which four databases were used, such as: Scopus, Redalyc, and ProQuest; after the inclusion process, 24 scientific articles were selected for this work. The main results are related to definition, context in general, adoption of electronic commerce in Latin America, and fundamental strategies for the purchase decision in e-commerce. It is concluded that electronic commerce generates new opportunities to penetrate national and international markets, reducing costs and increasing sales; however, despite its benefits, it has not yet surpassed traditional purchases and this is because the purchase decision in the online context is determined by factors such as the level of trust, the level of technology management and reputation of the company. Likewise, it was shown that Latin America is below the first world countries in the use of this new purchase process as a consequence of the moderating variable of the digital gap. On the other hand, Latin American countries are presented as a potential market with positive growth. It is recommended to continue with empirical research related to e-commerce focused on Latin America and its evolution and adaptation within this new business model. It is important to mention that there were no impediments to this investigation.</p> 2022-09-07T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Innovation and Entrepreneurship Entrepreneurial Business on wine sector: a business model proposal for Setúbal Peninsula 2022-05-24T19:31:04+00:00 Teresa Costa Nuno Teixeira Sandra Nunes Mario Cravidão <p>The frequency and severity of crises and disasters in recent years has highlighted the need and urgency of studying ways to mitigate the impact of these phenomena. These have been overwhelming for businesses with very large impacts on the economies of the countries. It is a complex phenomenon, widely confirmed in the literature, where a variety of studies point to strategic capacity and business model design as key factors for business resilience. The ability to design products or services and deliver them competitively in the market requires a clear strategic definition, as well as the design, implementation, and management of new business models.</p> <p>The wine sector also suffered major impacts during the pandemic crisis, especially in 2020, however its recovery shows the resilience of this entrepreneurial sector. During this crisis, many business models proved to be obsolete, but others have shown great resilience, proving that it is possible to resist and even thrive in a crisis context. On the other hand, in a globalized market, intense competition in the wine sector leads to critical management issues for wine producers. Due to the unique characteristics of the product, entrepreneurs, and managers, in this sector, need to critically review their business models, establish strategies, and measure their performance.</p> <p>Considering the crisis on business wine sector caused by pandemic situation, this study aims to answer the questions “What strategies have been implemented in the wine sector of Setúbal Peninsula that have contributed to the survival and prosperity of the sector?”; Is there an ideal business model for this sector on the Setúbal Peninsula?”</p> <p>The aim of this study is to identify successful strategies of wine sector in a context of crise as well as propose a robust business model for wine sector in Setúbal Peninsula. Both quantitative (questionnaires) and qualitative methods (focus group) were used.</p> <p>As result of the research, we highlight the identification of some competitive behaviors that may contribute to suggest possible critical success factors in the business models of the Portuguese wine sector.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> 2022-09-07T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Innovation and Entrepreneurship Entrepreneurship Education: The international pedagogical project COTADAS – Co-Creation to analyses and development of strategic scenarios 2022-05-13T07:42:03+00:00 Teresa Costa Pedro Mares William Borges Nuno Teixeira <p>The “new normality” and the growing uncertainty that the world faces determine the development of different business and innovative ways of work. To this end, a new mindset and new competences are required to the actors that will participate in these new social and business contexts. Higher Education will certainly have its role in shaping this mindset and competences of the future managers who should be able to participate in the co-creation of value propositions for companies.</p> <p>The project COTADAS (CO-creation To Analyses and Development of Strategic Scenarios) aims to contribute to the training of these future managers. The project aims to analyse and develop strategic scenarios that facilitate intelligent and sustainable value propositions, through digital and intelligent tools. Supported in a multidisciplinary approach and using innovative methodologies, it is intended to facilitate the acquisition of knowledge in less attractive areas for students, namely the areas of finance, revealing how this knowledge can leverage emerging and important areas of knowledge such as innovation, entrepreneurship, and sustainability.</p> <p>The objective of this article is to describe and evaluate the COTADAS project, developed in two Higher Education Institutes (Polytechnic Institute of Setúbal and Federal Institute of Santa Catarina) with Portuguese and Brazilian students.</p> <p>This study is structured in two main parts. In the first part we present a theoretical approach and in the second part we describe the project and the results of the assessment. A questionnaire was applied to participants to evaluate the degree of satisfaction with the project and its impact on entrepreneurial skills. The results revealed a high degree of student’s satisfaction, as well as a valuable impact on the acquisition and development of entrepreneurial skills. Several advantages in participating in COTADAS were pointed out as well as some possible improvements that can enrich the next project edition. Finally, the results allowed us to understand that both successes and failures were important aspects in the students' learning and personal growth.</p> 2022-09-07T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Innovation and Entrepreneurship A structural equations approach applied to social innovation 2022-05-23T10:17:41+00:00 Jorge Cunha Carla Ferreira Claúdio Vasconcelos Madalena Araujo Manuel Nunes Paula Ferreira <p>Social innovation is a topic that has rapidly gained visibility during the last decades, where public organizations, private companies, and community groups are interested in developing more efficient and effective solutions to important societal challenges, such as poverty, demographic change, climate change, and unemployment. The University has been recognized for a long-time as a place of learning and academic research as well as a driver of economic growth, social mobility, and reducer of social inequality within and beyond its locality and region. Several researchers have advocated that the engagement of universities would foster the social innovation process, drawing on their existing resources and capabilities to benefit society at large. However, less is known about to relationship between creativity, entrepreneurial intention, and social innovation. Based on these arguments, the main aim of this study to investigate the effect of creativity and entrepreneurial intention on social innovation tendency within the academic community. The approach to empirical research adopted was a structural equation model. The sample used is comprised of students and professors or researchers from Portuguese universities. Confirmatory factor analysis supports the differentiation among the theoretical constructs, namely: self-creativity, creativity stimulated in the family, creativity stimulated in the university, entrepreneurial intention, and social innovation tendency. Results from the structural analysis support the suggestion that engagement in social innovation is positively related to self-creativity, family context, and entrepreneurial intention. Additionally, family role models seem to exert an effect on entrepreneurial intention. This study contributes to the body of social innovation literature at two levels of development: the core theoretical contributions are the research on social innovation tendency models and, at a broader level, on social innovation education. Particularly, this finding contributes to the line of research of social innovation tendency indicating that personality traits may have an essential role to play in developing theories of the entrepreneurial process.</p> 2022-09-07T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Innovation and Entrepreneurship A proposal for an assessment tool of social innovation impact 2022-06-19T15:35:00+00:00 Jorge Cunha Wellington Alves Fernanda Pontes Madalena Araújo <p>In response to the urgent need for an inclusive society, the demand for metrics to evaluate the impact of different types and scales of organizations has grown significantly in recent years. The challenge of how to evaluate the impact coming from social innovation (SI) has emerged as an important question posed by various actors, such as academic researchers, students, project managers, leaders of organizations, and policymakers. To find an answer to this question, this research seeks to contribute to bridging the gap between SI initiatives and the evaluation of their impacts. Despite the interest and popularity of the topic of SI, this gap can be justified due to the lack of tools and frameworks to help organizations approach SI impact assessment. Although indicators have been widely used by researchers in different fields of study, the current literature has failed to develop indicators, frameworks or methodologies to assess the impact of SI initiatives. The research includes an investigation of the state of the art in terms of measuring the impact of SI, based on both scientific literature and practitioners' reports. Based on this analysis, a set of thirty-eight indicators was identified to assess the impact of SI. From the literature consulted, it can be seen that the results highlight the gap in the literature regarding the lack of instruments and frameworks. Regarding the set of thirty-eight indicators identified, if applied as a complement to a measurement tool, the indicators can be used as a first attempt to help organizations address the evaluation and effectiveness of the SI impact on their actions. The proposal may contribute to bring to light new evidence in the SI domain for policymakers, researchers and governments, then contributing to a better understanding of the impact of SI.</p> 2022-09-07T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Innovation and Entrepreneurship The Entrepreneurial Perspective in Impact Investing Research: A Research Agenda 2022-05-16T08:59:35+00:00 Christin Eckerle Sarah Manthey Orestis Terzidis <p>The Covid-19 pandemic, climate crises, and regulatory changes are only a few reasons for the growing public alertness regarding environmental and social problems. This has caused a shift in the mindset of companies and investors in terms of sustainability and the long-term impact of innovation. Thus, sustainable investments, particularly impact investments, have continued to grow in importance and momentum to shift the focus on rebuilding the economy more sustainable and future-oriented. The current state of research in this field indicates that most academic contributions are mainly about theoretical considerations and deal with various areas. There is no aggregated state of the art in academia with a focus point on impact investment for entrepreneurship. Yet, entrepreneurs are seen as key actors to drive sustainable innovation. Compared to the current growing impact investment practices and the necessity of a strategy to get financing, the topic is still relatively unexplored scientifically. In this research, a systematic literature review is conducted to further review, evaluate, and analyze the current research agenda on impact investment and show how it relates to entrepreneurship research. In particular, impact investment-related decision criteria, as well as challenges associated with this, will be presented. This contributes to the nascent literature on impact investing by documenting how impact investors stand in relation to entrepreneurial ventures and what measurement frameworks and models are already scientifically analyzed, which has practical implications for both impact investors and entrepreneurs.</p> 2022-09-07T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Innovation and Entrepreneurship Do we Practice What we Preach? Applying Startup Practice to Entrepreneurship Education 2022-07-04T15:19:33+00:00 Gali Einav Maria Blekher <p>Definitions of the term “entrepreneurship education” vary from the process of passing the necessary skills and concepts to individuals to identifying new business opportunities and to reach high levels of self-confidence to benefit from such opportunities. Some scholars refer to entrepreneurship education as more of skill building and leadership programs, focused on new product development, creative thinking and technology innovation. This study set out to examine the entrepreneurship faculty perspective on applying venture creation methods to entrepreneurship courses. &nbsp;Through interviews with 15 entrepreneurship faculty in two entrepreneurship programs, in Israel and the United States, it examines their professional and academic backgrounds, thought processes and best practices for teaching entrepreneurship. Building on the Lean Startup Methodology, it mostly looks at the extent that lean startup guidelines such as iterations, customer feedback and product development are applied to their teaching methods and curriculum. The study found that many of these guidelines were applied by the professors, especially among those with an industry oriented professional background.</p> 2022-09-07T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Innovation and Entrepreneurship Choosing Collaborative Learning Options for Preparing Innovative Entrepreneurs 2022-05-12T07:50:55+00:00 Tiit Elenurm <p>This paper focuses on comparing and choosing online and face-to-face collaborative learning applications for preparing students to innovative entrepreneurship. The main research question is: What are the pluses and minuses of programs with different time frames and combinations of online and face-to-face teamwork for facilitating innovative entrepreneurship and international scaling readiness? Learning concepts based on collaborative learning and improving the international networking readiness of students are presented. Estonian-Finnish business in virtual networks course, online teamwork experience of students that have participated in X-Culture global teams, intensive one semester face-to-face business development projects in the Starter programme and one-week course European and Global Horizons for Start-up Entrepreneurship in the Post-COVID World at the KEDGE Business School are compared. We analyse the pros and cons of these educational practices and give recommendations on how to customise these practices to intended learning outcomes depending on the international mobility possibilities of students. The paper explains how to align collaborative learning options to the entrepreneurial orientations of students, their readiness to launch a new venture and to international scalability potential of their innovative ideas. Limitations of intensive learning by doing programmes for team-based venture development and different ways of international student team creation for collaborative project work are explained. The recent COVID-19 crisis has expanded the need to apply online learning and hybrid learning for collaborative projects. Implications of limited international mobility of students during the pandemic on scalable business idea development are highlighted. The importance of networking knowledge for international entrepreneurship and the role of team projects for other entrepreneurs before starting students' own innovative ventures is explained. Learning in higher education should not be locked to closed e-learning platforms. Online learning can support international entrepreneurial collaboration. The paper also discusses changing trends of collaborative learning to facilitate innovation and green entrepreneurship for regenerative futures in the new normality during the COVID-19 pandemic.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2022-09-07T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Innovation and Entrepreneurship Collaborate or Perish: A Conceptual Framework for Banks and FinTechs Partnerships 2022-07-16T19:43:46+00:00 Alessandro Faes Vito Gunnella Marco Giorgino <p>In the Open Finance framework, collaboration of traditional incumbents (i.e., banks) with start-ups (i.e., FinTechs) is crucial for success. However, despite the frequency and relevance of such partnerships in the financial system, research in this field is rather limited, as most works address alliances regardless of the field of application. The limited number of publications related to finance shed light primarily on the motivations promoting interaction among banks and FinTech start-ups, overlooking additional aspects and players. Therefore, the aim of this work is to build a comprehensive framework allowing to properly frame alliances in the financial industry. Focusing on the Italian context, 90 public partnerships were analysed through document analysis of press releases. It emerges that the majority of the alliances do not involve investments in equity and attest strong participation and commitment of FinTech start-ups. On top of common knowledge, we uncovered other relevant variables to consider in this field when analysing each partnership: its direction, which depends on whether the relation resembles more an operative agreement or an industrial one; its field of interest, which details what the collaboration is about; and its addressees, identifying the targets of these alliances. These dimensions, along with the other ones in a comprehensive framework, will contribute to the enrichment of the literature, closing a relevant gap, and serve as a guide for practitioners in addressing these partnerships.</p> 2022-09-07T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Innovation and Entrepreneurship From Teachers’ Innovative Practices to Students’ Co-Creation: A Glimpse of the Project “Link Me Up – 1000 Ideias” 2022-05-17T09:25:28+00:00 Rosina Fernandes Susana Amante <p>Higher Education Institutions are, more than ever, open to innovative practices, and nowadays the triple helix of University, Industry and Government is taking place through the implementation of projects such as “Link Me Up – 1000 Ideias”. This project, funded by COMPETE, was created as a network bringing together thirteen Portuguese Polytechnic Institutes to promote entrepreneurship among students, called talents, in academia. In a multidisciplinary approach, a co-creation team of 4-6 students, working together with organisation partners and using teacher’s innovative practices, explore a future-oriented challenge in order to design solutions, ideas and future scenarios, in an 8-week process that aims to empower students to create their own innovative companies or projects and to help them to be prepared for the transition to the world of work, developing soft skills that are required in our competitive society. This project is linked to another, entitled “Learning based on co-creation processes,” funded by POCH, in a partnership with DEMOLA Global, which provides teachers (in this process, they become facilitators) with innovative methodologies that are then operationalised when implementing co-creation challenges. In this study, we aim at presenting the “Link Me Up” project from the point of view of students from the Polytechnic Institute of Viseu and local organisations, by a) reflecting upon the questionnaires applied to students and companies to assess their degree of satisfaction with their participation in the project, identifying key areas enhanced by the experience. Additionally, b) we will look at the reports written by the group of students as they summarise the work developed in partnership with companies throughout eight intensive weeks. We will conclude, not with a retrospective view, although it is important to look at the past to build the present, but with the perspective of a future that is collaborative, reflective, critical and increasingly creative. </p> 2022-09-07T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Innovation and Entrepreneurship Supporting Innovation in Energy Sector: The SMEs Role and DIGIFED Success Cases 2022-05-30T11:04:50+00:00 Gabriele Gaffuri Isabelle Chartier Pablo Ribeiro Sonja Nastran Margherita Volpe Isabelle Dor Gonzalo Murillo Emmanuel Chanson Iñigo Gonzalez Marvin Hofer <p>This paper aims to discuss the peculiarities of innovation approaches in the energy sector and examines success stories on how alternative sources of funding (such as cascade funding deriving from EU-financed projects) can effectively promote the role of SMEs in this environment. As digitalisation and smartification of the energy sector are key goals of the European Commission (EC), relevant legislative packages like the European Green Deal and other initiatives are actively promoting these priorities as enablers of the green transition. However, while large energy companies can afford to make substantial innovation investments, the SMEs innovation scenario is often characterised by a selected portfolio of start-ups and SMEs that get funded by large players only when functional to their business, leaving a significant portion of innovative SMEs out of this investment trend.</p> <p>In this context, the EU-funded DigiFed project’s approach, supporting Application Experiments (AEs) for innovative products development, seems relevant to showcase alternative ways to support innovation in the energy sector. Indeed, in 2 years of implementation, DigiFed has structured and launched 3 Open Calls for AEs (cascade funding), succeeding in funding 71 companies and 46 AEs in several sectors, for an overall investment budget of € 3.6 M. The present paper focuses on two successful cases of TWIN AEs related to the energy sector, i.e., DYNAGRID and REDUXI. DYNAGRID aims at demonstrating an affordable, wireless and battery-free solution to digitise the New Caledonian electric grid, reducing maintenance and increasing grid capacity, representing a peculiar case of successful implementation with a long-distance collaboration. On the other hand, REDUXI is focused on developing a smart, plug &amp; play building management system box, capable of forecasting energy consumption and its further redistribution, with high chances to quickly reach the market. Eventually, based on these success cases, the paper discusses the support provided by DigiFed and its benefits with respect to other forms of innovation financing.</p> 2022-09-07T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Innovation and Entrepreneurship Shared Stressors and Stress Coping Strategies in Start-up Teams 2022-07-20T20:07:03+00:00 Liudmila Gapeyeva-Yukce Juha Saukkonen Henna Kautto <p>Engaging in new entrepreneurial efforts sets many demands for individuals involved, and many of those demands impact the well-being of the people in a start-up company. One common issue linked to well-being is stress. Prior research has indicated that a majority of all entrepreneurs experience stress on a regular basis (e.g. Shepherd et al., 2010). Furthermore, a recent study by Wach et al. (2021) identified that entrepreneurial stress differs from the stress that salaried employees with no entrepreneurship responsibility face in their work. The “overall high and persistence level of stress” (Wach et al., 2021) calls for stress research focusing on entrepreneurial setup. Since entrepreneurship is a wide concept and entrepreneurs as a category includes a wide variety of entrepreneurial individuals and teams, an even tighter scoping of stress research is defendable.</p> <p>This study studied a sub-category of entrepreneurial organizations called early-stage start-ups. This cohort of companies faces lots of uncertainties concerning the market, technology, and competition. Thus, it can be logically argued that these companies have stressors that are typical to their stage of development as well as difficult to solve due to the scarce resources that a young start-up possesses.</p> <p>The research design adopted was based on treating entrepreneurial stress as a collective effort as well as putting emphasis on the dynamic and volatile nature of the presence of stress in daily start-up operations. The longitudinal approach (study period of 3 weeks) and team-based fresh (video) entries by the teams (4 start-up teams of 2 to 5 people each) were tackling some of the methodological challenges of prior research. Both the experienced stressors and the coping strategies used got recorded and subjected to thematic content analysis. The findings identified stress-related characteristics typical for team-based operating model and also communal coping strategies including those that are rarely reported in the studies of coping strategies on the individual level. The findings contribute academically to the theory-building on the well-being of entrepreneurs and on a pragmatic level for entrepreneurs acting in their typically stress-laden environment as well as for the support and educational organizations for entrepreneurship.</p> 2022-09-07T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Innovation and Entrepreneurship Enabling Undergraduate Student Entrepreneurs to Structure Their own Experiential Learning Course 2022-07-11T16:45:31+00:00 Kenneth Grant <p>The one-semester undergraduate course “Applied Entrepreneurship” allows student entrepreneurs to investigate their own business idea while following a course structure that they design for themselves under the mentorship of an entrepreneurship professor. The course is available to all students across campus, regardless of degree program or year of study. No prior courses in entrepreneurship are required (indeed the only students excluded are those already enrolled in the Management School Entrepreneurship Major). The course is based on a widely held teaching principle for entrepreneurship education -- getting the students out of the classroom and into the real world. Students bring their own business idea to the course, which can be at any stage of development from ideation, through launch, operation and even sale of their business. Each student develops a personal course workplan of eight modules including a mix of structured learning and primary and secondary research appropriate for their own personal development as entrepreneurs and about their business idea. A short write-up is prepared by the student for each module, including evidence of the work they have done. They conclude the course by presenting a summary of the work they have done and a personal reflection. As the course progresses, the instructor provides individual feedback and counselling to each student as they submit their modules. Student feedback on the course is highly positive, on the education experience, improvement of their business idea and on their personal development.</p> 2022-09-07T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Innovation and Entrepreneurship Capturing Competitive Advantage through Product Innovation: Study of A Small Culinary Business 2022-06-07T12:32:18+00:00 Jurry Hatammimi Amelia Thahara <p>In the early phase of the Covid-19 outbreak, all aspects of life, including the culinary sector, were impacted very hard by this outbreak in addition to the existing tight competition. Many businesses were in danger of going bankrupt. However, there was a culinary brand that continued to make an expansion in Bandung, Indonesia. There are seven branches opened by this brand until 2021. Hence, it is interesting to study the phenomena. This study aims to determine the effect of product innovation on the competitive advantage of this culinary brand. Besides this, the customers’ evaluation regarding product innovation and competitive advantage is revealed by this study as well. This research uses a quantitative method by surveying with the purposive sampling technique. The questionnaires were distributed to 100 customers who had made transactions more than once within the last six months before the survey began. The descriptive data analysis was carried out to investigate the customers’ evaluation. It is examined that product innovation has a positive impact on the competitive advantage after a simple linear regression analysis was conducted. This result is strengthened by the t-test that shows the acceptance of the hypothesis. Moreover, the coefficient of determination test presents that the impact of product innovation on competitive advantage is 51 percent. It means that the product innovation has provided 51 percent of the information needed to predict the competitive advantage in this small culinary business. From the overall results of the descriptive analysis, the consumer assessment scores obtained fall into the medium to high category range. This result proves that the response given to the company’s competitive advantage and product innovation is still quite good and positive. The result of this study is expected can inspire other culinary companies to survive their businesses during a difficult situation like the Covid-19 outbreak and to sustain for the future. Further study can compare the condition during and after the Covid-19 outbreak.</p> 2022-09-07T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Innovation and Entrepreneurship Assessment Dimensions and Items for the Evaluation of the Technological Maturity of Applied R&D Organizations 2022-07-15T13:16:34+00:00 Fabian Hecklau Florian Kidschun Holger Kohl <p>Applied research and development (R&amp;D) organizations strive to develop technological solutions that translate results from research and science into state-of-the-art products and services. This can only be achieved when technological resources and competences are effectively and efficiently used to build up competitive advantages. Therefore, the assessment of the technological capability can provide applied R&amp;D organizations with information on strengths and weaknesses in their specific technology areas, on the basis of which technology strategies can be derived to contribute to the development and training of substantial (core) competences, which in turn improve the quality of unique and differentiating products and services. In this context, the main aim of this paper is to describe crucial assessment dimensions and the respective items within those dimensions. Therefore, it must be focused on the technology basis of the applied R&amp;D organization to identify important evaluation items. The technological base serves as input, as both technologies and competencies that are used for the execution of R&amp;D activities need to be analyzed and evaluated. Additionally, the results of the R&amp;D activities need to be focused as outputs. In this regard, technologies that result in products or technological services need to be considered. Lastly, assessment items in the field of cooperation must be taken into account as technological synergies through partnerships are important success factors for R&amp;D organizations. In this context, partners who support the execution of R&amp;D activities must be focused.</p> 2022-09-07T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Innovation and Entrepreneurship Social Entrepreneurship and Sustainable Development Goals: A Conceptual Framework 2022-06-09T11:58:46+00:00 Anton Herutomo Wawan Dhewanto Eko Agus Prasetio <p>Studies linking social entrepreneurship and sustainable development goals (SDGs) are gaining interest due to the possible impact acceleration to achieve both social and economic goals. Social entrepreneurship supports technology upgrading and innovation with the digital approach. This study proposes an updated conceptual framework that connects social entrepreneurship with SDGs, mainly targeting 8.2 in SDG 8 (achieving higher economic productivity levels through diversification, technological upgrading, and innovation, focusing on high value-added and labor-intensive sectors). However, less research addresses the focus on digital technology and SDGs. With this study, the authors contribute to filling this research gap by answering this research question: how can social innovation within social entrepreneurship using digital technology improve Sustainable Development Goals achievement? A systematic literature review of 3,214 social entrepreneurship-related journals based on the Scopus database with no publication date restriction resulted in 111 included studies. The results were then mapped into two bibliographic visualizations using VOSViewer, i.e., "social entrepreneurship" and "technology innovation in social entrepreneurship." In social entrepreneurship visualization, the technology-related keyword filter only resulted in 1 keyword, i.e., "technology transfer," which shows fewer research activities. In technology-related visualization, there are four keywords ("technology transfer," "social technology," "technology and innovation," and "technology"). Five organizational level constructs in digital social entrepreneurship were identified: sustainable entrepreneurship development, social business model design, government regulation, marketing strategy, and creative solution generation capacity. These organization behavior dimensions have been categorized to illustrate their influence on digital social entrepreneurship and SDG. Hence, this study is envisioned to provide original work in the theoretical development of bridging digital social entrepreneurship and SDGs that benefit both academicians and practitioners.</p> 2022-09-07T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Innovation and Entrepreneurship The All-Wales Academy for Innovation in Health and Social Care 2022-08-26T15:35:03+00:00 Thomas James Roderick Thomas Daniel Rees Gareth Davies <p>&nbsp;This paper presents the case of the All-Wales Intensive Learning Academy (ILA) for Innovation in Health and Social Care (IHSC), established in the context of the broader Regional Innovation System (RIS) (Braczyk et al., 1998, Pino and Ortega, 2018). Developing capacity and capability for innovation in the Health and Social Care sectors in south west Wales has been a longstanding endeavour alongside efforts to revitalise the region’s economy. Welsh Government’s recent initiative to establish Intensive Learning Academies to support development of senior leaders and managers within the Health and Social Care is a further endeavour within the RIS. The IHSC ILA in particular has relevant to this agenda, operating across Health &amp; Social Care, with further engagement of private and third sectors. &nbsp;</p> <p>Delivered by a partnership of Swansea University, Cardiff &amp; Vale University Health Board and the Bevan Commission, the initial phase of the IHSC has involved three of its core offerings being launched, engaging just over 200 learners. While the initiative is still in its early stages, this case study provides an initial examination of its activity exploring its potential to support the RIS through consideration of <em>Region</em>, <em>Innovation, Network, Learning</em>, and <em>Interaction</em>. As this work continues, it offers potential learning for future phases of IHSC, and to other post-industrial regions grappling concurrent challenges relating to population health and economic development.</p> 2022-09-07T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Innovation and Entrepreneurship The Role of Motivation and Entrepreneurial Role Models in Shaping Entrepreneurship Competence of Higher Education Students 2022-04-28T12:09:05+00:00 Sanna Joensuu-Salo <p>Entrepreneurship competence (EC) has received considerable attention in Europe, particularly after the European Commission published the EntreComp framework in 2016. EC can be defined as a competence for life, relevant to personal development and fulfilment, finding and progressing in employment, as well as initiating new ventures ranging from community campaigns, social enterprises to new start-up businesses. There is a need to develop EC of European citizens, and especially in higher education context, but little is known about the factors shaping EC. The objective of this research is twofold: (1) to examine the relationship between entrepreneurial role models and entrepreneurship competence of higher education students, and (2) to examine the relationship between motivation and entrepreneurship competence of higher education students. The data (n=1373) was gathered from two Finnish universities, and respondents represent first year students in versatile study fields. In this research, entrepreneurial role model is defined as someone in the close family (parents or siblings) working as an entrepreneur, and motivation is examined through multidimensional achievement motivation. The results show that there is a positive relationship between entrepreneurial role models and EC. The most important factor explaining EC is the motivation subscale of work orientation followed by mastery needs and interpersonal competitiveness. The model explains 46 percent of the variance in EC. The study contributes to understanding the underlying factors shaping the EC of higher education students, and suggests practical solutions for entrepreneurship education.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2022-09-07T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Innovation and Entrepreneurship Engaging Literature Students in Entrepreneurship: Could use of art Help? 2022-05-25T11:54:42+00:00 Alexandros Kakouris Panagiotis Liargovas <p>Entrepreneurship educators seek innovative teaching in entrepreneurship in order to engage youth populations in venturing by instilling them the entrepreneurial mindset whilst the contemporary progression of entrepreneurship education encompasses its embedded form to other discipline curricula. At a Greek central university, such courses are massively attended by foreign language and literature students during the last decade. In the present implementation, literature students were encouraged to either perform the usual business plan or to analyse a piece of art for their entrepreneurial courses’ project. Pre/post measurements (N=64) for entrepreneurial self-efficacy, entrepreneurial success beliefs and entrepreneurial intention were conducted in order to compare the two groups. T-tests indicate that changes to the entrepreneurial constructs do not significantly vary between the groups. Through a binary logistic regression model, it was found that art-projects were chosen by those who rely more on personal abilities for the success of their initiatives. The article concludes that introducing art in entrepreneurial teaching conforms with some curricular contexts, like literature, affects students in a similar manner with the business plan, but also confronts different learning needs and enables critical thinking and personal autonomy on entrepreneurial meaning-making. The present study offers quantitative insights on how art-based entrepreneurship education could be employed in classrooms compounded with interactive lectures offering new perspectives for enriching the entrepreneurial teaching toolbox.</p> 2022-09-07T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Innovation and Entrepreneurship Innovation in Healthcare: Success Factors for Innovative Healthcare Change Processes 2022-06-08T13:59:02+00:00 Stefan Lagrosen Yvonne Lagrosen <p>Many factors contribute to increasing the need for innovation in healthcare. Global demographic developments with falling birth rates and increasing lifespan mean that the proportion of elderly in society is expected to increase dramatically in all developed countries. Moreover, continuous scientific advances afford possibilities for higher effectiveness in healthcare processes. Innovation can and does take place in the form of medical discoveries which enhance the efficiency of treatments or in the form of technological advances, for instance, in ehealth, which provide increased options for healthcare delivery. However, innovation can also be of an organisational nature since healthcare organisations are complex organisations with legal and ethical constraints that are difficult to manage effectively. Organisational innovation requires change processes of various kinds. The purpose of this paper is to explore success factors for innovative change processes in healthcare organisations. Change processes related to digitalisation are of particular interest.</p> <p>Qualitative methodology was chosen in order to gain a deeper understanding of the area and not to exclude aspects based on preconceptions. A multiple case study has been carried out. To achieve focus, the study population was limited to public hospitals in Sweden. Change processes, usually involving digitalisation, in seven hospitals of various sizes have been studied. Individual qualitative interviews were chosen as the method of data collection. Between two and nine interviews were conducted, giving a total of forty interviews. The respondents were people who had participated in the change processes, mainly nurses, physicians, and administrative staff, some of whom had managerial positions on lower levels. The data from the interviews were analysed using the constant comparative method from the grounded theory approach. The analysis yielded a number of categories depicting success factors under different conditions. A framework was constructed depicting the factors and their internal relationships. The categories and the framework should be valuable for managers of healthcare organisations as well as for increasing the conceptual understanding of the field.</p> 2022-09-07T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Innovation and Entrepreneurship Calibrating Entrepreneurship Education for a Constantly Changing World 2022-08-04T12:07:49+00:00 Matthew Lynch Nils Sanne Øystein Stavo Hovig Kari Håvåg Voldsund <p>A key purpose of education has long been to ensure that students are well prepared for the workforce. In an unchanging context where tasks, roles, and expectations are stable, creating an education program that prepares students for the workforce can be achieved relatively easily, and once in place will remain appropriate if the context is stable. The challenge is in educating students for work environments that are rapidly changing and where the expectations placed on them are uncertain and ambiguous. The concept of calibration is the process of ensuring something is in tune or in sync in the intended way. An example from music would be calibrating an instrument to ensure it generates the intended notes. The same approach can be applied to education to ensure that educational approaches used are in tune with the requirements of students who enter the workforce. This research therefore sought out students who had graduated from two master's programs and had been in the workforce for less than a year to better understand what skills and education they felt were missing from their education and what skills they felt their education had provided. In short to hear how well equipped the students felt and whether the program was calibrated to their needs, in carrying out this research it highlighted several conundrums relevant to all entrepreneurship educators.</p> 2022-09-07T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Innovation and Entrepreneurship Fashion Upcycling and Social Impact: A Case Study 2022-06-20T14:48:44+00:00 Diana Machado Marisa R. Ferreira Amélia Carvalho Alexandra Braga Vítor Braga <p>To upcycle is to take something already made and then improve upon it, or turn it into a fresh item, so fashion upcycling is a process of using excess or waste clothing and textiles to generate new products, as an unconventional and new practices, which can successfully tackle concerns on excessive consumption of resources. The project "From Granny to Trendy" works with fashion upcycling and, in addition to the issue of sustainability, promotes the empowerment of unemployed women over 50 years. The main objective of our paper is to analyze social partnerships, particularly the social impact on the individual level, so a case study was conducted, exploring the benefits and difficulties of the project that belongs to a local nonprofit organization (NPO). The study is based on a qualitative (seven focus groups) and quantitative data analysis - two questionnaires, in two distinct moments: moment one corresponding to the beginning of the training and moment two corresponding to the end of the training, in a total of 100 questionnaires, 50 in each moment. Our study explores the project impact at the micro-level, and concludes that participants gain benefits through the acquisition of new instrumental/technical knowledge/capabilities (e.g., new insights about fashion design) and psychological benefits (e.g., improvement of self-confidence). </p> 2022-09-07T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Innovation and Entrepreneurship Tackling the Critical Hurdles: Revising Technology-Based Ideation Processes 2022-05-17T10:16:31+00:00 Sarah Manthey Christin Eckerle Orestis Terzidis <p>Technological innovations are crucial for a country’s economic growth as they often have radical innovation potential. Although recognized as a key role in the innovation process, lots of technologies remain unexploited. University spin-offs (USOs) have the potential to transfer technologies into technological innovations. Often though, in universities there is a lack of consideration of potential implementation right from the start. The so-called fuzzyfront end (FFE) stage is crucial for successful innovation, as no commercialization can be achieved without the identification of a suitable application. This represents a critical hurdle, as of to date appropriate approaches for a successful systematic identification and validation of technology applications are missing. Furthermore, most investigating studies rely on data from spin-offs that are already operating successfully on the market and have therefore survived the critical initial stages of development, without highlighting the FFE of their process. This fact makes the pre-development activity of opportunity recognition appear to be a scientifically neglected topic.</p> <p>In this research a mixed-method approach is conducted to investigate the critical hurdles in the technology application selection (TAS) process of technologies, consisting of an extended literature review, completed by interviews with stakeholder involved in the USOs ecosystem. Striving to uncover the black box of the FFE, the study aims to specify and operationalize requirements for application identification of technologies. These findings are of relevance for researchers and practitioners which like to facilitate the exploration of potential technological innovation.</p> <p> </p> 2022-09-07T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Innovation and Entrepreneurship Entrepreneurship: Analysis by Country Through Machine Learning Techniques 2022-06-01T14:57:55+00:00 Antonieta Martinez-Velasco Antonia Terán-Bustamante <p>This research aims to analyze entrepreneurship worldwide through the dimensions and pillars of the entrepreneurship ecosystem of each country, identifying the contribution and patterns of behavior and correlation within the entrepreneurship ecosystem. This analysis intends to show the main actions that countries have carried out in support of entrepreneurship and entrepreneurs. The tool used to analyze is machine learning, where various algorithms are applied. The evidence shows that the most relevant pillars in the entrepreneurial ecosystem are I. Opportunity Startup, II. Technology Absorption, III. Risk Acceptance, IV. Risk Capital and V. Process Innovation. The pillars that best correlate are I. Competition and Opportunity Startup, II. Opportunity Startup, and Risk Acceptance, III. Opportunity Startup and Technology Absorption, IV. Cultural Support and Opportunity Startup, and V. Opportunity Startup and Risk Capital. The present work aims to provide knowledge to decision-makers in both the public and private sectors to channel public policies that support entrepreneurs in this time of crisis and promote the generation and strengthening of entrepreneurial activity. Although there are still no reliable GEI data for the years 2020 to 2022, the economic crisis generated by the stagnation in the development of the countries has reduced support for entrepreneurs, which in many cases can be a key factor for the rescue of the most disadvantaged countries.</p> 2022-09-07T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Innovation and Entrepreneurship Towards a Theory of Motivations and Roles in Business Ecosystems 2022-05-26T07:29:04+00:00 Margaret Mastropetrou George Bithas Konstadinos Kutsikos <p>Focusing on the role of networking organizational structure, the literature on innovation management has turned towards value co-creation. The need for value co-creation has emerged from the fact that, in order for firms to cater for their customers’ needs, they cannot deliver on their own as single entities, but rather participate in business ecosystems. Ecosystems are a fundamental occurrence of the academic literature, as well as the managerial world. In order to gain insight to the operations of ecosystems, a systematic literature was carried out. The research question concerned the motivations that drive participants to join a business ecosystem. Several frameworks were explored with a focus on the roles that participants might fill and their specific attributes. The findings suggest linking the stakeholders’ motivations to specific roles’ attributes, thus leading to the filling of a certain role. The outcomes are then reflected in the luxury goods industry, which is one of the richest and unmanageable sectors and bears the characteristics of an ecosystem. The contribution of this research is fundamental for the ecosystems operations, as the exploration of stakeholders’ motivations is essential for the sustainability of the ecosystem from a managerial perspective. </p> 2022-09-07T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Innovation and Entrepreneurship Strategic Alliances, Innovation Capability, Cost Reduction, Customer Loyalty and Competitive Advantage in B2B Alliances 2022-05-31T12:42:46+00:00 Soebowo Musa <p>Disruptive business environment such as the Covid-19 pandemic and the recent high volatility in commodity prices has changed the way businesses were conducted. The heavy equipment industry is one of many industries affected by such an environment, especially those who are related to the mining industry where the volatility of the commodity prices has a significant impact on their business performance. Alliances are commonly formed by heavy equipment distributors and their customers to create a mutual benefit to sustain their performance. Strategic alliances have attracted substantial attention from industry as well as academia as a way to stay competitive. They mostly focus on the partner-to-partner alliances in serving their customers. Consumer behaviour has changed due to changes in the environment that make firms' strategic focus more on human-centric business approaches. This study looks at the roles of the partner-to-customer alliances, innovation capability, and cost reduction toward customer loyalty and competitive advantage. Data was collected from 335 respondents from the firms that have entered into alliances. This study finds strategic alliances have the highest association with cost reduction, followed by their association with innovation capability. They enhance customer loyalty through innovation capability. Cost reduction is not a lever to develop customer loyalty in the partner-to-customer relationship. The study also confirms that operational efficiencies are necessarily the source of competitive advantage, but strategic alliances are.</p> 2022-09-07T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Innovation and Entrepreneurship The Role of Trust in Forming a Social Innovation Service System 2022-04-08T07:02:12+00:00 Thao Nguyen Vy T. Pham <p>The promotion of social innovation requires the interaction of multiple actors in a network who exchange resources to create value for customers. Adopting the Service-Dominant logic perspective, this paper explores how trust influences the emergence and evolvement of a social innovation service system. Data from a case study of One4One reveals that trust guides the activities of the social impact business and other actors in the service system to search for collaborators in a network, to lead the exchange of resources in the system for co-value creation, and to deal with other actors through the evolvement of the system. The study's findings could inform practitioners’ practices conducive to creating a social innovation service system that aims to improve the quality of life for people in developing countries like Vietnam.</p> 2022-09-07T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Innovation and Entrepreneurship Implications of Blockchain Application to Accounting Education and Accounting Practice 2022-08-26T19:14:41+00:00 Ana Novak Ivana Barišić Katarina Žager <p>Accounting is part of the information system of a company that generates the most important information for the decision-making process. This process should be supported by new technologies to respond to all business requirements. Disruptive technologies change the way of performing business transactions and their implementation in business practice was notably accelerated by the pandemic. In this context, Blockchain technology has been articulated as the future of the accounting profession and there is a growing body of research regarding the impact of the blockchain on accounting practice and the accountancy profession. Many advantages arise from blockchain technology's distinctiveness, but also many risks that need special attention. Consequently, evolving conditions require professional accountants around the world to master new skills related to emerging information technologies. Being accustomed to information technologies is one of the basic prerequisites for the quality service that professional accountants offer to clients. Accounting education, especially at universities, has an important role in forming competent professional accountants and enabling required skills that are an essential part of professional competence. Accounting education has a challenging role in this context to incorporate and transfer knowledge regarding new technologies. This paper aims to analyse the recent research to investigate the impact of blockchain technology on accounting practice. The paper also focuses on the analyses of means of the inclusion of blockchain technology into accounting education and curriculum, by conducting a literature review of relevant sources. Research findings enable further understanding of the implications of blockchain technology in the accounting context, both for accounting practice and accounting education. Results can serve accounting educators since this topic is not sufficiently explored and needs further analysis.&nbsp;</p> 2022-09-07T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Innovation and Entrepreneurship SMEs Digitalisation Through Clustering, the Role of Open Innovation: A Research Agenda 2022-06-24T12:31:24+00:00 Mirhiga Okuwhere Thanh Huynh Cherise Hoyte Andrew Johnstone <p>Clustering has been a widely pragmatic practice of small and medium enterprises (SMEs) for innovation during the last two decades. Though its application is complicated due to the challenges and issues in low and middle-income countries, it is expected that all SMEs will benefit from the unique learning and innovative opportunities in a cluster. A systematic review and research agenda on how open innovation in a cluster could stimulate digitalisation in SMEs has not been addressed. Hence, this study seeks to review existing literature on the role of clusters in fostering SMEs' digitalisation through open innovation practices. The research objectives are to examine SMEs' practice of open innovation, analyse the benefits and assess the intermediate role of a cluster for digitalisation within the context of SMEs. The paper aims to provide a framework for future research by presenting propositions. The methodology and approach for the study with a discussion on data extraction and synthesis were articulated. A comprehensive review of the literature to justify the approach was applied. A detailed inclusion and exclusion criteria were presented. Also, the selection process for assessing the articles was provided. This review scrutinised published peer-reviewed papers between January 2014 and December 2021. Findings from the reviewed papers show that cluster development will increase specialisation and divide labour among participating firms. It reveals the process of open innovation in SMEs' practice and the management of open innovation practice in SMEs. Also, it will improve collaboration, shared infrastructure, and knowledge sharing for increased market competitiveness. In addition, collaboration in a cluster will reduce the cost of SMEs' digitalisation, promote new firms, and reduce operational costs. Some beneficiaries of this research were highlighted. Finally, directions for future research with suggestions were comprehensively provided.</p> 2022-09-07T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Innovation and Entrepreneurship How to Increase the Efficiency of Social Enterprises in Russia During the COVID-19 Pandemic? 2022-04-28T11:43:14+00:00 Ruslan Pavlov <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium;"><span style="color: #2c2d2e;"><span lang="en-US">The paper considers the examples of economic activities of social enterprises during the COVID-19 pandemic. It is shown that often social enterprises are more effective than common enterprises in their responses to the processes caused by the COVID-19 pandemic. A model of interaction between different actors enhancing the efficiency of social enterprises in Russia by means of providing the continuous source of cashfrow is provided. At the macro-level of this model it’s necessary to mention such institutions as the Ministry of Finance, because it is engaged in planning and controlling the process of public procurement activities, The Public Relations Committee, as it provides subsidies to nonprofit organizations and social enterprises based on the competition rules and the Public Chamber, as it is engaged in distributing the Presidential Grants to nonprofit organizations and social enterprises. The institutions that provide financial help to social enterprises in the range of 1 to 50 million rubles belong to the meso-level institutions in this model. They consist of the Moscow regional division of the All-Russian Popular Front, the charitable foundation KAF, the fund “Our Future” and the company Unilever. At the micro-level of this model there are two institutions: Impact Hub Moscow and Awesome Foundation. A contact should be set between these organizations to exchange the experience in the area of supporting social entrepreneurs and attracting the micro-grants of Awesome Foundation as the supplementary sources of support for the winners of the competition held by Impact Hub Moscow. This system should be balanced by setting direct contacts between each institution at the respective level so that it could enable these institutions to act effectively at each level of that model. First, we should conclude that these institutions should not act as isolated units. They should be implemented into the system of different actors supporting social enterprises, along with such potential investors as private sector companies and microfinance institutions. Second, these actors should interact in such manner that enables a cooperation between them. Conclusions refer to how these institutions should be arranged to make a system of interconnected units supporting social enterprises at three levels.</span></span> </span></p> 2022-09-07T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Innovation and Entrepreneurship Entrepreneurship: The Ideas of J.A. Schumpeter and R.A. Dahl 2022-05-16T14:54:09+00:00 Tor Helge Pedersen <p>The concepts of public and political entrepreneurship were introduced in relation to public administration in the 1960s. Early examples were constructed in relation to institutional change (Eisenstadt 1964; 1980), the bridging role of the entrepreneur between different spheres in local communities (Barth 1972), and the carrying out of urban redevelopment and social programs in local government (Dahl 1961; Murphy 1971). Although the concepts of entrepreneurship were used later to describe a variety of phenomena (Sheingate 2003), there are few comparisons of the differences and similarities between early contributions on public- and private-sector entrepreneurship. Motivated by few comparisons, this paper compares the contributions of Joseph A. Schumpeter and Robert A. Dahl as early examples by asking the following guiding question: What are the important similarities and differences in their ideas—and what is the relevance of their work today? While Schumpeter is seen as a main figure in the literature on entrepreneurship, Dahl’s very early contributions are less well known. Schumpeter treated the entrepreneur and the entrepreneurial function in at least 15 publications, whereas Dahl (1961) used the concept in his case study of power in the Mayor Lee–era of the city of New Haven. The theoretical discussion is based on key publications by Schumpeter (15 publications) and from the New Haven case (4 publications). The discussion and comparison have at least two implications for research and practice. Schumpeter’s conception of entrepreneurship was broader than expected and also relevant in studying entrepreneurship in the public sector. Future studies should still explore Schumpeter’s ideas in other contexts to enhance our knowledge of what ideas should be developed further. Dahl’s conception of political entrepreneurship may inform policy makers and researchers regarding entrepreneurship in a political context, which is not easy. Future case studies and practical efforts should therefore be aware that many contemporary entrepreneurs may only be partially political entrepreneurs compared to those in Dahl’s conception.</p> 2022-09-07T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Innovation and Entrepreneurship How Swiss Start-Ups Deal With Business Model Innovation 2022-06-16T07:15:54+00:00 Stefan Philippi Andreas Hinz Laila Kabous <p>The term business model innovation refers to the introduction of innovations that differ from state-of-the-art business models in the same field. Current research indicates that business model innovations are more resilient (e.g. to imitation) overall and more successful in the long term compared to traditional types of innovation (e.g. product innovations). Working on business model innovation, therefore, can provide valuable insights, particularly for start-ups looking to grow and scale up under conditions of extreme uncertainty. Business model innovation involves the innovation of two of four core elements of a business model: customer, value proposition, value chain and revenue mechanism. A business model can be described using these four elements in a sophisticated and comprehensive manner. Moreover, these elements help us to determine whether a business model innovation exists. However, do start-ups really use the advantages of business model innovation and to what extent? This research paper addresses this issue and examines the role business model innovation plays for start-ups as well as how it has been implemented. To gain these insights, we examine the business plans of 24 finalists of a Swiss innovation competition in 2021 in a multi-stage process. We systematically reviewed and analysed business plans individually using pre-defined innovation criteria for each of these four elements of a business model. The individual analysis allows a robust assessment to be able to make a comprehensible classification. On reviewing the results, we were surprised by how many of the analysed start-ups are pursuing business model innovations, and that they often innovate more than two elements of their business models. According to our findings, start-ups nowadays deal with business model innovation more often than they did in previous research studies. We can also show that business model innovations are often more complex than they were in the past.&nbsp;</p> 2022-09-07T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Innovation and Entrepreneurship The Importance of Entrepreneurship on Economic Development. Evidence From the OECD Countries 2022-07-14T09:56:00+00:00 Sara Proença Elias Soukiazis <p>The process of a country's economic growth and development is a very complex phenomenon, influenced by numerous factors, which has attracted the attention of researchers and policymakers over time. Several studies highlight the important role of entrepreneurship on economic growth, by introducing innovative technologies, creating new products, promoting new jobs and employment opportunities, but also improving competition and competitiveness. Although the impact of entrepreneurship on economic growth has been broadly analysed in the economic literature over the recent years, few studies have examined the impact of entrepreneurship on economic development. The aim of this paper is to fill this gap, using the Human Development Index (HDI) as a suitable proxy for measuring economic development, taken from the United Nations statistics. HDI is a composite measure of average achievement in key dimensions of human development, such as, life expectancy, education level and standards of living. On the other hand, Entrepreneurship is measured by Total Entrepreneurial Activity (TEA) taken from the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor, which expresses the percentage of population with age between 18 and 64, who are either a nascent entrepreneur or owner-manager of a new business. The empirical model is drawn from the endogenous growth theory, assuming that entrepreneurship and human capital skills are the key drivers of economic development, along with capital stock. The empirical analysis is based on unbalanced panel data regressions for a sample of 37 OECD countries using annual data for the period 2000-2018. Estimating a dynamic panel data model by using the GMM two-step system approach, we obtain evidence indicating the positive association between the development level and entrepreneurship, as well as the positive impact of human capital and capital stock on development. Our empirical results are in line with the endogenous growth theory approach, showing that entrepreneurship can be considered as an additional factor input in the countries’ economic development pathway. </p> 2022-09-07T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Innovation and Entrepreneurship Lean Startup Practices: Operationalizing the Technological Business Planning Process in an Academic Environment 2022-06-19T17:50:18+00:00 Luciana Reis June Fernandes Marbia Araujo Martin Beaulieu <p>The generation of innovation in the academic environment involves the development of technology/product, technological transfer and business, which together make up the Technological Business Planning Process (TBPP). This process can be divided into three stages: world of technology (initial stage), world of transition from technology to product and business (intermediate stage), and world of business (final stage). In this context, there is the Lean Startup (LS) methodology, which comprises a set of potential practices to facilitate the operationalization of these stages of development. However, the existing literature is incipient and lacks guidance on the LS practices with the greatest potential to contribute to each of these stages, which constitutes a theoretical gap. Thus, this research aims to identify the LS practices most used by researchers-entrepreneurs in the different stages of the Technological Business Planning Process. The methodological approach used was the case study in an important Brazilian public university. In this context, nine innovation projects in the process of generating technological business were analyzed. The results show four main contributions: i) the practices contributed mainly to the intermediate phase of the TBPP; ii) BMC and MVP were considered the most important practices to operationalize TBPP; iii) the LS practices contributed significantly to the knowledge management between team projects; and iv) the combined implementation of the practices highlighted the benefits for TBPP. This study contributes to technology innovation management in the academic environment and provides some gaps that can be developed in future works in technological projects context.</p> 2022-09-07T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Innovation and Entrepreneurship Managing Knowledge and Identity across the Boundary of Academic and Commercial Science 2022-08-17T18:10:21+00:00 Kent Rondeau Justin Dillon Nasser Mansour Jason Daniels <p>In the last few decades, institutions of higher learning are being transformed from ivory towers to become engines of regional and national economic development and ‘knowledge businesses’ increasingly focused on producing commercial products for private industry.&nbsp; The role of academics is rapidly shifting as many in the professoriate are becoming ‘captured’ by an ethos of commercialization as they rush to bring the product of their research to the marketplace.&nbsp; Critics of the entrepreneurial paradigm see academics as promoters as well as victims of commercialisation who internalize the pursuit of profit and value of money under the academic capitalist knowledge regime.&nbsp; While some academic researchers have enthusiastically embraced the transformation in the relationship between science and business, and between the academy and industry, many remain firmly committed to academic science, disinterested in pursuing commercial opportunities.&nbsp; Yet, others choose a middle ground and straddle the academic and commercial boundary.&nbsp; The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the role of identity to influence how academic scientists manage the boundary between the world of academic science and commercial science.&nbsp; Drawing from a large sample of Canadian university academic researchers in the applied sciences (n=379), four distinct categories of academic scientists are identified: Type I: Traditional academics who view the realm of academic science and commercial science as distinct and choose to position themselves strictly as academic scientists; Type II: Pragmatic academic hybrids who view academic and commercial science as distinct but decide to strategically pursue industrial links to acquire resources that support their research; Type III: Collaborative academic hybrids who believe in the paramountcy of academic and industry collaborations for the advancement of science; and Type IV: Academic entrepreneurs who abide in the fundamental importance of academic-industry links for application and for commercial exploitation.&nbsp; Results suggest that our researcher categories are further differentiated with respect to the strength of their collaborations with industry, their program of research, the extent of their industry experience, the degree of financial support they receive from industry, the size of their research laboratory, and by their scientific publications and the number of patents and licenses they hold from their research.&nbsp;</p> 2022-09-07T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Innovation and Entrepreneurship From Six Learner Personas of Teampreneurship to a Learner-Led and Co-Creative Entrepreneurial Model? 2022-06-03T12:47:45+00:00 Juha Ruuska <p style="font-weight: 400;">In the context of entrepreneurship education, design thinking and service design, I will present six learner personas, that I have discovered during my design-ethnographic PhD research in Tiimiakatemia, that is a special entrepreneurship degree programme in JAMK University of Applied Sciences, Jyväskylä, Finland. Programme is known by its team ideology and communal and learning-by-doing learning culture. Six learner personas here are equivalents to <em>user persona</em>, to present typical/ archetypal users (students) of an educational program or service. Learner personas are also a way to represent cultural understanding and insight collected through an extensive ethnograpical study between 2016-2020, that has also included ethnographic interviews and projective, participatory and visual methods, such as Lego Serious Play. In my paper, based on the needs, challenges, learning strategies and insight from ethnographic research and the six learner personas, I will further develop and present an idea of learner-led, open, communal, co-creative and integrative entrepreneurial education model that could serve HEIs in developing their own entrepreneurial pedagogy.</p> 2022-09-07T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Innovation and Entrepreneurship Financial Innovation for Financial Inclusion: Mapping Potential Access to Finance 2022-07-09T12:52:34+00:00 Egidijus Rybakovas Gerda Zigiene <p>The importance of access to finance as a significant problem for business development is considered one of the measures representing the level of financial inclusion. Developing financial innovations, such as crowdfunding, mobile payments, AI-based credit scoring systems, and even blockchain technologies has an immense potential to increase financial inclusion, increase access to finance for individuals and businesses, enabling the unscored or unbanked population to become active members of financial markets. Studies have shown the positive impact of financial technology on individuals' financial inclusion and access to finance, but the development of the Fintech phenomenon does not itself imply improved access to finance for businesses. The spread and adoption of Fintech are taken as evidence of financial innovation This research aims to explore the expected interaction between financial innovation and financial inclusion in selected European countries.</p> <p>The data from the Global Fintech Ranking and Survey on the access to finance of enterprises (SAFE) is used in this study, examining them by comparing countries by their Fintech rankings and respective rank position obtained by measuring the importance of access to finance as a problem in business development.</p> <p>The analysis of 29 European countries indicates that theoretically defined expectations are met in most cases: access to finance is not an important problem for the companies from the countries that are ranked higher in the Fintech rating report. But part of the sampled countries deviates from this trend. These findings indicate that besides financial innovation other factors also may determine the financial inclusion of the companies.</p> 2022-09-07T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Innovation and Entrepreneurship The Risk Attitude and the Motivation to Online Purchase 2022-07-21T10:05:58+00:00 Arik Sadeh Christina Feniser <p>The e-commerce and virtual stores are sources of innovative economic ideas and initiation of entrepreneurial business. This research deals with the motivation of potential buyers to conduct a purchase in virtual stores concerning their risk aversions in several dimensions, including entrepreneurial risk aversion. The study is based on a survey of 104 responders exposed to technology working in the hi-tech industry. We used the structural equation modeling approach to conduct the statistical analysis. The relationships between risk aversion, the reliability of the products, the stores, and the motivation to purchase are modeled in one set of equations. The study's findings can help entrepreneurs how to market products that may be perceived as not reliable.</p> 2022-09-07T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Innovation and Entrepreneurship Identifying new Product Opportunities From Waste: Eliminating Waste in Tomato Production 2022-05-30T08:36:04+00:00 Diana Salgado Christopher Simms Nicholas Ford <p>The challenge of new product development (NPD) has seen a growth in literature on both idea generation and sustainability, but these two areas have not yet fully been integrated. The development of products from agricultural waste has particularly been overlooked, although the need to utilise sustainable materials and reuse waste is increasingly acknowledged. Our paper answers the question: <em>How can different sources of agricultural food waste be utilized to create new product opportunities?</em> We present a new framework for the identification and evaluation of NPD opportunities. This framework offers a new perspective to conceptualise different types of waste and identify their relative sensory, nutritional and functional properties. We present a case study of a UK tomato grower, using data gathered from interviews, attendance of meetings, observations and secondary data. Tomato production creates significant volumes of waste from unripe, imperfect, damaged and overripe fruits. Furthermore, processing tomatoes (for ketchup, passatas, juices, etc.) generates other kinds of waste such as seeds, skins and water. We show how firms can uncover new product opportunities through an analysis of each of these properties. For example, in tomato juice production around 5% of the raw material goes to waste since skins and seeds cannot be used. However, skins and seeds are nutritionally, sensorially and functionally useful and versatile. <em>Nutrition:</em> skins and seeds are rich in essential amino acids, minerals, fatty acids and lycopene, an antioxidant with several reported health benefits. <em>Sensory:</em> skin contains crystalline cellulose which can improve mouthfeel of food in low fat products, while seeds can increase hardness in flat breads. <em>Functional</em>: skins are partially permeable to liquids and gases, giving them potential for packaging and biodegradable tableware, while seed powder can be effective in removing organic dye molecules from coloured textile effluents. On the basis of our analysis we conclude that by examining the nutritional, sensory and functional characteristics of tomato waste, this can lead NPD managers to explore new alternatives in industries different from the original source of waste.</p> 2022-09-07T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Innovation and Entrepreneurship Context-Aware Entrepreneurship Education: Exploring the Educators Perspective 2022-05-18T11:40:13+00:00 Juha Saukkonen Alexandros Kakouris <p>The question that motivates the present study is whether entrepreneurship educators confront the context where entrepreneurship education is implemented. Recent studies indicate that homogenisation of entrepreneurial methods has occurred over time promoting a monolithic conception of innovation-driven start-ups, often technological, as a prototype for entrepreneurial courses’ outcomes. Nonetheless, entrepreneurship does not only accommodate ambitious start-ups for growth but also small firms that significantly contribute to employability and social inclusion. Social problems are also tackled. Innovation needs to be translated to different disciplines and social contexts of populations instead of the mere proliferation of a few innovative firms’ cases in classrooms.</p> <p>Concurrently, rapid changes in the business environment (crises) ask for reflections regarding the content of entrepreneurship from both educators and students. Thus, context and adjustment to contexts is a timely concern for the future of entrepreneurship education and its inclusive character. Given the previous considerations, the present study seeks for quantitative evidence from worldwide entrepreneurship educators on whether they adjust, or do not adjust, their teaching to the context. Contexts included in this study pertain to: political, economical, sociological, ecological/environmental and legal. Adjustment to context was also investigated for different entrepreneurial teaching tasks, such as idea generation, innovation, strategy, team formation, fundraising, social responsibility and others.</p> <p>The results indicate that educators take into account the context to an extent but there is a rising consensus that entrepreneurial teaching needs to be more context-aware in the future. The more the educators consider context in their current teaching the more they are willing to modify their teaching to different contexts in the future. The results show that there is room for future research regarding context-aware entrepreneurship whilst some research directions are derived in the last part of the article. This is a first attempt to quantitatively examine evidence for the role of the context in entrepreneurial teaching in order to obtain insights for a more precise confrontation of learning needs and educators’ perspectives that could render entrepreneurship education more inclusive and efficient.</p> 2022-09-07T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Innovation and Entrepreneurship The Development of Entrepreneurial Thinking in STEM Education: A Teaching and Learning Module for Elementary Students 2022-05-07T01:40:45+00:00 Nyet Moi Siew Jamilah Ahmad <p>The development of modules in cultivating entrepreneurial thinking (ET) in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) education at the elementary school level is still limited. Thus, this research was conducted to establish the feasibility of the teaching and learning (TL) module based on the socioscientific issues approach aided by the thinking wheel map (SIA-TM). A case study was conducted among 30 fifth graders in the first phase of the module evaluation. Data was collected via respondents’ feedback in the 5-point Likert scale questionnaire and focused groups interviews. The students showed a high level of acceptance (m=4.53) towards the activities in the SIA-TM TL Module. Students opined that the SIA-TM TL module assisted them in developing new ideas and a responsible attitude towards their community. The second phase was evaluation through the quasi-experimental research design with the pre-test- post-test control group design. A total of 60 fifth graders were gathered into two intervention groups which were &nbsp;the SIA-TM group (n=30) and the control group (n=30). The results of the t-test prove a significantly positive effect of the SIA-TM TL Module on the five constructs of ET. Therefore, these findings establish that the SIA-TM TL module is feasible in promoting fifth graders’ ET in STEM education.</p> 2022-09-07T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Innovation and Entrepreneurship The Technology Transfer University Capability: A Case Study From the Triple Helix Perspective 2022-05-02T21:30:08+00:00 Evangelista Silva Eloiza Luzia Boanerges de Castro Luciana Paula Reis <p>The role of universities as innovation agents has received recently considerable attention in academia. As such, this interest is important wherein university, besides the education and research, also can contribute to the economic and social development of society through the generation of innovations. Accordingly, it is important to assess their innovation capability. Even though the current perspective considers the innovation capability of a university thanks to the number of patents produced, from a Schumpeterian perspective, innovation occurs only one invention is commercialized. Based on this perspective, this article introduces a set of indicators to assess the innovation capability of universities, with a focus on the composition of assignees of a patent from the lens of triple helix theory. There are presented three types of indicators to measure the capability of a university to create and license its patents: general; based on the composition of assignees according to the triple helix (university, government, and industry/society); and according to the combination between the composition of patent assignees and the knowledge area. These indicators are validated through a case study in a Brazilian university through a documental analysis. There were analyzed data from 775 patents deposited and licensing agreements of a Brazilian university, ranging from 2011 to 2021. As an empirical result, this research revealed considerable differences in the number of patents deposited and licensed thanks to the type of the patent assignees, as well as their knowledge area. As a theoretical contribution, the framework of assessment of the patents introduced in this article seems to be a useful tool for analyzing the current innovation capability of a university, serving as a starting point to investigate its causes. As a practical implication, the framework introduced in this article can be readily used to assess the innovation capability of universities individually or comparatively.</p> 2022-09-07T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Innovation and Entrepreneurship Subsidised Start-Ups for the Unemployed in Less Developed Region: Effects Behind Efficiency 2022-05-06T13:32:55+00:00 Miroslav Šipikal <p>One of the tools that governments use to support entrepreneurship is to support entrepreneurship through subsidised start-ups for the unemployed. This tool attempts to solve two problems at once. It acts as an active labour market policy tool to reduce unemployment. On the other hand, as an economic policy measure, it seeks to promote the development of entrepreneurship. Most existing studies focus mainly on measuring the sustainability or effectiveness of this tool.</p> <p>The aim of this article is to identify the pros and cons of this tool from the perspective of the beneficiaries of this support themselves. The research was conducted through interviews with the beneficiaries of the support as well as those institutions that are in some way involved in the process of this support. The interviews took place in the years 2019 -2020 in the Banská Bystrica Region in the Slovak Republic, which is one of the most underdeveloped regions in the European Union.</p> <p>The results of the research show that the support itself also has a positive impact on other aspects of life than the business itself. A large proportion of respondents reported that they are happier in life than before and that their business is much more fulfilling than their previous job. At the same time, however, they point to a distinct form of inefficiency of the support as a tool for entrepreneurship support, with many beneficiaries not using this tool with the primary goal of starting a business. Some of the supported start-ups started their business only as a cover for black and dependent work or as a form of part-time work.</p> 2022-09-07T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Innovation and Entrepreneurship Legal Incentives and Constraints on Innovation: Keeping the Balance 2022-05-13T16:42:31+00:00 Robert Smith Mark Perry <p>The COVID-19 pandemic forced civil society and business to face a new reality where much greater reliance needed to be placed on networked devices and internet distributed communications, including the provision of services ranging from medical advice to food, entertainment and even the facility to interact with family. The ability to meet in-person with family, friends, colleagues, business associates or customers was severely restricted leaving internationalisation as a utopian dream as borders were closed, students were denied access to a physical classrooms and businesses had to rapidly “pivot” or fail. These alternatives to real life have seemed less appealing to many, with every aspect of life “going online”, whether virtual lectures, exams, meetings, mediations, court appearances, job interviews, shopping for a piece of cheese or starting a new trade relationship.</p> <p>Much innovation over the last two years has been around deploying online business models. There has also been a wider use of artificial intelligence to support “efficient” operations partly stimulated by the falling staffing levels due to the pandemic directly through sickness or forced isolations, or indirectly by a growing sense of the futility of working for a business, known as the Great Resignation (“Over the 12 months ending in January 2022, hires totalled 76.4 million and separations totalled 70.0 million…” indicating a huge refocusing on jobs in the USA)&nbsp;</p> <p>This paper looks at the challenge for legal systems to pivot around the growing trends in deployments of online innovation. Some businesses are now widely deploying software-based analysis systems, such as Airbnb, which is using them to “verify the identity and trustworthiness of a user of an online system” and flag potential guests who may be problematic. Although Airbnb is a multibillion-dollar business, it is a good example of how through using publicly available data, user supplied information, and smart software (artificial intelligence) a business can make predictions on the behaviour of its potential customers. Other AI resources have been creating new gaming scenarios, reporting on the news, and even creating new artworks and music. These kinds of use of AI in the marketplace have challenged the legal frameworks that support individual privacy and also ideas around human creativity.</p> 2022-09-07T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Innovation and Entrepreneurship Intellectual Capital of Social Sciences and the Efficiency of its Formation at the Scientific Institutions 2022-07-07T21:11:15+00:00 Inese Spica Baiba Berzina Ernests Spics Rozite Katrina Spica <p>The theme of the research is topical in the present situation of intellectual capital of social sciences (ICSS) formation at the scientific institutions (SI) in Latvia. The object of the present research is the formation of ICSS at the SI. The subject of the research is a comparative analysis of the efficiency of the involvement of academic staff and students in the formation of ICSS at the SI of Latvia. The objective of the research is to study the involvement of academic staff and students in the formation of ICSS at the SI in Latvia from 2013 till 2018. The tasks are advanced in order to reach the objective: to study the ICSS formation at the SI; to identify the concept of the efficiency of the involvement academic staff and students in the formation of ICSS; to calculate their main indicators; to carry out comparative analyses of indicators characterising the efficiency of the involvement academic staff and students in the formation of ICSS at the SI in Latvia. Research methods used in the paper are content analysis, economic analysis and economic experiment.</p> 2022-09-07T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Innovation and Entrepreneurship Academic Entrepreneurship and Inequality: Evidence From Administrative Data 2022-08-30T15:11:43+00:00 Joseph Staudt <p>Over the past several decades, universities have increasingly emphasized knowledge and technology transfer. Faculty are key agents facilitating this transfer, engaging in commercial and entrepreneurial activities such as, consulting, student placement, patenting, and the founding of start-ups. This paper documents the prevalence of faculty commercial engagement as well as the extent to which it widens earnings inequality among faculty. In contrast to previous work that uses surveys with low response rates to measure the commercial engagement of university faculty, this paper uses detailed administrative data from universities (UMETRICS) linked to confidential earnings data at the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) and U.S. Census Bureau (including the universe of W2 and 1099 tax records) to analyse how often university faculty engage in the types of commercial and entrepreneurial activity that catalyse knowledge/technology transfer.</p> 2022-09-07T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Innovation and Entrepreneurship Digital Adoption in The Family Business: A State-of-the-art Review 2022-06-10T07:01:50+00:00 Nyayu Lathifah Tirdasari Wawan Dhewanto Neneng Nurlaela Arief <p>The high-volume rise of digital technology is restructuring every side of the business and profoundly impacting how the business works. The concept of management and leadership are vividly changing. However, no business can avert the implications, challenges, and opportunities that originated from the digital revolution. It pushes companies to transform their setup. Against this background, many businesses are not ready to transform. The family business is not an exception. It is expected to adopt digitalization as a keenly prevalent business practice worldwide. Furthermore, its involvement in the digital economy is still essential. However, studies on digital adoption in the family business remain limited. At the same time, family businesses have unique characteristics that make them different from other forms of business in general. It is perceived that the two issues are opposing. The family business is commonly viewed with slow evolutions. On the other hand, digitalization is characterized as a rapid action. This research is a theoretical review that aims to fill the gap by exploring the state-of-the-art digital adoption literature. In addition, it develops areas for future research primarily related to family business topics. This article carried out a systematic literature review. It employed a Prisma approach on a Scopus database with all the articles written in English. The results showed that most digital adoption literature mainly focuses on two contexts: (1) general business and (2) academic institutions. Moreover, it provides geographical trends in this domain, the most cited authors, and the top journal on this topic. This study further found that very few discuss digital adoption even in the literature on the family business. Thus, many family business areas can be explored. To this end, this study provides propositions associating digital adoption with the family business areas. At the same time, it further provides several future research agendas.</p> 2022-09-07T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Innovation and Entrepreneurship The Role of Accelerators in Shaping Entrepreneurial Identity 2022-09-06T10:13:50+00:00 Anita Tobiassen Ingunn Elvekrok Line Skreosen <p>This study explores how a Norwegian accelerator influenced the entrepreneurial identity of those accellerated. The importance of entrepreneurial identity, or how entrepreneurs see themselves and their business ventures, is highlighted in effectuation theory as one of the means that drives entrepreneurial action and is seen as important for entrepreneurs’ perceived opportunity space. The study is an explorative single-case study of a Norwegian accelerator targeting new ventures. Data were collected through in-depth interviews with seven entrepreneurs who had recently participated in the accelerator. The findings indicate that the accelerator had an impact on entrepreneurial identity, both at the individual and team levels and on start-up identity. Participation in the program also influenced related factors, such as business model development and customer- and capital access. The impact on identity varied according to how the entrepreneurs saw themselves pre-participation and how far they had come in developing their firms’ business concepts. The study contributes to the literature on the effects om accelerators in general, and its role in fostering entrepreneurial identity at different levels in particular.</p> 2022-09-07T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Innovation and Entrepreneurship Digitally Transforming Organisational Cultures: Ensuring Enhanced Innovation in a Remote Working World 2022-05-09T08:02:55+00:00 Stephen Treacy <p>The Covid-19 pandemic has brought with it dramatic environmental changes, forcing organisations to adopt digital technologies on a wider scale, under significant time pressure. While the pandemic tested the agility and resilience of organisations, team dynamics and the implications of virtualisation on collaboration and creativity have become increasingly important for research (George et al., 2020) as the daily working routines in which employees have been embedded in for decades have become disrupted. The abrupt move to “working from home” that the pandemic created is arguably the most significant organisational design change in our lifetimes. Organisations are now asking how the virtualisation of work has impacted on the collaboration and communication necessary for driving innovation behaviour, and what strategies are available to develop remote innovation solutions. In this study, we explore organisational culture theory against the backdrop of digitally transforming innovation development as a result of the Covid-19 pandemic. This multi-layered model offers a useful framework for thinking about processes that foster innovation. By doing so, we investigate how organisations have adapted their approach to remote, collaborative innovation from the perspective of nineteen industry experts. The purpose of this study is to present the determinants of organisational culture to develop digital innovation in a hybrid working environment. Our findings reveal twelve distinct variables across the artifacts, values, and assumptions required to ensure digital innovation. These findings have implications for theory and practice, as it provides organisational leaders with a strategic understanding as to how a remote innovative culture can be developed, and subsequently exploited.</p> 2022-09-07T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Innovation and Entrepreneurship A Network Approach to the Digital Innovation Hub as an Ecosystem Supporting the Digital Transformation of Enterprises in a Region 2022-04-28T10:16:32+00:00 Anna Ujwary-Gil Anna Florek-Paszkowska <p>The study aims to examine the two-mode network of digital innovation hubs (DIH) operating in Poland, understood as ecosystems and competence centers, to support the digital transformation of enterprises in a region. Digital Innovation Hub is also one of the S3 Smart Specialization Platform mapping tools and identifying areas of economic specialization of regions, aimed at facilitating interregional cooperation and creating partnerships between different actors across Europe. While the functions and goals of DIH are more and more often presented in national and regional development documents, little is known about the network structure of DIHs operating in a given country (region) and in the European Union. The study used structured and secondary Smart Specialization Platform data, which allows the creation of two-mode relationship networks and shows how interrelated the studied DIHs and digital technologies they use are. Based on the social network analysis and network metrics (centrality, density, and network projection) integrated into programs such as UCINET and ORA-PRO, the visualization and measurement of the network structure of two-mode networks (actor x technology AT<sub>ij</sub>) as well as its projection into actor x actor (AA<sub>ij</sub>) and technology x technology (TT<sub>ij</sub>) networks were created. The results show 15 DIHs or actors (A) and 29 technologies (T), each of which a given DIH offers to show primarily influential DIHs and digital technologies as well as the areas of cooperation. DIHs are a promising and still little explored area of interest for researchers worldwide. The article is the first attempt to investigate the network structure of DIHs operating in Poland and their relations to technologies.</p> 2022-09-07T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Innovation and Entrepreneurship Start-up Performance: Looking for an Explanation in Entrepreneurial Characteristics and Financing Choice 2022-08-28T06:49:41+00:00 Nadine Lybaert Ine Umans <p>Although start-ups are gaining popularity and are known to have an important influence on the economy, surprisingly little research is available on these enterprises. One of the topics which remain to be explored concerns the performance of start-ups. So as to gain some insight into this phenomenon, we investigate the influence of characteristics of both the entrepreneur and the start-up (namely gender, age, education, experience, and start-up size). Thereby we base our arguments on the literature of SMEs and large companies, taking into account that start-ups behave differently than SMEs. Based on the translations of these arguments, we come to 5 hypotheses. However, since literature for SMEs and large companies is mixed and finds no unambiguous effect for these characteristics, this focus might limit to an incomplete overview. Therefore, we integrate the use of outside finance as a moderator, so as to find out whether the relations are influenced (strengthened or weakened) by the used financing source. The integration of this moderator is justifiable based on previous studies, where associations can be found between entrepreneurial characteristics and financing decisions on the one hand, but in addition, between financing decisions and performance on the other hand. So, it has been found that a firm’s success or failure depends heavily on its initial financing decision. Concerning the population of start-ups, studies show that the use of debt or any other form of external financing is associated with a better start-up performance. Based on a dataset of 117 Belgian start-ups, and making use of quantitative research, only the expected results concerning the level of education and gender could be confirmed. So, it is found that higher levels of education lead to better start-up performance, while no difference is found in the performance of start-ups led by female versus male entrepreneurs. At the same time, no significant interaction between any of the investigated characteristics and outside finance could be found. As such, it could not be confirmed that for start-ups using outside finance, the effect of the characteristics on performance will be different, compared to when they don’t use any form of outside finance.</p> 2022-09-07T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Innovation and Entrepreneurship Cascade Funding as an Alternative Funding Source for Innovative Investments 2022-06-09T14:23:32+00:00 inigo Gonzalez Rojas Margherita Volpe Omar Veledar Simona Cavallini <p>Although promoting an innovation ecosystem is a core priority of the European Commission (EC), evidence indicates that innovation within start-ups and Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) is still constrained by the lack of funding opportunities. Consequently, their capability to realise proofs of concepts or launch new risky business lines is limited. This paper aims to comparatively assess cascade funding initiatives against more traditional funding approaches as relevant alternatives for financing innovation. SMEs and start-ups most commonly fund innovative projects through business angels or venture capital. The disadvantages of risk capital include complex administrative procedures, loss of ownership and control over the strategic decision, etc. Other relevant funding is commonly sourced from private bank loans. In addition to discouraging bureaucracy, prior guarantee or collateral required, longer timing and extended terms, these investors are often reluctant to fund innovation due to their high risk. Preference is usually given to safer investments in which assets can be easily valued and sold in case of failure. In addition, financing opportunities from banks do not include an assessment of the return opportunities of innovative businesses. Out of the traditional schemes for financing innovation, cascade funding is a promising alternative, especially in highly innovative sectors. Cascade funding provides small grants issued by the beneficiaries of projects funded by the EC, typically under the Horizon 2020 (H2020) framework (&gt;800 M€ allocated since 2014). As the EC delegates the selection and monitoring of innovative projects to consortiums, the funding is provided via open calls for proposals, which can provide start-ups and SMEs with grants for an experiment between €50,000 and €150,000. This mechanism also enables applicants to benefit from the technical and/or business expertise of leading European enterprises, universities and technology centres. While focusing on exploitable innovation, cascade funding has also proven to be a more agile financing method with respect to the classical ones. Here, DigiFed project is analysed as a Case Study for cascade funding, as it came to allocate over €3M via three open calls for proposals since 2020. Evidence of the advantages of this funding source for innovative businesses with respect to risk capital and bank debt is the core output of this paper.</p> 2022-09-07T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Innovation and Entrepreneurship The role of crowdfunding in delivering entrepreneurship within the hospitality sector: A case study analysis 2022-08-01T14:18:52+00:00 Kate Johnston Kelly Wang <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong>Over the last decade, crowdfunding, has emerged as a hugely disruptive force within the financial landscape worldwide.&nbsp; Crowdfunding, the process of raising relatively small sums of money from the crowd, via the internet, enables entrepreneurs, particularly at the innovative and new start-ups stage, to access much needed funding, overcoming a “funding gap”.&nbsp; The growth of crowdfunding has been phenomenal.&nbsp; In 2019, an estimated €14 billion was crowdfunded worldwide (Statistia 2020) and the forecast is for &nbsp;the sector to grow to €30 billion by 2025 (Mordo Intelligence, 2020).&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Initially, crowdfunding gained prominence through funding creative and artistic projects, but over the last number of years, this appeal has spread across a diverse range of businesses and sectors (Bradford 2012 and Research and Markets 2022).&nbsp; In the wake of the 2007-2008 financial crisis and more recently the COVID-19 pandemic, crowdfunding offers entrepreneurs and businesses access to much needed seed funding, but also non-financial benefits in the form of market and product testing, media exposure and customer feedback.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Crowdfunding is a relatively new domain for businesses in the hospitality sector.&nbsp; As noted by Belavin, Marinesi and Tsoukalas (2020), crowdfunding offers huge potential for the sector, who often face funding challenges thereby limiting new innovative start-ups, critical for the sector’s long term viability. &nbsp;This case study examined how one entrepreneur in the hospitality sector, successfully crowdfunded an innovative business idea in the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic.&nbsp; The case traces the idea and the factors that shaped the decision to crowdfund. Additionally, the case examines the benefits and challenges involved in successfully crowdfunding the business idea and closes with the entrepreneur reflecting on the key learning from the experience.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>The contribution of this case study is twofold.&nbsp; Firstly, it serves to highlight the potential of crowdfunding as a funding source of enterprise development, particularly among new, innovative businesses. Secondly, it adds to the current debate, as noted by Belavin, Marinesi and Tsoukalas (2020), of the potential crowdfunding in fostering entrepreneurship and economic development within the hospitality sector.</p> 2022-09-07T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Innovation and Entrepreneurship The use of Algorithm-Assisted Feeding for Innovation and Increased Productivity in Aquaculture 2022-05-12T13:27:47+00:00 Knut Ingar Westeren Morten Helbæk Øyvind Korsøen <p>The need for innovation in aquaculture has escalated in tandem with the use of advanced production equipment and high-level biological competence. A Norwegian company, NorseAqua A/S, produces sonar equipment that provides both images and data on how the salmon are distributed in the cage. The sonar data provides a basis for calculating algorithms between the depth of salmon in the cage and other key factors used to make decisions about how the salmon should be fed. The first aspect of the project was to investigate how the equipment was working and verify that the sonar data was readable. The second aspect was to analyze the relationships between important variables of significance for the feeding process of the salmon (including the sonar measurements). A third aspect was determining what understanding the feeding operators gained from the information produced. The results show that it is possible to develop algorithms based on the sonar data that improve feeding efficiency.</p> 2022-09-07T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Innovation and Entrepreneurship Emerging Business Models for Circular Economy: A Systematic Literature Review 2022-05-25T13:38:52+00:00 Tirufat Dejene Woldeyes Moreno Muffatto Francesco Ferrati <p>Business models for circular economy keep products alive and operating for as long as possible during their use and consumption. Business model (BM) innovation in the circular economy (CE) helps firms design their BMs based on CE principles and identify new value-creation opportunities. Since research on the design of circular business models (CBM) is at an early stage, there is a lack of unified terminologies, and the meanings and relationships between the various CBM archetypes are unclear. This study aims to review and analyze existing emerging BMs in CE from peer-reviewed journals and recommend future research directions. The systematic review of 76 research articles resulted in identifying 23 CBM archetypes. This study analyzes the CBM archetypes based on descriptions, examples, similarities in the terminologies, and the frequency of use in the literature. The review identifies the three widely adopted CBM classification frameworks, the ReSOLVE framework (Ellen MacArthur Foundation), Accenture’s CBM framework, and the CBM strategies by Bocken et al. Most of the studies in this review combine BMs derived from several classification approaches to categorize suitable BM archetypes for the CE, which illustrates the lack of comprehensive classifications. The key findings show that providing access to a product’s functionality, recycling materials that would otherwise be sent to landfills, and restoring the functionality of existing products (re-manufacturing/refurbishing) are the most discussed archetypes in CBM literature, and other types do not get adequate attention. Future studies should examine BMs that have not received enough attention and provide a comprehensive classification of CBMs that clarifies their meaning and relationships. With this study, we contribute to advancing the body of knowledge in CBM and help practitioners in developing new CBMs.</p> 2022-09-07T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Innovation and Entrepreneurship The impact of organizational culture on business innovativeness 2022-05-18T11:28:31+00:00 Panagiota Xanthopoulou Alexandros Sahinidis <p>Τhe majority of studies in the ‘80s and ‘90s proposed that a strong culture is essential to the success of an organization. However, some researchers have since disputed this claim, arguing that while some strong cultures lead to success, others fail. Examining several examples from the market, over time, the so-called "case for a strong culture" presents significant weaknesses. The present study, based on the Competing Values Model, examines the effects of a culture’s strength on the innovativeness of the organization. A sample of 110 Greek Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) was examined, of which a total of 504 people responded to a questionnaire. The participating companies range in size, in terms of the number of their staff, from 20 to 250 members, and come from different market segments. The results showed that organizational culture strength is inversely related to a company’s innovativeness and that strong cultures have a negative impact on a company’s innovativeness. The main objective of this research is to reinforce the existing knowledge in the relationship between culture and innovativeness, especially in the field of small and medium enterprises since the vast majority of studies concern culture comparisons between large companies using mainly small samples. The focus of this research is on the growing importance of culture given the globalization of the market, the increasing pace of mergers, acquisitions, and strategic alliances between companies with different cultures.</p> 2022-09-07T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Innovation and Entrepreneurship Assessing the Current State of University-based Business Incubators (UBIS) in Canada and the UAE 2022-09-06T15:43:49+00:00 Naveed Yasin Sayed Abdul Majid Gilani <p>There is a dearth of published research that explores UBIs from a comparative dimension across geographical and institutionalised contexts that assesses the current state and scope of UBI activities. This paper explores the current state of University-based Business Incubators (UBIs) both in the United Arab Emirates and Canada underpinned by a comparative case analysis approach. This study utilises both secondary and primary research data that was obtained through desk-based secondary research and qualitative methods of inquiry (semi-structured interviews) with UBI managers, academics, and support staff that were used to develop each case. This informed the development of 18 cases of UBIs in the United Arab Emirates and Canada (9 each, respectively). The data was collected through VoIP (Voice-Over-Internet-Protocol) and telephone during the COVID-19 pandemic from March 2021 to February 2022. The findings of the study illustrate that the Canadian context offers similar provisions of services for business incubators (BIs) but in comparison, the UAE-based university UBIs are much younger and are transitioning towards the development of various business and enterprise initiatives in Higher Education and are also focused on driving student recruitment using this provision. The value of this<br>study is inherent in its comparative approach between two under-studied and represented empirical geographies (i.e., Canada and the UAE), the findings also indicate the divergence and specialisms adopted by institutions in the UAE based on the various provisions for the governmental vision 2030, and the empirical development of showcasing these initiatives to be novel for the efficacy of UBIs.</p> 2022-09-07T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Innovation and Entrepreneurship Digital Innovation: The Challenges of a Game-Changer 2022-08-11T10:20:07+00:00 Antonios Zairis George Zairis <p>A few years ago, marketing managers considered the Internet as another advertising channel and used it as a magazine advertisement, equipped with sound and motion. They placed banner ads and pop-ups to display advertisements on websites, but once again consumers identified them as distractions and found ways to ignore or avoid them. Nowadays, digital technology offers numerous ways for brands to engage with their customers and present new exciting challenges. It would not be an exaggeration to say that the marketing world is changing every day. But as the digital world is evolving, so is the balance shifting between consumers and marketing experts who try to adjust to this new era of consumer engagement. The purpose of the present paper is to address the question of how digital innovation is changing the marketing field. In a post-pandemic environment, terms like social media, artificial intelligence (AI), Internet of Things (IoT), Big Data, Cloud Computing, Blockchain, and cryptocurrencies, Augmented Reality marketing, and Virtual reality marketing are not just buzzwords but crucial aspects of digital marketing. Nonetheless, their integration into a business strategy is followed by the challenges accompanying them. The ever-changing nature and complexity of digital technology and other issues like privacy regulations and funding can be intimidating, especially for SMEs. In the field of entrepreneurship, their use can be viewed as a creative and innovative response to the evolving environment and an ability to recognize and exploit economic opportunities as many companies include the use of digital technology as the original idea. The theoretical framework of the aforementioned digital technologies and their use as marketing tools are analysed. This is followed by an insight into the digital transformation of Greek SMEs, the adoption of such technologies from start-up companies, and the opportunities they provide for the development of entrepreneurship.</p> 2022-09-07T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Innovation and Entrepreneurship