Knowledge Creation Among Managers and Supervisors in Palm oil Estates in Malaysia


  • Zabeda Abdul Hamid International Islamic University Malaysia
  • Shangkar Ganesh Chandiram International Islamic University Malaysia
  • Rodrigue Fontaine International Islamic University Malaysia



Socialisation, Externalisation, Combination, Internalisation, Knowledge Creation, SECI Model, Palm Oil


Knowledge of planting and seeding is critical to ensure the healthy growth of palm oil trees, maintaining efficient harvesting systems, and achieving quality products. However, there is a lack of studies in the palm oil industry on how knowledge is created within the managerial and supervisory staff of palm oil plantations that can enhance the workflow and output. This research conceptualises four knowledge creation tools; Socialisation, Externalisation, Combination, and Internalisation (SECI) based on Nonaka’s Knowledge Spiral Theory. It is hoped the research can discover the knowledge creation tools most utilised among the Managers and Supervisory teams in palm oil estates in Malaysia who were the samples of this research. The findings of this research revealed that Socialisation and Combination significantly contributed to knowledge creation. However, Internalisation and Externalisation were not positively related to knowledge creation. When the data was analysed with moderating variables such as job category, upper management preferred using Socialisation tools while senior assistant or assistant managerial levels preferred Socialisation, Combination, and Internalisation. Furthermore, field supervisors or field conductor levels preferred utilising all four tools. As a result, Socialisation was identified as one of the major tools where there was a relationship with the three levels of job category. Therefore, plantation companies can develop relevant training programmes based on tacit-to-tacit conversion activities. The research data can be applied by plantation companies in Malaysia to implement appropriate training programmes for Managers, Assistant Managers, and Field Supervisors.