Linking Institutional Voids with Blind Spots Through Counter-Knowledge in the Spanish National Healthcare System


  • Juan Gabriel Cegarra Navarro Universidad Politécnica de Cartagena
  • Aurora Martínez-Martínez Universidad Politécnica de Cartagena
  • Raghda El Ebrashi German University in Cairo
  • Anthony Wensley University of Toronto Mississauga



institutional voids, blind spots, counter-knowledge, Spanish National Health System


The current study suggests the presence of counter-knowledge to spread misperceptions or misunderstandings arising from the existence of institutional voids. Blind spots may be partly caused by such counter-knowledge that triggers the knowledge gaps of the actors in the face of the new information and knowledge society. Find or instance, when we talk about blind spots in the Spanish National Healthcare System (SNHS), we refer to the presence of incorrect stereotypes among the different actors, the feminisation of the profession even though the elderly population they serve continues to associate the figure of the doctor with the masculine role, the lack of awareness about the importance of data protection or cyberattacks. This study suggests that counter-knowledge is likely to result in the lack of clear vision after suffering from blind spots. Such counter-knowledge hinders people from things that most of us take for granted, which creates difficulties for engagement among multifaceted stakeholders with diverse expertise and specialities to overcome blind spots.