European Conference on Management Leadership and Governance 2022-11-17T15:02:01+00:00 Louise Remenyi Open Journal Systems <p>18th European Conference on Management Leadership and Governance - ECMLG 2022<br />10-11 November 2022<br />Lisboa, Portugal</p> Exploration of Corporate Governance Challenges in Public Sector Information Systems- An Auditor General Perspective 2022-08-26T15:21:26+00:00 Ashley Latchu <p>The aim of this article is to explore the obstacles that are within the South African public sector, preventing information systems from operating as efficiently as they could. The significance of the research lies in the fact that the accomplishment of the objectives outlined in the South African national development plan 2030 and the medium-term strategy framework is dependent on the performance of the public sector. In the course of the research, annual and general reports from the website maintained by the Auditor General of South Africa from 2017 through 2021 were used. This study made use of the qualitative analysis software, Atlas.ti 7 which was employed to analyse textual data in annual reports. The investigation of the difficulties posed by corporate governance in the South African public sector were unveiled from themes emerging form the use of thematic analysis. The research uncovered issues with both the macro and the micro levels of corporate governance in the South African public sector. The macro concerns that were brought to light were difficulties in the structure of information systems, an economic downturn, changes in the leadership of the government, and a lack of credible information offered to people. Poor leadership accountability, inadequate information technology capabilities, poor project management, poor information management, inadequate and ineffective disaster recovery, regression in information technology governance, and delay in filling information technology vacancies were some of the micro-obstacles of corporate governance that affected information systems. According to the findings of the research, a transformational approach should be used to solve the issues by first gaining an awareness of how users view the role that information technologies play in the running of public bodies. In addition, instruments of corporate governance that relate to information systems in the public sector should be assessed to gauge their effectiveness in the South African environment.</p> 2022-11-04T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Management Leadership and Governance Board Membership Changes And Financial Performance: The Moderating Role Of Family Firms 2022-07-21T13:14:29+00:00 samy Mesnik <p>The aim of this study is to examine a possible relationship of corporate financial performance and board membership changes. As a consequence, whether too little or too much board membership changes would produce a detrimental impact to financial performance. Furthermore, this study investigated whether this effect is more pronounced in family firms over non-family firms. Based on the agency theory and stewardship perspective, the results indicate that board membership changes are significant for family firms towards short-term financial performance indicators, with positive effect above a certain interval, though it signaling to the market may not be relevant. Also provides insightful examination of a specific corporate governance issue that is valuable both for academics and practitioners.</p> 2022-11-04T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Management Leadership and Governance External Governance, Corporate Governance, Firm Performance and Economic Growth in the UK and India 2022-08-01T14:59:42+00:00 Dinah Natto Thabang Mokoaleli-Mokoteli <p>This research investigates the connection between corporate governance and firm performance, corporate governance, and economic growth, the moderating effect of external governance on corporate governance and firm performance, and economic growth by using a sample of one hundred companies listed on the National Stock Exchange of India (NSEI), and one hundred companies listed on the London Stock Exchange (LSE) between 2011 and 2020. We construct three governance indices –the Internal Corporate Governance Index (ICGI) based on 100 elements of governance, and the External Governance index (X-GI) based on World Bank Institutional Quality measures. The study uses GMM Dynamic Panel Data to test the hypotheses. Results show that our newly constructed indexes (the ICGI and CCGI) have significant relationships with firm performance (ROE, Tobin’s Q,) and economic growth (growth in GDP) in both the UK and India. Findings also show that external governance negatively moderates the relationship between corporate governance and firm performance, and the relationship between corporate governance and economic growth for India. The case for the UK is different as external governance positively moderates the relationship between corporate governance and firm performance. However, no significant moderating effect is seen between corporate governance and economic growth.</p> <p><em>Keywords: Corporate governance, Institutional quality, Firm performance, Economic growth</em></p> 2022-11-04T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Management Leadership and Governance Enhancing Employer Branding through corporate Innovation and Web communication 2022-07-29T11:58:55+00:00 SOFIA PANAGIOTIDOU <p>The primary purpose of this empirical research is to show how a company's attractiveness can be influenced by its corporate innovative culture, high-quality standards attitude, and web-based communication and interaction with candidates. The research hypotheses were investigated in senior students and young graduates of Greek universities in order to propose an effective pre-recruitment employer branding strategy which causes positive effects in a company's talent pool.</p> <p>The Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM) software was used on a convenient sample of 737 individuals from Greek universities. Overall, the study's findings point to a company's innovative nature and orientation, which are reflected across the full range of its business activity, as a crucial factor for candidates who are interested in learning more about employment opportunities there. This is accomplished through communication media that are popular among young job seekers, such as the corporate website and social media. In this way, based on web info, candidates are able to obtain not only detailed information, but also signs with a strong symbolic effect, thus shaping positive perceptions of the company as a potential employer. Especially in a university setting, at the initial stage of candidate recruitment our results highlight the importance of the dual dimension of relevant communication, i.e. the information about jobs as presented on the corporate website and social media of the company, and the way these media communicate with job seekers.</p> <p>Furthermore, the findings of our study have significant implications of how a company's HR departments should plan and organize their presence in Greek Universities in order to improve corporate positive image and attractiveness among passive and active candidates.&nbsp;</p> <p>Despite methodological and contextual limitations, this paper aims to enrich the pre-recruitment literature by presenting significant theoretical and managerial implications.</p> 2022-11-04T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Management Leadership and Governance Success factors to promote innovative behavior in organizations 2022-07-22T07:26:24+00:00 Natineeporn Rattanawichai Mongkolchai Wiriyapinit Jintavee Khlaisang <p>Innovative behavior in organizations have been practiced in many countries but the success factors are not well established in Thailand. The primary objective of this study was to identify and confirm the success factors in Thailand. The sample included 500 peoples who were observed in automotive industry. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) indicates a good fit of a eight-factor model to the observed data. The CFA construct revealed eight success factors to promote organization’s innovative behavior in Thailand, including Knowledge sharing (KS), Self-efficacy (SE), Problem-solving capacity (PS), Collaborative skill (CS), Innovation culture (IC), Organizational supportiveness (OS), Learning culture (LC), and Executive leadership (EL). The results show that Knowledge sharing, Organizational supportiveness, Innovation culture and Self-efficacy are statistically important as influencer to promote innovative behavior in organizations. This paper proposes guidelines for the promotion of organization’s innovative behavior in relation to the Thailand context.</p> 2022-11-04T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Management Leadership and Governance Achieving Governance Disclosure – the Surprising Case of an Emerging Market Family Business 2022-07-14T20:27:09+00:00 Fouad Peter Sleiman <p>Since 1961, when the first paper to clearly recognize and study family firms was published, the business literature has seen an increasing trend in the number of articles relating to family firms. One reason why interest in this field has grown may be because family-owned firms do not behave as expected by the predominant theoretical framework. Family-ownership has been shown to be unique in its effect on the firm when compared to other firm ownership structures. Such divergent behavior is disconcerting, knowing that, globally, family firms may be the most common firm structure. Governance is one of the largest streams of research within the family business literature. Regrettably, most research on family businesses is focused on Western developed economies suggesting that theory building when it comes to family business governance has been largely driven by the Anglo-Saxon corporate governance model. This is unfortunate because we know that context plays a vital role in governance outcomes and in family firm behavior. One of the important challenges faced by developing countries is governance disclosure, with potentially grave repercussions for their economic futures. The aim of this research is to help understand the motivations behind the decision of a family, non-listed firm, in a developing country context, to disclose governance information on its board members. We propose a larger role for institutional isomorphism at the intersection of the family, governance, disclosure, and developing country literatures. To this end, we identified a family business in the emerging market of Lebanon that has demonstrated this phenomenon. Despite the odds, this firm was able to overcome multiple challenges - family firm structure, secretive culture, no legal requirements, information sensitivity - to ultimately share this information with the public. Our case study helps us suggest a context-specific governance disclosure model based on the institutional theoretical framework.</p> 2022-11-04T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Management Leadership and Governance Information Security Posture to Organize and Communicate the Information Security Governance Program 2022-08-01T09:58:37+00:00 Dinh Uy Tran Audun Jøsang <p>Information security practice has evolved greatly from being mostly a technical concern to also becoming a concern of executive management. As a result, there are many different frameworks, guidelines and certification programs for information security governance (ISG) and management. The purpose of these standards and certification programs is to help an organization develop a structured approach for governing and managing information security. However, these standards and guidelines are generic and not tailored for any specific organization. These frameworks usually specify <em>“what”</em> should be implemented but not <em>“how”</em>. &nbsp;Additionally, these frameworks do not specify <em>“how”</em> to communicate the information security posture (ISP) to the executive management in a simplistic manner. This paper first defines and conceptualizes the term <em>information security posture</em>, and then proposes a framework on <em>“how”</em> to communicate and organize the ISP. Our contribution complements ISG programs adopted by organizations to give executive management a better understanding and oversight. We argue that describing the ISP of an organization will support well-informed decision-making while ensuring alignment with business objectives.</p> 2022-11-04T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Management Leadership and Governance Relationship between Corporate Governance and Firm Valuation in Nepal 2022-09-09T02:25:07+00:00 Rameshwar Acharya <p><em>In the context of growing corporate financial scandals and misconduct, </em><em>the purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between various internal corporate governance measures and corporate valuation (Tobin Q) in Nepal</em><em>.&nbsp; The study is descriptive and analytical in nature. Causal comparative research design especially multivariate regression models have been used. The method of estimation is Ordinary Least Square (OLS).</em><em> Board size and independence, CEO duality and existence of audit committee as corporate governance variables and Tobin Q as performance variable for the valuation measure of 54 listed Nepalese firms over the period 2018/19 and 2019/20 have been used in the analysis. </em><em>Result </em><em>supports governance performance hypothesis. It shows a significant </em><em>positive relationship between board size and firm value (Tobin Q). The </em><em>study establishes the positive impact of CEO duality on firm valuation and concludes that</em><em> independent directors are unable to play role in value creation. Finally, the role of audit committee is not significant in creating value.</em> <em>These results</em><em> provide insight</em><em>s on the current regulatory provisions.</em><em> T</em><em>he findings raise the questions over the role of our expert directors and audit committee.</em><em> The need of larger board size has been established</em><em>. </em><em>Therefore, current regulations with respect to board size and independence; and CEO duality and audit committee need to be reassessed.</em><em> Though few studies have examined role of corporate governance measures in corporate performance and valuation in Nepalese context, this study is new in its type in investigating the governance performance relationship taking recent dataset of Tobin </em><em>Q </em><em>as valuation measure. However,</em> <em>the study is based on limited internal corporate governance variables from a small sample size for only two year’s data set. Hence, generalization should be made cautiously.</em></p> 2022-11-04T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Management Leadership and Governance Working from home during COVID-19 lockdown: Changing competencies and work-home life boundaries 2022-08-25T07:31:33+00:00 Jéssica Almeida Maria Gabriela Silva <p>Crisis situations often introduces drastic lifestyle changes. This study is focused on the COVID-19 pandemic and aims to shed light on an unprecedented context of forcing employees to work from home with a short notice of companies and the government. The goal is three-fold: i) to understand the extent to which employees were indeed prepared to work from home; ii) to uncover the most important competencies that enabled employees to deal better with a crisis situation, such as the COVID-19 pandemic; and iii) to discuss the real impact that working from home had in the employees’ lives during the pandemic situation and the quarantine period.</p> <p>Using narrative inquiry, this study explores the experiences of 18 young adult consultants working in different business areas, in Portugal. Semi-structure interviews were conducting during the third wave (12/2020 – 03/2021) and thematic analysis was used to analysis the transcripts. The analysis revealed three main themes: ‘management competencies’, ‘work-life balance’ and ‘work flexibility’. Each theme consisted of several subthemes which illustrates how the participants perceived working from home and the factors that reflect their experiences and understanding.</p> <p>The research findings illustrate that interpersonal communication, anxiety and stress management, time management, and e-leadership are vital skills to cause a great impact on participants’ productivity and well-being at work. Participants all appeared to notice that working from home provides a better work-life balance (e.g. saving time on daily commute) and more flexibility with regards to the work schedule and home commitments. Nonetheless, their experiences of home working depend on the personal situation, personality and the perceived management support offered during the COVID-19 lockdown.</p> <p>The research highlights a need to train employees on soft skills and prepare them to future crisis situations. Theoretical implications suggest that academics should expand research and interventions to include not only the work environment but also other external factors that affect employees. The limitations of the study and recommendations for future research are suggested.</p> 2022-11-04T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Management Leadership and Governance The Concept and the measurement of Strategic Leadership. The case of Greek Hotel Employees with the use of Exploratory Factor Analysis 2022-10-18T18:44:26+00:00 Dimitrios Belias Nikoloas Trihas <p>Over the past two decades, scholars and practitioners are interested in the term of Strategic Leadership. Strategic Leadership is a leader’s ability to anticipate, envision, being flexible, and enable others to make strategic changes as required. There are several researches connecting strategic leadership with various variables of the Human Resource Management (HRM), such as: work stress, (Baysak and Yener, 2015), work commitment (Chiang &amp; Wang, 2012) and role conflict (Palomino &amp; Frezatti, 2016). Hence, it is very important to develop a reliable measurement tool which will explore the nature of strategic leadership and map its dimensions. Barbara Davies &amp; Brent Davies (2004) have already developed a model which consists of both the organizational abilities and the individual characteristics of strategic leaders. The main purpose of the current paper is to study the application of Davies &amp; Davies model (2004) in the hospitality industry. More thoroughly, the empirical data used on this paper has derived by a research consisted of 372 participants who work on Greek Hotel Companies. The method used to analyze the connections between the items of the strategic leadership was factor analysis. The findings support that Davies &amp; Davies model (2004) can be used as a measurement tool in the hospitality industry. Thus, the current paper aims to contribute to the comprehension of the nature of strategic leadership on the hospitality and tourism industry, and trigger future empirical research in the field.&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> 2022-11-04T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Management Leadership and Governance Traditional female cook’s role at tourist inflow traditional markets in Bogotá 2022-08-16T17:33:58+00:00 Karen Beltrán Jorge Mora <p>What is the role of female traditional cooks as carriers of culinary knowledge for tourism development in some of the food markets in Bogota? This research analyses the role of the female cook as a carrier of culinary knowledge, determines contributions to gastronomic heritage that allows tourism development and generates resources for tourism use around local gastronomic heritage. Thus, interviews to traditional female cooks were conducted face to face in order to analyse the knowledge they have about Colombian Cuisine, and where they obtain this knowledge from, as well as their perception on gender division of labour on their kitchens. About methodology, a qualitative approach was used, from the action-participation research method with a process that allows a collective learning of their reality.</p> <p>As a result, traditional cooks are bearers of intangible cultural heritage and are representatives of Colombian cultural identity; most of their culinary knowledge has been obtained in empirical processes due to family tradition or work experience. In conclusion, their role is to keep the recipes intact and teach them to other generations to maintain cultural heritage as living heritage in the gastronomic tourism chain.</p> 2022-11-04T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Management Leadership and Governance Sustainable management based on sustainable knowledge 2022-08-01T17:08:55+00:00 Andrea Bencsik <p>The issue of sustainability has been on the minds of professionals for years, as it is on the minds of everyone involved in everyday life. Numerous studies have been carried out on various aspects of organisational operation, nature conservation, environmental protection and climate change. However, little research has been done on the potential for sustainability of organisational knowledge, a factor that fundamentally affects the functioning of organisations. This concerns the steps in the knowledge management process, organisational culture, working conditions, organisational environment, and organisational leadership that provides governance. Among these factors, this paper reviews the criteria for sustainable leadership as an effective channel for strategic decision making. Sustainable management has a significant impact on the organisation and its environment, balancing operations, people, profit, market competition and planetary sustainability. It is necessary to capture, share, incorporate and store valuable organisational knowledge for organisational performance excellence. The expectations of sustainable management that govern the sustainability of knowledge is a little researched topic in both management science and knowledge management literature. This paper aims to fill this gap by highlighting the supporting role of sustainable management for knowledge sustainability. Research to date has identified sustainable management as an alternative style of management that can significantly change organisations and society through a deeper understanding of natural and economic systems and their interdependencies. Accordingly, it ensures market performance in a holistic approach, based on the concept of sustainable knowledge, in the long term, with a focus on the efficient use of the company's internal resources. The cornerstones of these interrelationships and the conditions of the relationships are presented in a theoretical approach in the study.</p> 2022-11-04T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Management Leadership and Governance Enhancing employer attractiveness: the impact of COVID-19 on Generation Z 2022-08-22T08:46:08+00:00 Susanne Boehlich Clare Hindley Marie Christine Mueller <p>This paper investigates how employer attractiveness has been affected by developments in the attitudes, values, and goals of Generation Z (born between 1995-2010) due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Research shows the challenging environment for employers who are increasingly facing a ‘war for talent’ and the need to focus on generational needs and expectations. Work concepts in many cases have been adapted to Generation Y, but a revision of strategies is needed for the newest generation on the labour market. The insurance industry has long struggled to attract young talent and along with retail, logistics, tourism, and banking has been ranked the lowest in employer attractiveness by Generation Z. This is corroborated by the fact that larger corporations are also often perceived as unattractive by young people. While many industries have struggled with the consequences and challenges of the pandemic, the insurance sector can be seen as having mastered the crisis comparatively well. This paper questions whether the relative job security offered by the insurance sector, can be increasingly influential in post pandemic job choices. Since Generation Z was already described as security-oriented before the pandemic, this is expected to have increased as a result of COVID-19 and be reflected in their career and employer choices. The perspectives of Generation Z and employers from the German insurance industry are compared through survey and interview data. The young cohort suspects a worsening of their situation particularly in job offerings and security. At the same time, the insurance industry positions itself well in exactly these areas. Furthermore, the aspirations and expectations of Generation Z towards the professional world coincide strongly with the offerings of insurers as employers. However, the respondents see the sector’s image as a deterrent. Although this paper focuses on the insurance industry, strategic recommendations given on how the sector can position itself, are relevant for other sectors facing the challenge of attracting Generation Z employees.</p> 2022-11-04T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Management Leadership and Governance Impact of personality and communication style on transformational leadership 2022-09-27T09:55:11+00:00 Tiina Brandt Maarit Laiho <p>This study is interested in leaders’ individual qualities and leadership style, focusing on personality and communication style, and how they impact on transformational leadership. In addition, this study is also interested in the influence of age, gender, and leadership experience of the leader on transformational leadership. The data consisted of 385 Finnish leaders who rated themselves in regard of personality, communication style and transformational leadership. SPSS Statistics 26.0 was used to test the relationships. Several statistically significant associations were found, indicating that both personality and communication style have an impact on transformational leadership. Leadership experience and gender also had some effect, but interestingly, age had no effect on transformational leadership style.</p> 2022-11-04T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Management Leadership and Governance Psychological Contract Disruptions by Uncivil Behavior 2022-09-23T06:06:48+00:00 Tiina Brandt Anna Ruohonen <p>This research focuses the conceptualization and modeling of psychological contract (PC) dynamics in co-worker communication under the conditions of counterproductive or uncivil behavior acting as a PC disruption. It also studies differences of individual responses when having the exposure of the difficult person behavior. A sample of 98 experienced working professionals responded to an open-ended questionnaire regarding the difficult person behavior in their place of work. The content analysis was used as analyzing method.&nbsp; Findings indicated that different strategies that people employed in repairing PC following a negative disruption were identified. These included the call to supervisors for mediation, launching a straightforward opposition to contain difficult person behavior, using acquiescence and accommodation as tactics, responding with avoidance and/or praise. According to analyzes the dynamics of PC-model impacted by uncivil disruption is presented.&nbsp; The results of the research benefit organizational leaders and HR in facilitating the processes of organizational support of supervisors in mitigating negative PC disruptions that are caused by difficult person behavior.&nbsp;This study is among the firsts when studying different individual responses when facing uncivil behavior and this study fulfils this gap. This study extends the psychological contract theory, showing how the uncivil behavior impacts on PC.</p> 2022-11-04T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Management Leadership and Governance Cultural Differences in Communication and Leadership – A Comparison of Finland, Indonesia and USA 2022-09-23T06:17:11+00:00 Tiina Brandt Isaac Wanasika Maarit Laiho <p>For expatriate employees to adapt to different cultures, it is important to understand cultural differences and how these differences affect leadership processes in different countries. Communication plays a significant role in the implementation of leadership in different cultures. The purpose of this paper was to investigate the effects of culture and interactions with various leadership and communication attributes. Our study was based on three countries: Finland, Indonesia and United States. The sample consisted of 162 respondents from the three countries. Transformational leadership and coaching were measured using a survey instrument with six dimensions. Communication was measured with six dimensions that included emotional intelligence, clear dialog, insecure, impatient, dominating and avoiding. SPSS Statistics 28.0 and Hayes PROCESS macro were used to test the moderating effect of communication style on the relationship between culture and transformational leadership. Results indicated several statistically significant results between countries in both communication and leadership styles. Our findings indicate that cultural factors impact leadership and communication.</p> 2022-11-04T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Management Leadership and Governance Digital Transformation: A Foundational Capability Building Block Perspective on Maturing the IT Capability 2022-09-05T15:42:31+00:00 Marian Carcary Eileen Doherty <p>The enterprise-wide scope of an organisation’s IT capability in sustainably leveraging technology for business value is well-researched, and the level of maturity of this capability is a key determinant of an organisation’s success. IT capability maturity has become more critical as technological developments continue at an accelerated pace and as whole industries are being disrupted by digital developments. Maturity in terms of IT leadership, IT processes, IT infrastructure, and a myriad of other supporting organisation-wide capabilities is required. Since the 1980s, maturity models in the literature have focused on specialist niche areas, with few adopting a holistic perspective. Across these models, a lack of consensus is evident on the key capabilities that should be matured and on what the important sub elements or building blocks of these capabilities are. How does the organisation achieve an adequate level of maturity if the required capabilities are unclear?&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>As one of the most holistic IT capability maturity models identified, this paper undertakes a systematic analysis of the 36 IT capabilities within IT Capability Maturity Framework (IT-CMF) and the 315 sub elements (Capability Building Blocks (CBBs)) that comprise these capabilities. This research aims to identify the common sub elements or building blocks inherent across the 36 capabilities, which we will refer to as Foundational Capability Building Blocks (FCBBs), and a high-level definition of these FCBBs abstracted from the relevant sub elements and discussed in terms of their recognised importance to effecting successful digital transformations. From an academic perspective, the research provides deeper insight on common themes that are pertinent to IT capability improvement. From an industry practitioner perspective, it breaks down the complexities of IT capability maturity with a focus on a manageable number of considerations.</p> 2022-11-04T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Management Leadership and Governance Leadership in the Context of Corporate and Employee Social Responsibility in the Czech Company 2022-06-23T02:36:51+00:00 Simona Cincalova Veronika Toporova <p>Nowadays CSR research concentrates mainly on the macro-level analysis of the phenomena connected to CSR. However, differences exist among the members of stakeholder groups concerned with CSR, which can cause different results in implementing CSR strategies, it is crucial to study CSR also on the individual (micro) level. The article aims to analyse the Czech brewery’s corporate and employee social responsibility in the context of leadership. Several studies reveal how important ethical leadership is because it can affect not only organizational culture, which fosters employee commitment to corporate values but also the range of CSR activities, individuals’ engagement and participation. The authors of these studies stress the importance of ethical leadership, managers' encouragement, and supervisors' attitude toward the topic. The method chosen for the research is the micro-level analysis of employee perceptions, reactions, and attitudes towards the company's CSR together with their determinants. The model of psychological micro-foundations and the ESR-CSR congruence model are used. We opted for semi-structured interviews to gain in-depth and detailed inside into the thinking and perceiving of 13 administrative employees of the company. The coding and content analysis of the respondents' testimonies was conducted in the program MAXQDA. We found amongst our respondents, who represent the group of administrative employees of the Czech brewery, that the most important determinant of their CSR engagement was corporate socialization. Many of the respondents engaged in CSR activities that were related to their job. Therefore, we found room for improvement in the extra-role CSR participation of administrative employees, but also in the encouragement from the part of their supervisors. The chosen group of employees framed their CSR perceptions by trying to look at the issue from the point of view of different stakeholders. They saw the sense of doing CSR in the need for sustainability, and a positive for the company is that these employees regarded its CSR as authentic. We found mainly positive CSR reactions on the side of respondents, such as job satisfaction, organizational pride, or job pursuit intention.</p> 2022-11-04T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Management Leadership and Governance Development of Dark Triad Scales for Machiavellianism, Psychopathy and Narcissism from the Hogan Development Survey 2022-08-30T20:24:13+00:00 Brendan Coleman Victor Dulewicz <p>Dark Triad personalities (DT: Psychopathy, narcissism and Machiavellianism) adversely affect organisational functioning. This research was designed to answer three questions: (1) Can DT personality measures be derived from the Hogan Development Survey (HDS)? (2) Will age, tenure, and gender moderate the relationships between the DT personality measures and job performance? (3) What are the relationships between scores on the DT personality measures? Three new DT scales were derived from the HDS. Scales’ scores are discrete and measure independent constructs. Controlling for age, tenure, and gender showed significant negative correlations between the DT and job performance.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Four hypotheses, derived from the research questions, were tested based on a sample of 918 managers’ responses to HDS and independent ratings of their job performance. Mapping of HDS scales was based on Ferrell and Gaddis’s (2016) correlations between HDS scales and two widely used independent DT scales.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Three new DT scales were produced from the HDS. Six HDS scales map onto Machiavellianism, five onto psychopathy and four onto narcissism. All the new DT scales showed acceptable Alpha reliabilities. The mapping exercise provided evidence of construct validity. An analysis of high scorers on pairings of the three DT scales showed divergent validity. Partial correlation results after controlling for the effect of age, tenure, and gender showed significant negative correlations between psychopathy, narcissism, Machiavellianism and job performance, demonstrating criterion validity. Divergence between the three scales was found.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Organisations can use the new DT scale scores for screening applicants and for identifying future management potential and provide developmental feedback to employees.</p> 2022-11-04T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Management Leadership and Governance DIVE Project: Sharing experiences of non-formal education in Social Entrepreneurship 2022-09-14T00:41:58+00:00 Oscarina Conceição Teresa Dieguez Lúcia Campinho <p>The social entrepreneurship approach is presented as a basis for helping to solve problems that exist in society. Social economy activities play a key role as they combine innovation with the execution of solidarity relations between the community and the involved environment, thus highlighting their mission and contribution to sustainable development. This study aims to share the reflection of the European project "DIVE" of non-formal education on social entrepreneurship, presenting editions, main developed activities, and involving partner entities. It also aims to understand its impact on the perceptions of project participants and coordinators, as well as its evaluation and recommendations. Additionally, it tries to understand if changing the world through social entrepreneurship is or is not a utopia of contemporary society. For these purposes, research based on a mixed approach was developed and materialized through 2 surveys: one for the project participants and another one for the coordinators. This study shows the high impact of DIVE, both for the participants and for the coordinators and society. Indeed, the results reveal a great approach by all involved in the community, with a strong connection between the Academy's formal education and non-formal education. The project seems to have provided and developed tools that allowed young people to successfully face the challenges of the labor market, encouraging the creation of social enterprises and a closer look at sustainability issues. Through the involvement and active participation of young people, the promotion of modern European values is strengthened and a more equitable approach towards developing countries and stakeholders is attempted. Important skills are worked on and a more critical and reflective mentality, necessary for building the desired future, is built.</p> 2022-11-04T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Management Leadership and Governance Modelling and Measuring Innovation Culture 2022-08-23T08:47:23+00:00 Muriel Davies Stéphanie Buisine <p>We aim to provide a conceptual model of innovation culture in organizations and build a survey tool to measure it. Innovation management focuses often on formalized processes whereas unwritten rules related to organizational culture are also a major factor for innovation and firms’ performance. We first position the role of culture with regard to innovation processes, then provide a model of innovation culture relying on five branches (External links, Teams, Organizational context, Individuals, and Leaders). Following the elaboration of this model called ETOILe, we address the issue of measuring it. In this paper, we focus on the less-known components such as External Links and design an ad hoc questionnaire.</p> <p>The validation study is performed through a laboratory test with 115 professional participants followed by reliability analysis of data and principal components analysis. The results of the study enabled us to refine the diagnosis tool as well as the underlying model of innovation culture. The current version includes four branches (Team, Organization, Individuals, Leaders) and ten sub-dimensions including promotion and prevention regulatory focus, managerial practices, discovery and delivery skills, etc.</p> <p>Because of its implicitness and intangibility, culture is often disregarded in the analysis of key ingredients of firms’ performance. Our model of innovation culture gathering such unwritten rules contributes to understanding why innovation is so natural and efficient in some companies, and why it is sometimes painful, despite robust managerial structure and methodological processes. Finally, we provide a diagnosis tool intended for all hierarchical levels of the organization, and not only for managerial staff. Our model and tool could be used at several levels: at the company’s level to grasp the overall cultural profile, at the department or team level to assess differences in innovation culture between subdivisions in a given company, and at a trans-company level to characterize cultural differences associated to business sectors (e.g., manufacturing sector, consulting sector, retail sector).</p> 2022-11-04T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Management Leadership and Governance Enhancing Social Innovation through active methodologies in Higher Education 2022-08-11T21:26:34+00:00 Teresa Dieguez Paula Loureiro Isabel Ferreira <p>Social innovation is now part of the political agenda, funding programs, and economic development policies. The world is changing, and, among other factors, digital transformation is assuming a key driver in the paradigm shift. Challenges appear, and solutions are needed, especially in what concerns human wellbeing and innovative approaches. Higher education can have an important role in this ongoing process, as it can supply an open, transformative platform for collective knowledge creation through research, education, innovation, and culture. In fact, it can shape the future of a knowledge-driven society if it works closely with its stakeholders and tries to meet their needs. Implementing new educational methodologies where students can participate and have a more dynamic and active role can be an effective answer. Combing formal education with non-formal education seems to develop the needed 21st -century skills. This article aims to share some best practices already developed at the Polytechnic Institute of Cávado and Ave, based in Portugal. It reflects students’ perceptions of their participation in nonformal projects during their formal education. Students seem to get more involved, more committed, and empowered, while they are learning by doing and contacting real cases in real conditions. The results seem to reinforce the notion that there is a strong relationship between learning, innovation, and social innovation. Students feel more holistically integrated into the world and with a lot of developed skills that will differentiate them in the future, in a more sustainable approach.</p> 2022-11-04T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Management Leadership and Governance Strategizing Digital Transformations: Sensing Threats and Opportunities with the Digital Disruption Analysis 2022-10-03T09:43:53+00:00 Malte Diekmann Leonhard Voß Fynn-Hendrik Paul Reza Asghari <p>Managers need to navigate the increasing complexity of their business environments due to emerging technological developments and digital disruption. Strategic threats and opportunities to their business must constantly be assessed, but organizations often lack the time and resources to develop a structured approach. With the Digital Disruption Analysis, Voß et al. (2020) published a systematic methodology to assess emerging innovations and to derive digital transformation strategies. In this paper, the Digital Disruption Analysis is tested with technology foresight experts of an established enterprise in the energy sector and improved in an iterative approach. In an initial application, opportunities for improvement are identified through participatory observation and direct feedback. Then, the Digital Disruption Analysis is revised and applied again in the same company to assess the improvements, using the same evaluation method and an additional qualitative questionnaire. The main adaptations of the Digital Disruption Analysis are the integration of a weak signal analysis based on data and text mining approach to identify relevant emerging innovations, the integration of a multidimensional digital disruption scoring model, and a new Trajectory Mapping approach. The experts note improved applicability and overall enhanced functionality of the revised Digital Disruption Analysis. Our findings contribute to future research on applicable management tools for digital transformations and serve as a foundation for understanding the nature of digital disruptions and how they can be identified and monitored.</p> 2022-11-04T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Management Leadership and Governance The Adoption of Digital Technology in SMEs 2022-06-19T13:37:43+00:00 Anyanitha Distanont Orapan Khongmalai <div><span lang="EN-GB">This research aimed to study the factors affecting the adoption of digital technology in SME entrepreneurs. Questionnaire were used as a tool to collect data from 375 samples of SME entrepreneurs in the northern region. The data were analyzed using the Structural Equation Model (SEM). The results showed that the factors of digital technology adoption among SMEs consisted of 3 main components: (1) technological context, (2) SMEs context, and (3) environment context. Technological context is a key factor contributing to the perceived usefulness of using digital technology. The environmental context is the main factor that contributes to the perceived ease of use of digital technology and lead to the adoption of digital technology by entrepreneurs. The research results can be used as a guideline to promote and support the use of digital technology among Thai SME entrepreneurs to increase their competitiveness in the current business environment and get ready for the digital economy era.</span></div> 2022-11-04T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Management Leadership and Governance Shared Leadership and Learning 2022-08-12T15:04:42+00:00 Vít Dočekal <p>The aim of this study is to describe the links between shared leadership and learning. The method of this study is an integrative review that combines the results and findings of chosen studies focusing on the keyword "shared leadership" from the Scopus database and their relations to learning. As a result, this paper presents three basic topics – shared leadership as a stimulus for training and development, shared leadership as an incentive for learning and a summary of conditions supporting the relationship between shared leadership and learning.</p> 2022-11-04T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Management Leadership and Governance An Examination of Governance Failure by the Irish State: The critical case of the ‘Mica’/Defective Blocks issue 2022-11-03T17:46:14+00:00 Eileen Doherty Marian Carcary Elaine Ramsey Daniel Kelly Paul Dunlop <p>This paper examines how governance failure on behalf of the Irish Government led to the ‘mica’/defective blocks catastrophe. It will examine the governance process adopted by the Irish state in the ‘mica’ case and review the recommendations made in 2012 (Pyrite Panel, 2012) following a similar crisis – ‘pyrite’ and whether the Irish Government’s response to these recommendations were acted upon in a timely manner. It will further examine whether the government’s action/inaction in relation to these recommendations could have contributed to the scale of this mica crisis and whether it may have exacerbated this crisis further. This paper will also establish the key lessons to be learnt from this crisis. The findings of this research will be of value to Public Sector organisations /Government departments when considering governance approaches at a local and a national level that should be in place, in particular when permitting concrete products to be placed on to the marketplace. Finally, it will be of interest to other researchers/ academics interested in Governance at both an organisational and at a governmental level.</p> 2022-11-04T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Management Leadership and Governance The Islands of Sanity in the Killing Fields of Inequalities: A juxtaposed case in Management, Leadership and Governance Practices! 2022-09-25T12:05:53+00:00 Valindawo Valile M Dwayi <p>This article was motivated by the&nbsp;conversations&nbsp;which ensued at ECMLG 2021 after a presentation on a similar topic. The question from the audience was whether the researcher and analyst still had tenure in the insider research project he had just shared. The response was in the affirmative, although serious concerns were expressed about the quality of the tenure, symbolized by the brutality and dehumanising tendencies of the then University Regime. Therefore, this project-based article at ECMLG 2022 continues from that debate. Mirrored on the national events as a result of the Justice Zondo Commission about State Capture in South Africa, the article&nbsp;focuses&nbsp;on one case of a university institution, which was arguable under a capture during a particular regime of a Vice Chancellor and Principal. The case of “The Killing Fields of Inequalities” is very typical of the national contexts, which is still steeped in settler colonialism and in a structured racist system, strangely almost thirty years into constitutional democracy. Such a case is juxtaposed with what can be referred to as “Islands of Sanity”! The two African folklore illustrate the case as reported in the article. Firstly, that the system can be changed but it will first try to eat you up! Secondly, that when the hyena wants to eat its own children, it first accuses them of smelling like rats.&nbsp;Therefore, the main argument, which serves as the anchor for the article, is to<strong>&nbsp;</strong>problematise the taken for granted claims about management, leadership and governance practices in university education spaces. This can be done by means of realist oriented scholarship projects, which ought to dig deeper than what appears on surface as leadership for the idea of university education as the public good. In this regard, the article&nbsp;suggests a realist social program, which is anchored on the critical realist philosophy, in accounting for the cited practices and in ways that can shed more light for the transformative outcomes than those reported in the article. It is envisaged that the article will have as the result, promotion of systemic conversations about the default position and fault consciousness in the idea of university education in general and how such an idea should be better managed, led and governed in the national development plans (in the case of South Africa, for example).</p> 2022-11-04T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Management Leadership and Governance Bridging the gap Between Cultural Subordinate and Organisational Success: Emirati Women’s Liminal Economic Agency 2022-11-03T17:50:53+00:00 Valerie Priscilla Goby <p>This paper explores responses to the latent, but still robust, cultural resistance to Emirati women's liminal economic agency in the United Arab Emirates. While a great deal of state policy has sought to encourage women into the workforce and to provide them with a level platform on which to participate economically, some religio-cultural values still prioritise women's family-related roles. One result of this is that there is substantial disparity between women's educational skills and the extent of their participation in the economy. This study uses narrative methodology to explore how Emirati women respond to the surviving prejudices that maintain that they are not fully entitled to engage in the workforce. A highly dominant theme that emerges in this study is that women have identified, and begun to celebrate, the role that women have played in the economic history of their country. They highlight that economically active women are not a new phenomenon in their society. The contribution this study makes is its analysis of how culture and gender are mutually reconstituted and how aspects of modernity are incorporated into a framework of traditional values. This analysis demonstrates a means by which women in a highly patriarchal society seek to defend and legitimate their unrestricted economic participation. It also illustrates how tradition and modernity become blended rather than existing as a dualism.</p> 2022-11-04T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Management Leadership and Governance When power hurts: An explorative study on the relationship between toxic leadership, emotional exhaustion, turnover intention and job satisfaction 2022-08-05T09:25:27+00:00 Ginevra Gravili Amelia Manuti Viviana Meirinhos <p>The present study is aimed to two related objectives: 1) to make a systematic review of the relationship between toxic leadership, burnout and turnover intentions in the workplace 2) to use this knowledge to investigate if and to what extent a toxic leadership style might negatively impact workers' burnout and turnover intentions. This second objective was pursuedconducting a survey focused on a convenience sample of 156 employees (48% males and 50% females), working in small and medium enterprises across Italy.</p> <p>The structured questionnaire adopted is composed of validated measures of emotional exhaustion (Sirigatti et al. 1988 ), toxic leadership (Schmidt, 2008), turnover intention (Mobley et al., 1978) and job satisfaction (Wanous et al., 1997). Results showed that all dimensions of burnout and turnover intentions were positively related to toxic leadership. Limitations of the study as well as practical implications for research and practice in HRM are discussed.</p> 2022-11-04T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Management Leadership and Governance Leadership in business schools: Contributions from traditional leadership approaches 2022-08-23T07:40:43+00:00 Jens Holmgren Louise Kringelum <p>For many years, leadership in universities and business schools has been investigated and explored (see Thomas 2011). Many changes and new requirements from a variety of stakeholders have arisen. For instance, there has been an increased focus on impact from the state, companies, and organizations and a greater need to obtain external funding for research projects. Additionally, current debates regarding sustainability and digitalization and the prevalence of mission-based research have made it necessary to revisit the challenges inherent in leading universities and business schools. It is relevant to revisit traditional approaches to leadership to explore how these concepts and factors can inspire the development of business school leadership.</p> <p>This article is not a comprehensive literature review of the leadership differences that business schools face. Rather, we present recent literature on leadership in business schools that, in combination with our own experiences as part of a management team in a newly established business school in Denmark, showcases the contemporary challenges faced in business school leadership. We use traditional leadership approaches to discuss how business school leadership can benefit from these approaches to confront new challenges and requirements.</p> 2022-11-04T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Management Leadership and Governance Holistic Digital Leadership and 20 Factors Relevant for its Understanding and Implementation 2022-07-04T10:03:13+00:00 Denis Imhof Stella Gatziu Grivas <p><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW182486472 BCX4">Organizations today face challenges like changing organizational structures and value chains, participation in digital eco-systems or fast changing customer expectations.</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW182486472 BCX4"> Digital Leadership aims to guide the necessary transformation to overcome these challenges. </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW182486472 BCX4">Thereby a holistic viewpoint is needed since the challenges and conditions concern organizations as a whole. They are not limited to single managers, departments or even the organization’s system boundaries. </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW182486472 BCX4">Digital Leadership is a relatively new and well discussed research topic but yet only vaguely defined and understood. This exploratory research contributes to the exploration, understanding and development of Digital Leadership with the elaboration, based on the review of existing literature, of a holistic definition of Digital Leadership, and the proposal, based on semi-structured qualitative expert interviews, of</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW182486472 BCX4"> 20 interdependent and mutually influencing Digital Leadership factors within four main areas of Digital Leadership. These 20 factors are relevant for successful and sustainable holistic Digital Leadership and offer a deeper understanding of Digital Leadership. Furthermore, they provide guidance for the implementation and improvement of Digital Leadership for organizations facing the challenges and conditions of the digital age.</span></p> 2022-11-04T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Management Leadership and Governance Leadership for sustainability learning: The role of active learning methodologies 2022-10-18T09:28:16+00:00 Birgit Helene Jevnaker <p>Learning to lead for sustainability in your enterprises has emerged as a new concern for top leaders in many industries, educational institutions, and regions. The higher education institutions may have a generic role in affecting leadership for sustainability learning in both theory and practice. From an action-based leadership for sustainability perspective, we propose that more attention be devoted to leveraging the developmental work in the everyday learning settings, and especially in local organizing for leadership learning.&nbsp; This explorative paper specifically seeks to understand the role of active learning methodologies in affecting sustainable leadership in an adult learner and student group setting. It is of broad interest to help diverse students’ learning groups to both enact and engage recurrently as co-creating learners for their own leadership development.</p> 2022-11-04T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Management Leadership and Governance Implementing Organizational Ethics in Academic Environment – The Case of Croatian University 2022-07-13T09:26:09+00:00 Marina Lovrincevic <p>Despite its great importance as a crucial aspect of organizational culture, organizational ethics and the implementation of ethics initiatives at all levels of the organization are still largely misunderstood or even neglected, not only in the business world but also in academia. Given the role of universities in educating young people for the labour market and future jobs, the translation of defined and proclaimed ethical policies, norms, and formal documents into desirable ethical behaviours by individuals, departments, and faculties is a sine qua non requirement for any university. This is especially true in less developed countries and emerging economies where the challenge of creating an ethical environment in organizations, corporate or otherwise is even greater.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>The main goal of the paper is to explore the interrelationship between formalized ethical policies and initiatives and demonstrated ethical behaviours at the organizational level, as well as to further investigate their role in shaping ethical behaviours of academic staff and, subsequently, ethical behaviours of students in an academic setting in a transitional economy. To achieve this goal, empirical research was conducted in 2021 using a specially designed questionnaire on a sample of 115 employees from one of the leading universities in Croatia. A moderated mediation model was designed and the analysis was conducted using PROCESS macro v4.0 for SPSS. The obtained results suggest that the effectiveness of standalone formalized ethical policies and initiatives is questionable in shaping ethical behaviours of academic staff, whereas these policies and initiatives in conjunction with actually demonstrated high ethical behaviours at the organizational level positively influence the ethical behaviours of academic staff. Moreover, the demonstrated ethical behaviours of academic staff plays an important mediating role in the positive impact of formalized ethical policies and initiatives on student ethical behaviours. In fact, demonstrated high ethical behaviour at the organizational level contribute positively to the indirect effects in this model. These and other findings of the research contribute to the relevant literature by providing additional confirmation of the importance of moving beyond formal ethics-related documents to actually demonstrated ethical behaviours in shaping ethical behaviours of individuals, in this case, university employees and students.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2022-11-04T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Management Leadership and Governance Technology Transfer Model to Enhance Sustainable Competitiveness of SMEs 2022-10-05T01:22:39+00:00 Orapan Khongmalai Anyanitha Distanont <p>Thailand is implementing the Thailand 4.0 policy that aims to bring technology and innovation to build sustainable competitiveness for the private sector. However, in the context of SMEs, the ability to transfer technology from universities is still a limitation. The objective of this research is to identify the technology assistance needs of SMEs, as well as, to study the key factors that make the technology transfer successful in the context of collaboration between universities, government agencies and SMEs. The sample group of this research is 226 SME entrepreneurs participating in the Boost up New Entrepreneurs with Technology and Innovation Program carried out by The Office of SMEs Promotion and Thammasat University between 2019-2020. The research results indicated that to create sustainable competitiveness, SMEs need technology assistance in 4 areas: (1) enhancing digital marketing capabilities, (2) developing product innovations, (3) raising product standards, and (4) improving production efficiency. In addition, this research also indicated that the technology transfer success factors for SMEs has 3 key elements: (1) a technology transferor who stands out for collaboration between researchers and business consultants, (2)atechnology transferee who has key characteristics of entrepreneur orientation and absorptive capacity of SMEs, and (3)the technology characteristics which can be connected to the original business processes of the organization which is a technology that gives SMEs’ products uniqueness that is difficult for competitors in the market to copy.</p> 2022-11-04T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Management Leadership and Governance Why does talent leave organizations? Talent retention of trainee program graduates 2022-09-23T09:21:22+00:00 Pavel Král Martina Richterová Věra Králová <p>Organizations fight for talent, and talent management has become an integral part of human resource management. Trainee programs are a part of talent management, which allows organizations to attract primarily university graduates with high potential. Trainee programs are highly selective and require high investment. However, much of the talent successfully finishing trainee programs (i.e. trainee program graduates) leave the organization before they can return the investment to the organization. The literature on talent management is centered around the process of attraction and development of talent but stays silent about talent retention. Thus, this research identifies and explores the reasons why trainee program graduates leave organizations.</p> <p>The study draws on a qualitative case study of the largest car producer in the Czech Republic with an established and highly developed trainee program. Data comprises of four sources: First, the interviews with the trainee program graduates, both who remained or left the organization after finishing the trainee program. Second, extensive internal talent management documentation related to the trainee program. Third, the consultations with human resource management specialists. Fourth, field notes from employee’s non-participant observation. Grounded theory analysis was used to analyze the data.</p> <p>The findings reveal three overarching factors that determine the turnover of trainee program graduates: the sense of uniqueness, instantaneity, and privilege. These factors represent expectations that are set by the organization but are not achieved by the trainee program graduates. These factors uncover the underlying paradoxical nature of trainee programs, which is highlighted by two trainee program paradoxes: focus paradox and prestige paradox.</p> <p>The research has several theoretical contributions. In the first place, the findings expand talent management literature by identifying critical issues that may lead to talent drainage instead of talent retention. This research also contributes to generational cohort theory. Practical implications provide suggestions on how to integrate trainee programs into human resource management practices to achieve expected and desired benefits of talent management for organizations.</p> 2022-11-04T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Management Leadership and Governance Transformational leadership and acceptance of mistakes as a source of learning - Poland-USA cross-country study 2022-07-12T07:34:54+00:00 Wioleta Kucharska Maciej Julian Kucharski Hafeez Ur Rehman <p>This study aims to explore the influence of transformational leadership on internal innovativeness mediated by mistakes acceptance, including country and industry as factors to be considered and gender and risk-taking attitude as moderators. General findings, primarily based on the US samples (healthcare, construction, and IT industry), confirmed that transformational leadership and internal innovativeness are mediated by mistakes acceptance and strengthened by employees' risk-taking attitude. It is reflected in Polish healthcare sample. On the other hand, IT and construction industry samples revealed that a low mistakes acceptance level among risk-taking managers under transformational leadership might be their hidden form of change resistance. Regarding gender issue, this study showed that male employees driven by transformational leaders accept mistakes as a source of learning better than women, but the exceptions are healthcare and IT industries in Poland. The developed empirical model is based on a sample composed of 2,160 Polish and American knowledge workers applying OLS regression, using SPSS PROCESS macro software.</p> 2022-11-04T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Management Leadership and Governance Corporate governance disclosure: Empirical evidence in the Portuguese capital market 2022-09-07T09:10:50+00:00 Kátia Lemos Sara Serra Paula Oliveira <p>The corporate governance theme has been a subject of great debate due to the financial scandals of recent years. However, it is currently seen as a key factor for the success of organizations. This is because of the strong evolution that it has undergone over the years and the increase in financial market demands. Corporate governance is also seen as a crucial component in strengthening investor confidence. According to the literature, good corporate governance allows for the achievement of a degree of trust necessary for the proper functioning of a market. Currently, good corporate governance practices contribute to attracting investors, increasing stakeholder confidence, raising a company's reputation, and increasing business transparency among other benefits. The present study aims to analyse corporate governance disclosure in companies listed on Euronext Lisbon in 2020. To achieve this aim, we perform a content analysis of the corporate governance and annual reports as well as the consolidated annual accounts of a sample comprising 32 companies listed on Euronext Lisbon as at 31st December 2020. To analyse the extent of disclosure, a disclosure index is created based on the recommendations of the Portuguese Securities Market Commission; this makes it possible to measure the degree of compliance with recommended disclosures. Only disclosures related to the board of directors, the audit committee, the external auditor, and the statutory auditor are considered. The average value of the disclosure index is 0.977, with the most disclosed information related to the statutory auditor and the least disclosed related to the audit committee. This study contributes to a good understanding of corporate governance in the Portuguese context.</p> 2022-11-04T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Management Leadership and Governance Early-Stage vs. Growth-Stage Startups: Examining the Differences in the Perception of Factors Instrumental to Success 2022-07-15T13:49:59+00:00 Marina Lovrincevic <p>A stream of research available in the literature focuses on startup success factors, although there is a lack of consensus in determining what these factors are. In general, there are two critical groups of success factors, organizational and entrepreneurial, both considered to be integral parts of internal startup environment. Since the perception of early-stage (incubation stage) and growth stage (post incubation stage) startup entrepreneurs differ significantly they tend to perceive important success factors distinctively. As a result, attributes of success differ considerably. This paper aims at capturing internal startup environment as it is considered to be crucial in shaping startup’s success in contrast to external environment that is more remote and (usually) not manageable.</p> <p>Primary data were collected using an online survey questionnaire and quantitative approach was used; data were analysed using descriptive statistics and Mann-Whitney U test. The final research sample consisted of 70 startups and the findings indicate that the perception of internal environment and its contribution to overall success differs significantly from the perspective of early-stage and growth stage startup entrepreneurs. Out of analysed internal factors, statistically significant differences were identified for prior experience in starting the company and self-confidence (individual’s/entrepreneur’s category factors) and internal startup organization and team-level competencies (organizational category factors).</p> <p>The contribution of this research is evident in identifying important internal factors that determine startup’s success (that aspiring startup founders can benefit from) and providing an insight into the startup community in Croatia, thus contributing to a scarce empirical literature on the topic available. Limitations of the research include sample size and subjective assessment of the success factors, so recommendations for future research include repeating the research on a larger sample, covering the international level and widening a set of key-performance indicators that can be assessed at a higher level of rigour with objective metrics.</p> 2022-11-04T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Management Leadership and Governance Exploring the links between ethical leadership, creativity and the work environment in hospital wards 2022-09-21T10:29:33+00:00 Margaret Mangion Katrina Scicluna <p>The literature indicates that a positive relationship between creativity and ethical leadership exists.&nbsp; It is critical to explore how this relationship can influence creative mindsets of nurse managers and nurses specifically within their work environment. The purpose of this study is to explore the influence of ethical leadership on creativity and the work environment in hospital wards. Data was collected by means of a qualitative approach.&nbsp; Staff from three wards in a general hospital was recruited for the study. Three nurse managers and nine nurses from three different wards in a hospital setting consented to hold semi-structured interviews.&nbsp; Thematic analysis was used to analyse the data from the interview transcripts. Nurses and nurse managers co-exist in a dynamic context provided through their work environment. Most respondents were able to identify creative activities in their daily work. Trust, inclusiveness and altruism facilitated learning and the development of new skills.&nbsp; This was manifested in environments where most respondents where receptive to alternative methods of addressing issues on the ward demonstrating a creative mindset. Nurses and nurse managers may mutually enhance their work environment by making it more engaging, by nurturing relationships, and facilitating creativity and creative mindsets by practicing ethical leadership. The study supports other research linking creativity and ethical leadership. Nurse managers and their teams have the opportunity to improve the quality of care delivery in hospital settings through their leadership style and openness to creative ideas.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> ethical leadership, creativity, creative mindset, work environment, interviews, thematic analysis.</p> 2022-11-04T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Management Leadership and Governance A legislative amendment within Dutch mental healthcare increases the administrative burden: a follow-up study 2022-07-22T07:16:38+00:00 Arjen Maris <p><em>Background:</em> To be accountable to laws and regulations, healthcare professionals spend more than 40% of their time on administrative tasks. The Compulsory Mental Healthcare Act (CMHA) was introduced in Dutch mental healthcare in 2020. It was hypothesized that this legislative amendment would raise the administrative burden for some care professionals. Pilot studies in 2020 and 2021 visualized the exponentially rise of the administrative burden for care professionals, especially psychiatrists due to the transition. However the total response was too small and not generalizable.</p> <p><em>Aim:</em> gain more nationwide insight in the hypothesized raise of administrative burden of psychiatrists due to the implementation of the CMHA.</p> <p><em>Method:</em> Under the leadership of an advisory board of three medical director psychiatrists, a Likert scale questionnaire was further developed to investigate the administrative burden of psychiatrists in the Netherlands before and after transition. Open-ended questions provided the opportunity for feedback from the psychiatrists. The study was supported by the Department of Medical Directors (DMD) of The Netherlands Psychiatric Association (NPA).</p> <p><em>Results:</em> all mental health institutions members of the DMD of the NPA received an invitation to participate. 14 institutions (total N=158) responded. The data show a significant change in the time spent on administrative tasks, the usefulness of the administrative actions, the fit for use and ease of use of supporting systems. The forementioned all decreased significantly after the implementation.</p> <p><em>Conclusion and discussion:</em> Psychiatrists spend more time on administration than before the legislative amendment instead of helping vulnerable patients. None of the institutions has been able to use the transition to its advantage given the time spent on administrative tasks and the usefulness of these tasks. This is an unacceptable development in the field of mental health in the Netherlands and should be addressed to those who are responsible for the decision making, especially policy makers. These results show that the introduction of the CMHA have made the field of Dutch mental health an impossible area to work for.</p> 2022-11-04T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Management Leadership and Governance Management Leadership Visibility: A Marketing Asset for Engaging Millennials 2022-06-28T10:39:39+00:00 Jones Mathew Anirban Chaudhuri Akhter Rather <p>This study explores whether media visibility of corporate leaders can be used for engaging with millennials. Millennials continue to form a lucrative customer segment. Corporate leaders are using media aggressively to be visible. This paper uses NLP-based web scraping tools, and quantitative surveys to collect structured and unstructured data from 206 millennials studying in a postgraduate business program to determine their perception of media visible corporate leaders with their (millennials’) engagement with brands of the company. Findings suggest, that millennials believe media visibility of a corporate leader can positively impact the business outcomes while they do not necessarily buy brands or products based on the leader’s visibility. There is hardly any gender-based difference on this count. Theoretical and managerial implications are discussed.</p> 2022-11-04T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Management Leadership and Governance Organizational Resilience Factors of Startups: Exploratory Case Study 2022-07-29T06:33:31+00:00 Florinda Maria Carreira Matos Maria Monteiro Álvaro Rosa José Campino <p>In an increasingly competitive environment subject to uncontrollable risks, the continuity of organizations can be severely threatened, and the decision-making process takes place under circumstances of great uncertainty. Therefore, it is necessary to develop strategies and competencies that allow the business to thrive. Startups, particularly technology-based ones, are an essential source of innovation. However, several studies indicate that approximately 60% of Startups fail in the first five years of business. To succeed, startups need to develop skills that allow them to rapidly evaluate their decisions and options, and to identify what is vital for the survival of their business. Thus, organizational resilience becomes of paramount importance to those companies. The term resilience is used in different areas of knowledge, but all the definitions share common ground regarding the concept: it describes the ability of an element to return to its normal state after a period of stress and crisis. The main objective of this exploratory research developed in Portugal is to identify the resilience factors of technological Startups. It is also intended to contribute to the design and development of instruments which promote organizational resilience in technological ecosystems. The current research follows the case study methodology based on a sample of 10 technological startups collected from the Startup Leiria ecosystem (Portugal). The Startup Leiria is an incubator of startup ventures which makes it a prime source of data and knowledge. The main findings point out the necessity to develop agility skills in Startup ecosystems. It was concluded that resilient organizations are characterized by having the ability to anticipate, respond, adapt, and recover from a disruptive event. The uniqueness of this study concerns its contribution to stimulate data-driven discussions regarding the necessity to implement programs for the reskilling of Startups in the context of their ecosystems.</p> 2022-11-04T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Management Leadership and Governance Governance of Digital Transformation: As observed in two cases of military transformations 2022-07-23T06:32:41+00:00 JUHA KAI MATTILA <p>The transformation of a modern socio-technical system is challenging. Notably, the digital transformation of an enterprise's business or operational model is an arduous journey toward success. Recent studies illustrate that 70% of business enterprise digital transformations fall short of their objectives. Without revenue-based performance indicators, the digital transformations of military organisations are, if possible, even more challenging. However, governance methods should assist in the complex transformation of interrelated features like human behaviour, business processes, information, data, and technology. Are they applied, and how feasible the standard Information and Communications Technology (ICT) governance methods are in supporting digital transformation in the defence sector?</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>The paper studies how feasible the contemporary ICT -governance methods are for military organisations while executing digital transformation. The research implements the action research method since the researcher has participated in two journeys of military transformation. First, a review of these two cases shows the military utilisation of the governance methods and models. Second, the standard methods are reflected against the most challenging transformation problems to see if they could provide support. Third, the methods are challenged by the range of variety in complex system transformations to test their flexibility.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Based on the research on two digital transformations, military enterprises seem to fall short in applying central ICT governance standards and methods. Therefore, they are not getting the best available support. Secondly, the contemporary governance methods do not address all the pain points in military transformation. Hence, the utilisation degree and transformation benefits are not well correlated. Thirdly, modern governance tools are inflexible in addressing various situations, transformation goals, and organisational maturity. In summary, the research surfaces some new gaps within the contemporary ICT governance toolbox when applied to the complex socio-technical transformation in the defence sector.</p> 2022-11-04T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Management Leadership and Governance A Systematic Literature Review on Change and Leadership in Higher Education 2022-09-26T14:27:28+00:00 Trevor McSharry <p>This paper presents a systematic literature review that focuses on the topics of change and leadership in Higher Education, in order to synthesis existing research in this key emerging area and provide some direction for future research. A review framework and method are outlined, in order to clarify the type and source of literature to be reviewed and the focus of this review process. Then, findings are analysed and presented, and thematic areas identified and analysed. Gaps in research are then explored followed by a conclusion and recommendations. Initially, 80 relevant articles were identified from Scopus and Academic Search Complete since 2010. Through abstract review, articles, which did not adequately relate to change and leadership were removed. The final number of papers reviewed and thematically analysed in detail were 23.</p> <p>This research confirms that there has been a steady output of peer-reviewed journal articles published that focused on both leadership and change in Higher Education. Through thematic analysis, several key themes emerged. These included an array of change drivers and the internal and external context associated with politics, culture and traditions and the developmental stage of the higher educational system. Staff utilisation, collaboration and development were additional themes identified that set the scene to determine effective leadership approaches and characteristics. The final theme identified was leadership recruitment and development. Many knowledge gaps from an instrumental, humanistic, critical, and philosophical perspective were identified. It is hoped that this literature review will aid further scholars in their research and develop new knowledge so that convergent views on this important topic will surface.</p> 2022-11-04T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Management Leadership and Governance The Convergence of Customer Orientation and Collaborative Health Care Leadership in Lithuania 2022-10-12T07:45:56+00:00 Birute Mockeviciene Vaida Servetkienė Danguolė Jankauskienė <p>Improving health care quality is a continuous goal that requires constant attention and innovative solutions. One of the sources from which we can learn about what quality changes are needed is patient experience. "Collaboration" is one way to develop instruments and use them to gather knowledge about patient needs related to the patient journey and measures to improve the quality of services, such as service collaboration. The direction, in terms of the identification of patient needs and relatively urgent changes to the system, depends on the organizational culture determined by leadership. Different approaches towards leadership initiate different outcomes and consequences. Collaborative health care leadership comes with the decision to strengthen collaboration between health professionals and patients, thus addressing service quality gaps. Therefore, it becomes important to understand patients’ expectations in terms of such cooperation.</p> <p><strong>The study aim is</strong> to investigate whether patient satisfaction barriers can be linked to shortages in collective leadership.</p> <p>All three dimensions of collaborative leadership (horizontal collaboration, interorganizational (vertical) collaboration, and collaboration with patients) demonstrate the link between leadership and accepted health care quality.</p> 2022-11-04T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Management Leadership and Governance The influence of board gender diversity on the sustainable development goals reporting: evidence from Portuguese companies 2022-09-03T17:58:31+00:00 Sónia Monteiro Kátia Lemos Verónica Ribeiro <p><strong>Aim: </strong>The aim of this paper is to analyze the influence of female presence on boards on the level of disclosure about the sustainable development goals (SDGs).</p> <p><strong>M</strong><strong>ethodology and Sample:</strong> This study used a content analysis of the sustainability/integrated reports published by a sample of the largest Portuguese listed companies. A set of panel data regression analyses on the SDGs disclosure index from 2016 until 2020 was run.</p> <p><strong>Research Findings: </strong>It was expected that there would be higher levels of SDGs-related disclosures in companies with female presence on boards. However, the results do not reveal any significant association with the dependent variable (SDG_IND). Contrary to our expectation, the presence of female on boards does not influence the disclosure about the SDGs in the largest listed companies<em>.</em></p> <p><strong>Theoretical/Academic Implications:&nbsp; </strong>Little research has addressed the influence of females on&nbsp;SDGs&nbsp;reporting (Rosati &amp; Faria, 2019b, Pizzi et al., 2021). To the best of our knowledge, this study provides a first insight at the influence of the board gender diversity on SDGs reporting in the Portuguese context.</p> <p><strong>Practitioner/Policy Implications:&nbsp;</strong>This study helps to highlight the importance of women on boards' role by increasing awareness about UN 2030 Agenda and ensuring the transparency of SDGs-related disclosure. Thus, our findings could have implications for policy formulation, to encourage board gender diversity and its effects on SDGs reporting quality.</p> 2022-11-04T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Management Leadership and Governance Community-based tourism as an approach to a solidarity economy 2022-07-27T02:05:00+00:00 Jorge Alexander Mora Forero Janeth Alejandra Saavedra <p>Tourism is an activity established as an alternative in the rural territory and there are few investigations that have contributed to the understanding of its development with the solidarity economy. Even tourism as an economic activity is of great importance; for this reason, research must be carried out to allow recognition of the relationship between community tourism and the foundations of the solidarity economy. For the development of this research, two theories of the social sciences were analyzed, on the one hand, the concept of solidarity economy and its main characteristics are reviewed, and on the other, the theories of community-based tourism in a rural context are reviewed. These two elements allow a discussion between the theoretical assumptions, the case study and reality. This allows describing the way in which the community manages tourism and how it incorporates the solidarity economy. The methodological structure used for this research is based on a mixed approach based on a case study. The research analyzes rural community tourism from a local perspective and with a socioeconomic point of view. This case study allows us to recognize the tourism phenomenon and the solidarity economy, delimiting the object of study to a geographical context, in which social and productive relationships are recognized. This study is analyzed from what was found in the Municipality of Gachala, located in the department of Cundinamarca in Colombia. For this, interviews were conducted with the people of the community to recognize the socioeconomic aspects that were raised for this investigation. A diagnosis was made to know the tourist services offered. In the same way, quantitative aspects were examined by means of an instrument for the measurement of community-based tourism. Where, aspects such as: employment, investment, training, value chain and the incorporation of tourism with the community are reviewed. In conclusion, tourism is an opportunity for rural communities to expand their sources of income and publicize their local activities and their territory in general<strong>.</strong></p> 2022-11-04T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Management Leadership and Governance Leadership Diagnostic: Unlocking Human Competence for Effective Strategy Execution 2022-07-12T12:53:25+00:00 Hester Nienaber Richard McNeill <p>Despite unprecedented technological advancement, people remain the most important resource for businesses to execute strategy. Yet, research reports that not all businesses ensure the optimum functioning of their people. This is evident from reports on (a) low levels of employee engagement, (b) deployed positions do not utilise peoples’ ‘competence’, (c) leadership lacks information linking employees to strategy execution and resultant business performance, (d) measuring employees’ contribution to business performance more readily at the tactical and operational levels than the strategic level of measurement, and (e) failure of strategy execution. Neglecting people is an enigma as leadership has long honed tools to make the most of their employees. One such tool is people analytics and another is strategy shaping. Consequently, we explored businesses use of people analytics in strategy execution, the vehicle ensuring business performance. This paper reports on the study. A literature review integrated strategy and people analytics culminating in a diagnostic which leadership can use to unlock human competence. An empirical study followed. Limited empirical evidence on the topic justified an exploratory survey which utilised an online questionnaire to collect vast amounts of standardised data from a purposively selected sample as best fit, which is uncommon. The data were descriptively analysed. The findings (a) showed that strategic level measurement is present at all levels of strategy shaping, and (b) overlooked at the business operational level where strategy is translated and executed, (c) revealed that these overlooked measurements are consequential for unlocking human competence, and (d) illustrated how people link to strategy execution. These findings provide preliminary evidence necessitating further descriptive and explanatory studies. This diagnostic provides requisite information enabling leadership to optimise the functioning of their employees by deploying suitably competent people in appropriate positions, rendering them available to perform, resulting in higher engagement levels, enhancing effective strategy execution, and improving business performance. This study contributes knowledge by demonstrating how people link to strategy execution, enabling leadership to make better decisions by discerning and selecting the critical people measures ensuring strategy execution and thus, business performance.</p> 2022-11-04T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Management Leadership and Governance Task uncertainty on the relationship between social hierarchy and leadership emergence 2022-07-04T08:25:17+00:00 Jin Park <p>Self-managing teams have gained popularity, yet those teams in practice often have limited formal hierarchical differentiation, formal order, or imposed coordination. Social hierarchy has functions of establishing order and facilitating coordination, and it plays important roles in teams where team members autonomously interact and manage tasks. Two important forms of social hierarchy, status and power, critically affect how individuals on a team emerge as leaders, and thus help self-managing teams’ coordination. In the current study, two questions are explored: 1) How do informal status and power affect leadership emergence in project teams? 2) How do team task types affect the relationship between informal status/power and leadership emergence in project teams? A field study was conducted in a consulting firm in South Korea. The results show that the high-status individuals are most likely to emerge as leaders of project teams, and that the relationship between status and leadership emergence is stronger in teams dealing with highly uncertain tasks.</p> 2022-11-04T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Management Leadership and Governance CSR in the retail food industry - An empirical study of sustainability measures 2022-09-20T08:45:10+00:00 Adrian Peretz Fred Strønen <p style="font-weight: 400;">Firms face increasing demands from a multitude of stakeholders to behave responsibly, but it is important to recognize that at the very core of sustainability lies compromise. None of the extreme alternatives—either the firm shutting down or the firm disregarding all societal demands—provide optimal solutions. The rational approach to sustainability is to seek 'win-win' solutions, as it clearly mandates achieving two different goals—for at least two different stakeholders, and this leads to goal conflicts and paradoxes. Not surprisingly, reducing costs while bolstering the firm's reputation as an environmentally responsible organization to the increasing number of climate-conscious consumers has become a common strategy for creating shared value. However, firms may face the paradox of choosing between those sustainability measures that are most beneficial to the firm and/or society, versus those measures that are most communicable to key stakeholders and thus most likely to provide reputational gains. There are very few studies on how approaches to food waste management in the retail sector contributes to CSR. The current study provides insight into resolving some of the paradoxes inherent in CSR-motivated strategies by describing how two of the biggest grocery chains in Norway—Coop and Norgesgruppen, seek to create more shared value through handling waste management. The data were collected through in-depth interviews with key informants at these two firms, that combined represent approximately 70% of the Norwegian food retail industry. In addition, data from expert interviews with key members of industry bodies provide further insights into the challenges in CSR issues. Our contribution is twofold, we develop insight into how retail chains handle conflicting goals from different stakeholders, and we show how using theory on paradoxes may contribute to achieving key CSR goals in the retail sector.</p> 2022-11-04T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Management Leadership and Governance Systems Thinking and Integrated Thinking for Integrated Reporting 2022-07-19T12:59:46+00:00 Nikita Singh F. Owen Skae Noel Pearse <p>Industries and institutions are under pressure to do no harm in their processes of value creation, capture and delivery whilst&nbsp; actively&nbsp; limiting the harm their operations cause. As a consequence, and in the quest for more accountable, sustainable and humane behaviour, industries and institutions are being increasingly called upon to report on their operations in an integrated manner. Integrated reports combine information on the financial and non-financial aspects of firm performance with the purpose of showing how an organisation creates, preserves or erodes value over time. Such a report is usually of interest to providers of financial capital wishing to understand the wider impacts of the organisation, but are now becoming a document of interest to all types of stakeholders, including community members, customers, potential funders, academic institutions, suppliers and business partners. The integrated report is an outcome of several interrelated activities in a firm, including governance, strategic management, stakeholder engagement and risk management, to name a few. A variety of studies have indicated that whilst the construction of a comprehensive integrated report is a complex undertaking, skills related to systems thinking and integrated thinking can aid in the process. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate this connection between integrated reporting and systems thinking. Through the application of systems thinking it is proposed that the ability to perceive the interconnectedness of an organisation’s activities and resources and to be able to employ higher-level reasoning with regard to them, is enhanced. This can contribute to more effective governance and management of organisations, and by extension, to more realistic, comprehensive and informed integrated reports.</p> 2022-11-04T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Management Leadership and Governance Management System for Integration of the Disabled on the Labour Market 2022-11-03T17:59:59+00:00 František Smrčka Marek Musil Martina Chalupová <p>People with mental disabilities (mental disorders, mild brain dysfunction) face barriers to employment, leading to higher unemployment rates and economic inactivity. Incorporating a workplace technology system may help create a disability-inclusive environment. The paper presents an ICT solution for social enterprises, focusing primarily on cafés or restaurants. It is designed to help reduce the need for supervision of employees with mental disabilities in order to increase their autonomy. The proposed system records activities and provides an employee with information on which action to perform and how. The primary goal of the proposal is the monitoring of activities and the interactive transmission of instructions. The presented system is based on the Internet of Things (IoT) and includes advanced information technologies – cloud messaging, mobile applications, web applications. The employee with a disability will be equipped with a smartphone using a specially designed application. By a notification sent to the mobile phone, the employee will be immediately informed about the task assigned. The mobile application will help an employee carry out the task visually (sequence of instructions expressed in text, pictograms). In order to confirm the completion of the task, a sensor is placed at the desk location, which, when the mobile device is attached, registers the employee's presence at the desk where the task is to be performed. The Unified Process (UP) methodology was used to design an information system. The context diagram describes the relationship between the proposed system and its environment, a data flow diagram shows the dynamics and control information. The system is designed to be universally applicable in other workplaces. It may be used to help people who cannot communicate with other employees due to a lack of knowledge of the local language at the workplace.</p> 2022-11-04T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Management Leadership and Governance Economic Aspects of a Resource Sharing Manufacturing Network under Turbulences 2022-09-22T18:49:22+00:00 Adam Szaller <p>Nowadays, manufacturing companies face more difficulties than ever. Unrest in global supply chains triggered by fluctuating customer demand, raw material shortages and crises (Covid pandemic, global warming, wars) complicate the utilization of production resources necessary for economic success. Also, the rapidly changing environment causes existing production plans to be adapted, which results in order changes, causing additional costs for manufacturers. One solution to cope with these problems is cooperation and sharing resources: requesting capacity from partners when having shortages and offering them temporarily in case of excess capacity.</p> <p>In this paper, a platform-based resource sharing mechanism is investigated from the economic perspective. In the mechanism, requests and offers are matched by a central platform applying a complex matching logic. The platform provides valid alternatives based on the incoming orders that the requesting company can choose from. Companies are rating each other’s performance after each interaction based on delivery accuracy; choosing between resource offers is made based on the cumulated rating about the offeror and the price of the offer.</p> <p>Within this paper, the aim is to investigate the resource sharing mechanism from the economic point of view based on an approach to the responsiveness of a supply chain structure to turbulence, to support decision-makers trying to cope with unexpected changes. For this purpose, here the mechanism is briefly introduced, and basic concepts about turbulences in supply chains are also presented. Cost types related to resource sharing manufacturing companies are distinguished, and the model is validated with agent-based simulation. A simulation experiment is performed to investigate the use-case of outsourced jobs having different price levels. Based on the experiment, it can be concluded that there is a price level limit in such a resource sharing federation, under which it is worth it to collaborate with partners by outsourcing certain jobs to them.</p> 2022-11-04T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Management Leadership and Governance The ‘Me-We-All’-Approach for a more Sustainable and Responsible World 2022-11-04T09:53:10+00:00 Emőke Takács Toon Abcouwer <p>It is a fact of life that the world changes. This constant change raises an important question about the role of managers, leaders and organisations in society. Society forms the context for human development. Society, or in a broader sense, the world we live, will always last longer than any individual or organisation. Striving for short-term individual welfare cannot be an objective in the long run. Introducing the ‘Me-We-All’-approach in this opinion paper, we highlight the need to find a balance between individuals and organisations within the ever-changing context of our society. We discuss the role of management and leadership in creating more sustainable organisations and a better world. We analyse the complex relationship between individuals (Me), organisations/communities/networks (We) and society (All). The volatile requirements harm clear objectives/strategies and finding a balance for different perspectives. These stakeholders’ different roles and positions show conflicts of interest, contradicting challenges in a dynamic playing field. Developments within and in the vicinity of organisations demand significantly more attention as they influence organisations with an immense or even disruptive effect on and by individuals. Finally, organisational interactions have emerging impacts on society. Dealing with developments on the three identified levels cannot be elucidated in a single and unified way. We are in the middle of a paradigm shift from a Me-We perspective to a We-All one with attention to sustainability and circularity on a physically finite planet.</p> 2022-11-04T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Management Leadership and Governance Development of a Change Request Template for ERP Systems to Increase Time-Efficiency 2022-07-10T12:41:42+00:00 Hannah Thiel Claudia Hess Carsten Skerra <p>Market environments are changing at an increasingly exponential rate. Technological breakthroughs, the internet, globalization, and the consequential emergence of highly volatile and competitive markets have made managing a company more and more complex. Enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems support the successful management of businesses in such conditions. As the needs and expectations of markets are changing, so are the requirements for ERP systems; new or altered requirements are implemented continuously.</p> <p>This paper explores how companies can become more time-efficient in their specification of change requests and whether methods from requirements engineering can be applied. In the practice of two sizeable German manufacturing companies, we observed that specifying change requests is time-consuming and inefficient. Sophisticated ERP systems are complex; thus, changes require a detailed description of requirements. In practice, the description often lacks information. This leads to reclarifications with the requestor, difficulties when assessing the expected benefits of change requests, and uncertainties concerning prioritization. Moreover, there is a risk of approval and development of changes that are not fully understood. Therefore, unwanted side effects harm the ERP system and require even more costly corrections later.</p> <p>The methods and procedures are taken from the design science research; we intended to develop an artefact that supports companies to become more time-efficient in the process of describing, evaluating and prioritizing change requests. We interviewed experts from a large automotive supplier and analyzed the data through content analysis. The research concluded that some methods from requirements engineering can be applied to this context, such as the usage of requirements specification templates, quality criteria, and categorization of requirements. The primary results of this research are an artefact in the form of a new change request template for the use case of changing ERP systems. This template was applied in the automotive supplier's change request practice, where we also gathered feedback on the artefact. The conclusions from data and results of the involved parties reported that the new template increases transparency on what information is required and serves as a foundation for rejecting change requests lacking descriptions. Implications for further research are to increase transparency and additional guidance that already has successfully brought the intended benefit of saving time in this process.</p> 2022-11-04T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Management Leadership and Governance Refining Employees' Engagement by incorporating Self-Directedness in Training and Work Environments 2022-09-10T06:38:10+00:00 Mary Viterouli Dimitrios Belias Athanasios Koustelios Nikolaos Tsigilis <p>Employee engagement constitutes a critical driver of business success in today's competitive marketplace, since it effectuates internal stimuli for action and reaction. Fostering engagement into one’s workforce is not a simple, one-dimensional task, but rather entails a multiplicity of factors and a conglomeration of approaches. The term ‘Employee Engagement’ relates to the level and breadth of an employee's commitment and connection to an organization and is influenced by a variety of factors such as organisational culture and communication schemata, managerial styles and leadership types, general policies and practices within the workplace. To this end, the aim of this paper is to&nbsp; introduce a strong connection between engagement and self-directedness by melding it with psychologically, educationally&nbsp; and strategically elaborated notions of facilitation (Knowles, 1975),&nbsp; self-actualization (Maslow, 1943) and autonomy (Lopes, Calapez and Lopes, 2015)&nbsp; along with operational tactics of learning and training that can address different mentalities and generations (Berkup, 2014).&nbsp; Employees need to be assisted in developing and evolving critical skills such as their self-directedness by means of empowerment. This study considers that empowerment and commitment can be achieved if management integrates self-directedness notions and principles into one’s training and work environment. A self-directed employee is a dynamic, self-reflective, mature and autonomous person that chooses to engage and remain engaged.&nbsp;&nbsp; Self-initiation can be displayed, communicated and instructed, since people are the making of social, cultural and discursive constructions (Lopez et al. 2015). Considering that self-directedness leads to improved personal agency and initiative, adaptability and employability in the labour market, and efficiency in terms of organisational performance, instilling it in employees translates to endorsing engagement &nbsp;into one’s personnel. That is why a detail literature review approach has been adopted for the research purpose highlighting significant works on self-directedness, empowerment and engagement. The data is collected from various databases, research articles, whitepapers, magazines, project works and the internet. This study contributes to extending literature on the relationship between self-directedness and engagement by addressing key practices and factors that attribute to fortifying their interrelation.&nbsp;</p> 2022-11-04T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Management Leadership and Governance Developing Business Model Competences in the Enterprise 2022-07-22T09:15:27+00:00 Ludmila Walaszczyk <p>Despite&nbsp;the COVID-19 pandemic, 2021 saw a growing interest&nbsp;in starting own business: as per the Census Bureau's Business Formation Statistics, the number of applications to form new businesses filed in the U.S. was the highest compared to any other year on record, reaching the total of 5.4 million (Economic Innovation Group, 2022), while in the EU, after an initial downward trend recorded in the first and second quarters of 2020, the number of new business registrations grew again in the third quarter of that year, and this upward trend continued throughout 2021 (Eurostat, 2022). Of course, as a result of Russia's invasion on Ukraine and related economic crisis, a downward tendency could be observed, but business registration levels in the EU in the first quarter of 2022 were still higher than during the pre-COVID 19 pandemic period (2015–2019) (Eurostat, 2022) and online searches indicating and intent to open a business spiked by 76% from 2018 to 2022 (Search Engine Journal, 2022). This shows that despite many external impediments, people are still tempted to start their own business, and&nbsp;many influencers, motivational speakers and coaches, as well as various popular TV shows broadcast worldwide (like the Apprentice, Dragons’ Den, Shark Tank or Planet of the Apps) encourage them to do so. Becoming an entrepreneur has become a goal many people, especially 20-, 30- and 40-year-olds, strive to achieve. However, many of those people fail to realise that the very entry in the business register does not automatically make them entrepreneurs or their business successful. Neither does a good (or even excellent and innovative) business idea that attracts customers, as it was in Kodak’s, Blockbuster’s, or Ask Jeeves’ case. What is required, is the ability to stay attractive to existing and prospective customers, i.e., the ability to win and retain customers, and to adapt to the changing demands, trends and economic conditions. All this can be achieved thanks to a meticulously designed and regularly reviewed and updated business model.</p> <p>The aim of this paper is to present and analyse the learning process of acquiring and building competences in the area of business models with the use of different innovative tools. The results presented and discussed in this article come from surveys as well as face-to-face and on-line meetings conducted in the ProBM 2 ERASMUS+ project <em>(Understanding and Developing Business Models in the Era of Globalisation)</em>, in which the total of 261 respondents from seven (7) European countries, i.e. Poland, Italy, Greece, Romania, Portugal, Malta, and Switzerland, took part between 2019 and 2022. From the meetings and surveys it follows that much more awareness of business models needs to be encouraged and developed, particularly as regards improving competences helping future business owners and their employees assess profitability and efficiency of their operations and ensure that the business will be a going concern.</p> 2022-11-04T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Management Leadership and Governance Compulsory Citizenship Behavior and Deviant Behavior: A Mediated Moderation Model 2022-11-04T10:00:34+00:00 Yu-Chen Wei <p>This study examined how and when compulsory citizenship behaviors (CCB) lead to employees’ workplace deviant behavior (WDB) through psychological entitlement. In addition, this study integrates moral licensing and equity demand perspectives to further understand the psychological entitlement raising process. More specifically, this study verifies the moderating role of leader-member exchange (LMX) on the relationship between CCB and WDB and see if the strong supervisor-subordinate relationship facilitates CCB-workers to increase their entitlement and enhance their willingness to engage in WDB. Based on a sample of 299 elementary school teachers, the results provided supports for the hypotheses. This study found that CCB was directly positive related to WDB. Psychological entitlement was been verified the mediator role of the relationship between CCB and WDB. Moreover, the results also indicated that LMX moderated the mediating effect of psychological entitlement on the relationship between CCB and WDB such that the effect is stronger when LMX is high than when it is low. The effect of CCB on WDB found in this research supports the anticipation that CCB may bring about WDB. Furthermore, by confirming the mediating role of psychological entitlement in the linkage between CCB and WDB, such a finding substantially widens the scope of subordinate behavioral outcomes caused by CCB to include an important but neglected aspect of psychological mechanism, and thus is helpful for us to gain a more complete picture of the negative consequences of CCB. By applying moral licensing theory and focusing on a negative psychological configuration, this research also highlights the self-value inflation and vindictive mentality for explaining the transition process of CCB to WDB. By empirically testing LMX as one moderated mediating mechanism that underlies the influence of CCB on WDB, this research establishes an important theoretical perspective for explaining why high LMX employees are more likely to exhibit WDB, thereby contributing to understanding the “black box” of the transforming processes from CCB to WDB.</p> 2022-11-04T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Management Leadership and Governance Universities of Applied Sciences’ Leadership Role in Regional Innovation Ecosystems 2022-07-18T08:09:52+00:00 Erkan Yalcin <p>The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development contains 17 Goals. Goal 9 concerns building resilient infrastructure, promoting inclusive and sustainable industrialization and fostering innovation. Hence, the development of innovation ecosystems in the European community plays an important role. This development is carried out at all levels of governance with an emphasis on the regional governance. The innovation ecosystem approach considers innovation a process that emerges from interaction among different types of companies and other organizations. One of the common success factors and actors in the innovation ecosystem consists of educational organizations that provide access to knowledge and creating knowledge infrastructure. However, the role of universities of applied sciences is not clear in empowering regional innovation ecosystems. In this conceptual paper, the role of universities of applied sciences in regional innovation ecosystems, is discussed. The research has been carried out by conducting an integrative literature review to identify themes, debates and gaps about the role of educational organizations using the Regional Innovation System model (RIS-model) and the system elements for diagnosing ecosystems. The outline of the paper shows that there is a great potential for universities of applied sciences in taking a leadership role in the regional innovation ecosystem due to their neutrality, practical-oriented accumulated knowledge, and expertise in relation to different stakeholder groups. This paper provides an overview of the key findings regarding the potential leadership role of universities of applied sciences in the regional innovation ecosystem for the management board of universities of applied sciences and regional policy makers. Thus, contributes to the formulation of regional innovation policies by including universities of applied sciences more clearly as active partners.</p> 2022-11-04T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Management Leadership and Governance Generation Z's expectations of their leaders: A cross-cultural, multi-dimensional investigation of leadership styles. 2022-09-25T06:48:39+00:00 Andreas Zehetner Daniela Zehetner Tetyana Lepeyko Tetyana Blyznyuk <p>Gen Z representatives from one Western and one Eastern European country were the subjects of an empirical study investigating leadership style preferences and effects of motivation and performance on leader preferences. Data from 131 Ukrainian and 157 Austrian Gen Z representatives were analyzed. Different dimensions of leadership were examined, including transactional/transformational leadership and production/employee/change orientation of leaders. The results show significant differences in expectations between cultures, and within different leadership styles. Generation Z representatives from collectivist cultures with high power distance, long-term orientation, and high uncertainty avoidance have higher expectations of their future leaders than those from individualistic countries with lower power distance, less long-term orientation, and low uncertainty avoidance. A higher level of work motivation leads to a higher relevance of transformational, transactional pecuniary, and transactional non-pecuniary leadership styles in a collectivist, uncertainty-avoiding country with high power distance (Ukraine), while there is no effect in an individualistic country with low uncertainty avoidance and low power distance (Austria). Also, higher levels of work motivation lead to more appreciation of employee / production / change orientation in Ukraine, but only to higher levels of employee orientation in Austria. High performers in Austria tend to accept transactional sanction-based leadership, while this is not the case in Ukraine. In general, generations that may be described as universally similar have different perceptions depending on the culture they grew up in. For business leaders, the study provides insights into Gen Z employees and their leadership expectations. Managers from different business sectors working with employees from different cultural backgrounds should be aware of their employees’ different expectations. Recruiters will eventually have a better understanding of which arguments regarding leadership their future employees prefer and can adjust their recruitment messages accordingly.</p> 2022-11-04T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Management Leadership and Governance Sustainability Leadership and Boards: A Conceptual Framework 2022-06-27T15:09:52+00:00 Sanja Zivkovic <p>Sustainability demands boards to be intrinsically motivated. Translating the sustainability agenda into measurable social and environmental outcomes implies a behavioral transformation on the individual, group, and organizational levels. Focusing only on regulatory requirements, ESG metrics, and corporate reputation does not lead to the genuine commitment of board members to enhance the organization’s sustainability. Embedding sustainability into the organization’s business model and strategy calls for the board’s commitment and impactful actions. Therefore, this study attempts to provide new insights on how boards could enhance their sustainability engagement and performance by developing and demonstrating specific leadership behaviors. For this purpose, a literature review has been conducted. To draw on the premises of stakeholder theory and selected leadership constructs, the method of theory synthesis was used. This study builds on and extends the existing leadership and corporate governance literature by providing a conceptual framework that links sustainability leadership and board dimensions: purpose and authenticity, power and responsibility, and process and transformation. It proposes the initial assessment questions for each dimension. The proposed conceptual and assessment frameworks offer practical implications for various stakeholders. Board members can use them as self-assessment and development tools that can enhance their sustainability engagement and leadership behaviors. Based on these frameworks, human resources management could define sustainability competencies to be considered in board recruitment, assessment, development, and succession. Leadership and organizational development specialists could also use these guidelines to design and implement sustainability leadership development programs. By offering a novel perspective that links sustainability efforts and leadership behaviors of boards, these research contributions could inspire organizations to move beyond compliance-oriented sustainability toward genuine sustainability. Future research could be directed at validating the proposed conceptual framework by conducting qualitative and quantitative studies to explore the board members’ perceptions and views on specific leadership behaviors in the context of the sustainability agenda.</p> 2022-11-04T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Management Leadership and Governance Failed Tech Deployment Initiatives: Is Poor IT Governance to Blame? 2022-07-31T09:10:16+00:00 Mehdi Asgarkhani <p>Information Technology (IT) solutions have become a critical enabling tool in businesses and communities. As a result, organisations invest heavily in technology solutions to transform businesses. Motivated by rapid technological advancements, there have been radical changes in IT infrastructure management, IT applications, and IT services delivery. The recent COVID-19 pandemic also encouraged the rapid adoption of technology solutions. However, despite numerous prescriptive models and ‘best practice frameworks’ available in the field, and an increased uptake of ITG in organisations, achieving key ITG outcomes is consistently ranked as one of the top concerns of management. After establishing a theoretical foundation for effective ITG practices (via literature review), this study begins a pilot examination to determine if tech deployment failure can be attributed to poor ITG.</p> 2022-11-04T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Management Leadership and Governance Building positive reputation and low risk for financial organizations, through Culture 2022-10-10T07:09:00+00:00 Roila Christakou <p>In a continuously changing world environment, following financial crisis, pandemic crisis, wars, environmental disasters, along with the changes in the once “static” banking sector per-se, given the expansion of digital currencies, online financial services, expansion digital offerings, the rise of open-banking, one should expect a substantial change to an organisation’s reputation.</p> <p>Risks are emerging from everywhere and have as a result the increased focus from investors and regulators on how culture is formed in financial institutions.</p> <p>At the same time, culture (a quite diverse term that we will try in this paper to define and place in the banking sector frame), is considered to be a critical factor for banks to be able to respond effectively to all the changes and build long-lasting positive reputation and success. The ability to leverage the compliance program and embed ethics, top-down, contributes also significantly.</p> <p>In this paper, we will try to define positive reputation for banks in this new era and set the grounds for the importance of understanding the need to manage or/and change Culture, along with aligning risks and people.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2022-11-04T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Management Leadership and Governance The Role of Machine Learning in Managing Uncertainty in Projects – A View on Early Warning Systems 2022-11-02T11:32:49+00:00 Anandasivakumar Ekambaram Pål Christian Vågbø Bjørn S. van der Leyen <p>Machine learning techniques deals with, among other things, pattern recognition in large amounts of data to identify trends and possible events in the future regarding a given topic of interest. Machine learning methods are useful for addressing challenges in and creating new benefits for organisations. This paper looks at how machine learning can contribute to manage projects effectively.</p> <p>Many organisations apply the concept of project. A part of them are purely project-based organisations, and a part of them carry out projects in addition to their mass-production activities and permanent operations. Within the realm of project management, this paper sets its focus on studying the role of machine learning in handling unexpected events and uncertainty in projects. One of the ways to deal with unexpected events and uncertainty is to capture early warning signs that can predict unexpected events.</p> <p>A major failure of projects can be seen as a combined effect of a series of small failures, negative results or problems that have occurred over a period of time. Project teams may not notice or just ignore early warning signs of these problems and choose to work further in the project. This could finally lead to a major failure, at which point no preventive actions could save the project from the major failure. Several researchers have researched on early warning signs and systems within the context of projects. Early warning signs can be seen as some kind of a pattern recognition from a pool of relevant data.</p> <p>This paper aims to answer the following two interrelated research questions: (1) What role does machine learning have in early warnings in projects? (2) How can machine learning contribute to effective project management (for example, handling uncertainty in projects)? This is a conceptual paper, based on literature study.</p> 2022-11-04T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Management Leadership and Governance What does ownership structure tell us about Integrated Reporting of Polish listed companies? 2022-08-30T21:44:59+00:00 Justyna Fijałkowska Dominika Hadro Łukasz Bryl Valerio Brescia Silvana Secinaro <p>This paper aims to link the quantity and quality of information disclosed in Integrated Reports of the Polish listed companies with their ownership structure, through which we explore the manifestation of governance mechanism. Our study investigates two main problems in the literature concerning factors and logical relations explaining companies' disclosure patterns in the information reported to stakeholders; the first concerns measures of the quantity and quality of disclosure, and the second is focused on the explanation of the relations. Our paper addresses both issues by proposing an application of advanced textual analysis tools to assess the quantity and quality of the information disclosed. Second, contrasting to the great majority of existing research-based almost exclusively on correlation methods with linearity assumptions, this study presents a practical implementation of the QCA tool to analyse how the ownership structure influences the company disclosure patterns. The results obtained in this study may be of great importance to the governance of companies, IR prepares and regulators.</p> 2022-11-04T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Management Leadership and Governance The Impact of Workers not Returning to the job Market 2022-11-03T17:25:01+00:00 Crystal Smith Bertrand Guillotin <p>The objective of this study is to understand the paradigm shift that unfolded during the “Great Resignation\Reshuffling” (2020-2022) within the minds of workers with respect to not re-engaging in the job market after the pandemic. In early 2022, according to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), there were approximately 11 million job openings and 6 million unemployed individuals. The convergence of these two data points indicates five million jobs with vacant seats. Therefore, we aim to answer this research question: What obstacles have workers encountered that have prohibited them from re-engaging in the job market after the pandemic within the framework of Maslow Hierarchy of Needs Theory? To investigate this question and the associated unprecedented phenomenon, an inductive qualitative research analysis was conducted to review and code archival data from three sources: Reddit posts, the U.S. government (BLS, White House, Federal Reserve) documents, and press articles. The content from more than 1,000 pages (31 posts and 45 articles) was systematically analysed through first and second cycle coding to extract themes that identify the factors being considered by individuals who have chosen to remain on the job market side lines. This article attempts to magnify the American worker’s voice in an environment where it could feel like “nobody is listening” (Shaw, 2000) The findings indicate that salary, stumbling blocks, steward of care, sense of worth and stress are the leading factors that may prohibit individuals from returning to work. To triangulate these findings, additional press articles, government documents and Reddit posts will be coded to increase the data set (second study). The research limitations include a review of only three document sources, a focus on one country alone (the United States) and only one social media platform. Therefore, it cannot be stated that this list is exhaustive. More research is needed to include other platforms and sources. Nonetheless, the findings could help organizations understand this paradigm shift and formulate recruitment and retention programs that address the factors and needs of employees in a post -pandemic work environment that remains full of uncertainty and disruptions.&nbsp;</p> 2022-11-04T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Management Leadership and Governance Emotional Intelligence and Performance in Social Economy Organisations: The Portuguese Experience 2022-11-17T15:02:01+00:00 Paula Loureiro Pedro Nunes Ângela Araújo <p>The present article aims to analyse emotional intelligence as an influence in the various dimensions of the organizational life, namely in the professional context it is possible to observe a diverse set of emotional situations, that seem to influence the work performance of the collaborators and organisations. An exploratory study with a qualitative approach was developed in the sector of social economy organisations (Private Social Solidarity Institutions at Viana do Castelo District, Portugal) that aimed to investigate the impact of the emotional intelligence of employees on the performance of social economy organisations. The interviews were conducted with the technical directors of the Residential Structures for the Elderly, whose sample was defined by convenience. The results showed the existence of a positive relationship between emotional intelligence and job performance, both from a technical and relational point of view, and suggest the existence of influence on the performance of the organisations themselves.</p> 2022-11-17T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Management Leadership and Governance Antecedents and outcomes of employee engagement in the hospitality sector: A non-western study 2022-11-09T13:10:15+00:00 Michel zaitouni Omar Moufakkir Mohamad OuakOuak <p>Both academics and practitioners increasingly emphasize employee engagement as a means to generate higher levels of job performance and organizational success. While the employee engagement literature is well established not much is known about employee engagement in the Arab region and engagement of the expatriate’s workforce living in these countries is non-existent despite their importance and disproportionate number compared to the local population. This paper focused on the antecedents of employee engagement of expats residing in Kuwait. It examined the relationship between employee engagement, service climate, co-worker support, and psychological capital. On the second level of analysis, we assessed the relationship between employee engagement and organizational citizenship behavior, employee engagement and quit intention. We also examined the extent to which job satisfaction is impacted by OCB.&nbsp; Results are based on 536 cases. Two software statistical packages (SPSS 25.0 and AMOS 24.0) are used for the analyses. The SEM results revealed that service climate, co-worker support, and psychological capital were positively related to employee engagement. Furthermore, we found that employee engagement has a positive relationship with OCB. However, employee engagement does not have any significant relationship with quit intention. Finally, the results showed that OCB is negatively associated with quit intention. Seven hypotheses were tested and subsequent managerial implications are provided. The theoretical and practical implications of these findings provide detailed and novel insights.</p> 2022-11-17T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Management Leadership and Governance