European Conference on Management Leadership and Governance <p>The International Conference on Information Warfare and Security has been run on an annual basis since 2005. Conference Proceedings have been published each year and authors have been encouraged to upload their papers to university repositories. In addition the proceedings are indexed by a number of indexing bodies.</p> <p>From 2022 the publishers have decided to make all conference proceedings fully open access. Individual papers and full proceedings can be accessed via this system.</p> <p><strong>PLEASE NOTE THAT IF YOU WISH TO SUBMIT A PAPER TO THIS CONFERENCE YOU SHOULD VISIT THE CONFERENCE WEBSITE AT<a href=""></a> THIS PORTAL IS FOR AUTHORS OF ACCEPTED PAPERS ONLY.</strong></p> ACIL en-US European Conference on Management Leadership and Governance 2048-903X Leadership in a military context: The case of the Dubai Police <p>Leadership is among the critical factors in any police force that helps them to achieve their goals. However, limited studies have focused on police leadership and those studies were conducted in western countries. Thus, this study aims to explore police leadership in a military context in non-western countries. Qualitative research methodology was used to achieve the aim of this study and to answer the research questions. Dubai Police which focuses on fostering human capital including leaders, was selected as a sample for military context. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with ten leaders working in the Dubai Police force who were asked about police leader conceptualisation, whether police leaders are born or made, what are the most important traits for police leaders and, finally, leadership development strategies in the police forces. NVivo Software (version 14) was used to analyze the data. The interviews have obtained the aim of the study and answered the research questions. The findings provided a more complete in-depth description of the leadership in a military context. The results showed that; 1) Police leadership conceptualization is defined as influencing others and also it is process. 2) Police leaders are born and made. 3) Strong communication skills, decision making and integrity were observed to be among the most important traits for police leaders. 4) Police leadership development strategies included formal education, training courses, experience and learning in practice. The study had extended police leadership literature, and confirmed the applicability of results of studies conducted in western countries on those of non- western ones that give priority to police leaders and focuses on achieving organizational strategic direction. Concerning practical contributions, this study serves as foundational research for other researchers who are interested in this field in a new regional context, especially in the Dubai Police.</p> <p> </p> Mardeya Alblooshi Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on Management Leadership and Governance 2023-11-16 2023-11-16 19 1 558 565 10.34190/ecmlg.19.1.1971 The Impact of CSR on the Financial Performance of Firms in Different Industries: An Example from the Financial Industry and the Healthcare Industry <p>This paper analyses the impact of corporate social responsibility (CSR) on corporate financial performance (CFP) in the financial and healthcare sectors in China, examining the annual financial data and ESG scores of a total of 124 companies between 2016 and 2021 and selecting ROA, corporate financial leverage, company size and board size as variables. A panel data regression was used to conduct an econometric analysis to examine the impact of social responsibility on corporate financial performance in the total industry, the financial industry and the healthcare industry, respectively. The empirical analysis of this study concluded that the effect of CSR on corporate financial performance has different results in different industries, the effect of CSR on CFP is significant and negative in the healthcare industry and insignificant in the financial industry.</p> <p>However, there are some limitations to this study. The study only considered the financial sector and the healthcare sector and was not able to include a number of other sectors for comparison. The study was also limited by the sample size of CSR in Chinese companies, which made the model less convincing, and the choice of variables also affected the results. However, these provide ideas and provide a pavement for future research.</p> Ioannis Gkliatis Epameinondas Katsikas Dimitrios Koufopoulos Zeci Chen Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on Management Leadership and Governance 2023-11-16 2023-11-16 19 1 566 576 10.34190/ecmlg.19.1.1967 The Impact of Leadership Style on Employee Wellbeing in Dubai Government Organizations <p>Leadership is identified as a critical element for the success of an organization. The present study examines the impact of leadership style on employee wellbeing in Dubai government organizations. The review shows that leaders use different leadership styles in order to achieve organizational goals. This research aims to shed light on how leadership style can impact on employee wellbeing. This empirical study used a qualitative approach to collect data from the participants by using semi-structured interviews with ten senior leaders from Dubai government organizations. Drawing from major themes identified in literature, questions were designed to identify impact of leadership style on employee wellbeing in Dubai government organizations. Nvivo software was also used to analyze the data. The results of this study indicate there is a significant relationship between leadership style and the wellbeing of employees. In addition, the results show that transformational leadership is one of the most effective styles, enhancing the quality of employee wellbeing in Dubai government organizations. The results provide support for the positive impact of this leadership style which implies that Dubai government organizations should train their managers to use transformational leadership style in order to enhance employee wellbeing. The results of the research reveal that there is a future plan to focus on developing transformational leadership style in order to improve the wellbeing of employees. In the end, the study concludes with several recommendations, including the need to conduct more studies and research with other countries similar to the United Arab Emirates and government sector institutions in other countries, with the aim of generalizing the achieved results.</p> Amira Kamali Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on Management Leadership and Governance 2023-11-16 2023-11-16 19 1 577 582 10.34190/ecmlg.19.1.1970 Mapping Military Leadership Competencies: A Systematic Literature Review <p>Leadership is a complex, dynamic phenomenon, shaped by the characteristics of the different actors involved and the relationships between them, making it a controversial and polysemic concept in the literature. In the military context, it has very specific characteristics that distinguish it and make it more demanding. For the Angolan Armed Forces (FAA), several reforms are underway, fundamentally in the field of staff training, in order to improve their performance in the exercise of their functions., The present study was driven by the following guiding question: “what military leadership competencies are described in the selected literature to be taken as a reference to the education and training of Angolan sub-officers?” For this, a systematic literature review on leadership competencies in the military context was conducted based on the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) method, divided into three phases: identification, screening, and inclusion. Studies were consulted on Scopus, Science Direct, SciELO and in the Open Access Scientific Repository of Portugal (RCAAP), published between January 2018 and April 2023, according to the selected inclusion and exclusion criteria. The evidences of this study highlights that military leadership competencies mobilise, integrate and transfer a range of knowledge, resources, skills and values that systematically operate to solving the problems of the military professional context, and points to three different approaches to military leadership competencies, that configure three models.</p> Felisberto Kiluange Fragoso da Costa José Carlos Dias Rouco Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on Management Leadership and Governance 2023-11-16 2023-11-16 19 1 583 592 10.34190/ecmlg.19.1.1966 Reassessing the Inhibiting Factors of Entrepreneurship Development in the SME Segment <p>While entrepreneurial barriers within the SME segment remain a germane issue not least, in the milieu that entrepreneurship and SME development contribute a hefty percentage to the global economy, especially in developing countries, little is to date known about barriers to entrepreneurship development and how to overcome it in the SMEs segment. Scholars suggest that knowing the factors that prevent entrepreneurship development is the bedrock of SMEs' growth and sustainability. However, the current study investigates the barriers to entrepreneurship development in the SME segment. The present study deployed articles from reputable scientific databases: Web of Science, Scopus, EHRIPLUS, EBSCO, Google Scholar, etc. to solicit information on the subject matter under discussion using the keywords search. Out of the numerous articles downloaded, thirty-five of them were used by the researchers to achieve the study objective. From the reviewed literature, it is therefore established that factors such as lack of risk-taking capacity, lack of a Strategic Plan, lack of managing finances, and inadequate market experience usually serve as hindrances to the growth and development of SMEs within the scope of developing countries.</p> John Amoah Rebecca Kukuwa Odoom Emmanuel Asiedu Yankey Paul Baidoo Benjamin Aidoo Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on Management Leadership and Governance 2023-11-20 2023-11-20 19 1 593 598 10.34190/ecmlg.19.1.1973 Creation of a method for the adoption of digital transformation for medium enterprises in the education business in Switzerland <p>The education sector, like most others, is currently experiencing a rapidly advancing digital transformation. Due to the current COVID-19 pandemic, this process is taking place faster than it would have without the virus. Currently, there are no methods that allow the affected educational institutions to quickly and efficiently implement the digital transformation. As a first step of this work, online research was conducted to determine the current state of digital transformation in the education sector in relation to the elaborated requirements. To identify differences between educational institutions of different sizes and to reach a specific analysis of the domain, the educational institutions were divided into different categories according to the number of their employees. A survey was then prepared and sent to all identified educational institutions for processing. The main goal of the survey was to reflect the current state of the educational institutions. Furthermore, the requirements as well as the efforts of the individual institutions in the area of digital transformation were of high interest. As a second step, based on the analysis of the survey, a method was created to support the educational institutions in the digital transformation, taking into account their current situation and their progress and status of digital transformation. For further research, a more detailed investigation of how the method works in practice could be conducted.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Mike Krey Jan Anderegg Pascal Burri Matthias Röthlin Armando Müller Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on Management Leadership and Governance 2023-11-13 2023-11-13 19 1 528 540 10.34190/ecmlg.19.1.1893 Digital Health Challenges in Social Entrepreneurship: <p>Ensuring dignified care for needy populations worldwide is a collective responsibility that transcends geographical and environmental conditions. Modern entrepreneurs and businesses should incorporate social responsibility into their core objectives and success plans, recognizing the influence of underprivileged communities on their operations. However, not all organizations possess the internal capacity to actively practice social responsibility due to factors such as business type or staff profile. Consequently, many companies support other institutions dedicated to social causes, viewing it as a business opportunity that can yield modest profits. This article presents a case study of, a small company that has devoted 14 years to technological innovation in digital health and has made significant contributions to public healthcare. Their initiatives have had a remarkable impact on the Amazon Rainforest's remote populations, including indigenous communities and river dwellers, facilitating hundreds of thousands of medical consultations annually. The case study aims to understand the main factors that drove's promoters to invest their knowledge in social innovation and how they are proactively building their future. Key aspects explored include the leadership profile of, ethical and sustainability concerns, transparency, and social responsibility. By analyzing these factors, the article highlights the importance of integrating social responsibility into business practices and the positive outcomes that can be achieved through technological innovation in addressing the healthcare needs of underprivileged populations.</p> Teresa Dieguez Leonardo Melo Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on Management Leadership and Governance 2023-11-13 2023-11-13 19 1 541 548 10.34190/ecmlg.19.1.1941 Inclusive Leadership for Employee Workplace Well-Being in Public Organizations <p>Various public organizations realize that promoting workplace well-being is crucial for the effectiveness of their employees. It is believed that when creating an environment where employees feel welcomed, are treated fairly, and their contributions are appreciated, they will be happy and work better. Therefore, diversity management has gained increased attention. However, since diversity does not necessarily mean inclusion in decision-making and the appreciation of employee differences and input, a growing body of research has advocated the adoption of positive relational leadership styles, such as inclusive leadership. Inclusive leadership embraces employee differences, manages diversity, and recognizes employee input. Hence this paper investigates how inclusive leadership correlates to employee workplace well-being in public organizations. Relying on quantitative analysis, a questionnaire was distributed to N= 234 Egyptian local government officials who demonstrated diversity in gender and educational levels. The data collected were analyzed using SPSS version 20. The study's conclusions reveal that inclusive leadership has an uneven influence on employee workplace well-being based on educational levels. The correlation was strongest among the least educated and weakest among the highly educated. Gender, on the other hand, did not show any significant difference in the correlation between inclusive leadership and workplace well-being and hence, was not considered for further analysis. Moreover, the traits of inclusive leadership have different effects on employee workplace well-being based on their educational levels. For the least educated, leadership accessibility had the greatest influence on employee workplace well-being, while for the highly educated, leadership openness had the strongest influence. In conclusion, this paper highlights the importance of inclusive leadership in promoting employee workplace well-being in public organizations, especially for marginalized groups who may feel excluded in the workplace. Additionally, public organizations should recognize that inclusive leadership practices should be tailored to meet the diverse needs of employees based on their educational levels.</p> Iman Ashmawy Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on Management Leadership and Governance 2023-11-13 2023-11-13 19 1 1 8 10.34190/ecmlg.19.1.1676 Sustainable leadership in practice in Hungary <p>'Sustainability' is one of the most widely used terms today. The practice of sustainability in organisations has been analysed from many perspectives, but fewer studies have focused on the role of leadership, specifically sustainability leadership. Sustainable leadership is not about altruism or charity work or just thinking 'green'. Sustainable leadership makes organisations more competitive, more resilient, faster, more responsive and more attractive to customers. It helps attract talented employees and makes businesses more attractive to investors. Ensuring these conditions is a major management challenge. The aim of this research is to assess the extent to which Hungarian managers are prepared to meet the requirements of sustainable management. The research model, the pyramid of sustainable leadership is based on the belief that leaders should pay attention to social and environmental issues and encourage organisational learning and development. The sustainable leadership pyramid details the three pillars of social, environmental and economic sustainability. These pillars must be balanced to ensure sustainable management. Learning and development form the basis of the pyramid, and social and environmental responsibility and economic performance build on this. The research is based on interviews with 32 top managers of SMEs, using the elements of Avery and Bergsteiner's sustainable management pyramid as the basis for the interview questions. The structured interviews took the form of face-to-face discussions. The questions addressed all elements of the pyramid. Audio recordings of the recorded interviews were transcribed and analysed using the Atlas 8 software. The results show that the elements of the pyramid as elements of expectations for sustainable leadership are only partially reflected in management practice. The most significant gap is in the implementation of the elements of the pyramid presenting the steps of the knowledge management process. The Honeybee philosophy as a contribution to the competitive advantage of organisations is only partially implemented, and overcoming the gaps is a major challenge. The research provides a new approach to sustainable management expectations and valuable lessons for SME managers. Future research will aim to expand the sample for international comparison.</p> Andrea Bencsik Szilard Berke Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on Management Leadership and Governance 2023-11-13 2023-11-13 19 1 9 19 10.34190/ecmlg.19.1.1544 How are Educators Taking the Next Steps in Leadership and Entrepreneurship <p><strong>ABSTRACT</strong></p> <p>How are educators taking the next steps in leadership and entrepreneurship teaching concepts?</p> <p>In recent years the development of leadership as a concept has taken different meanings in the educational field. The following paper will explain some practical approaches on how this concept it’s been addressed in the classroom and outside in a different environment, as well as the settings of these courses to better equip the students with full understanding on a particular subject.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Entrepreneurship has step up its game in fields that we were not used to see before. These entrepreneurial activities are directly linked with the leadership approach of an organization, start up, or school. Hence the importance of how to dive in into full understanding and delivery of the subject, not only through previous theories and proven concepts in particular organizations, but by the students putting themselves in a position of action, so that they can put in practice the knowledge applied.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>The author will examine responses of the students in entrepreneurship and leadership courses, from a University in China, from different majors, where cultural variables may be applicable as well. The study will have a qualitative approach, which will shed some light in the current practices from students and academics approach to the delivery of these subjects, and how to create a better learning environment incorporating theory and action plan, considering their major program and path in their own school curriculum.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>This paper aims to develop some understanding of innovative forms and approaches applied in Education, through the way of delivery some of the most important courses like Leadership and Entrepreneurship, since these courses could ultimately be applied to every sector of an industry.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong><em>Keywords: Leadership, Education, Entrepreneurship, Management, Studies, University, Approaches</em></strong></p> Antonio Benitez Garcia Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on Management Leadership and Governance 2023-11-13 2023-11-13 19 1 20 26 10.34190/ecmlg.19.1.1819 Exploring the Influence of Cultural Intelligence on the Cross-Cultural Adaptation of Chinese Expatriate Workers: A Phenomenological Analysis <p><em>This study delves into the experiences of a small section of Chinese expatriate workers in the UAE, investigating the roles of Guanxi and cultural acclimatisation as critical adjustment factors. Using a phenomenological technique, we explore the influence of cultural intelligence on the cross-cultural adaptation of workers in the construction sector. As part of a more extensive study, the initial findings suggest that Chinese migrants resort to reconnecting with their families back home to mitigate the linguistic and cultural challenges faced whilst abroad. At the same time, feelings of isolation and loneliness were dealt with through recreational activities and building social capital. </em></p> Vic Benuyenah (PhD) Mona Mustafa Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on Management Leadership and Governance 2023-11-13 2023-11-13 19 1 27 34 10.34190/ecmlg.19.1.1953 Leadership: impact on the satisfaction of Public Administration workers in Portugal <p>The purpose of this work is to evaluate the role of leadership in the local public administration workers' satisfaction level. This is a study case carried out with workers from the Municipality of Penafiel. A questionnaire was made, based on the European framework model of self-assessment CAF (Common Assessment Framework). With a total of 72 questions, supported by a Likert scale, we were able to get a final sample of 407 valid answers, out of 665 employees. Data indicates the existence of a positive and statistically significant correlation between leadership and motivation, involvement, and workers' participation. It was also possible to see the impact of leadership on the workers' perception of justice, equal opportunities, rewards and career development.</p> Manuel Sousa Pereira Carlos Pinto Bessa Sílvia Faria Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on Management Leadership and Governance 2023-11-13 2023-11-13 19 1 35 45 10.34190/ecmlg.19.1.1704 Understanding the Motivation of Young Adults to Enlist and Pursue Military Leadership Studies to Become Professional Soldiers <p>Since the beginning of 2005, conscription service in the Czech Republic ended, leading to the full professionalization of the Czech Armed Forces. Consequently, a career soldier system has been established. The purpose of this article is to identify the factors that motivated young adults, reflecting the specifics of the military profession, to join the army, as well as the factors that motivated them to apply to the Faculty of Military Leadership at the University of Defence for military studies. Data was collected through a semi-structured questionnaire completed by 179 respondents who were first-year military students at the University of Defence. This institution is the only military higher education establishment within the Czech Armed Forces, offering students comprehensive knowledge in the field of command and control. The questionnaire included both open-ended and closed-ended questions. In addition to their motivations, respondents also provided insights on how the Russia-Ukraine conflict influenced their decision to enlist in the army, as well as who supported or discouraged them from doing so. The results indicate that career growth, adventurous activities, job security, physical readiness, fieldwork, and interpersonal relations were among the most influential factors for the respondents. The majority of respondents agreed that the current security situation in the world supported their decision to become a soldier and strengthened their desire to defend their homeland. Parents, extended family, partners, and friends were the primary sources of support in their decision-making process. Just like any other employer, volunteer forces are seeking their own positions and competitive advantages in the labor market. Therefore, it is important for the defense sector to understand the motivations of future commanders to join and remain in the armed forces.</p> Kristýna Binková Eva Štěpánková Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on Management Leadership and Governance 2023-11-13 2023-11-13 19 1 45 54 10.34190/ecmlg.19.1.1901 The Great Resignation and Intrapreneurship as a strategy to attract and retain staff in services <p>Many employees from the Millennials and Gen Z cohorts are abandoning the hotel industry after COVID-19. The dissatisfaction of hotel workers with their working conditions has accelerated the Great Resignation, a term used to refer to the higher-than-normal quit rate in an industry. Consequently, the number of unfilled jobs is high, and attraction and retention have become a strategic concern for the hotel industry. Considering that Millennials and Gen Z are entrepreneurial-oriented, in this paper, we study how intrapreneurship, an approach that encourages employees to develop innovative ideas and solutions within a company, is one of the ways hotel companies attract qualified people. The study is qualitative, and data was collected through the recruitment sites of the leading hotel companies worldwide since these websites provide distinct information to potential job candidates beyond the available job descriptions. The hotel industry is highly competitive, with several brands, each with unique characteristics. However, they depend on their employees to materialise their brand's promises. To ensure personal-organisational fit, companies should give the right signals when presenting to potential candidates so that they may decide when receiving and interpreting these signals if they fit the organisation and are aligned with what that company offers and demands. Findings enhance our comprehension of the use by large hotel companies of employees' preference for behaving intrapreneurially as a strategy to attract and retain qualified staff. Results may also guide human resources practices in hotel companies and other service industries that seek to attract and retain talented professionals in an intensely competitive market. In addition, the results may serve as a basis for future studies on intrapreneurship in service companies. In an era when service companies struggle to attract and retain workers, this paper highlights how intrapreneurship may be a solution with a double benefit – staff attraction/retention and innovation. Although the study focuses on hospitality, the contribution is relevant to most services.</p> Maria Calisto Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on Management Leadership and Governance 2023-11-13 2023-11-13 19 1 55 62 10.34190/ecmlg.19.1.1938 Transformational Leadership fostering Open Innovation: A Dynamic Capabilities Perspective <p>Drawing upon dynamic capability theory, this research examines the role of transformational leadership in fostering open innovation in an emerging economy context in Southeastern Europe. Foremost, the study endeavours to tackle a noteworthy limitation, namely the nascent state of open innovation in the current body of literature pertaining to small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Using a quantitative survey, we gathered information from 154 Albanian SMEs respondents. Data was analysed using PLS-SEM on the SmartPLS 4.0 version. The results show transformational leadership has a significant relationship with developmental culture and open innovation. In addition, we found that developmental culture mediates the relation between transformational leadership and open innovation. This research provides important practical implications for policymakers, leaders and industry practitioners to develop new business models for innovation diffusion. It requires shifting the focus from traditional innovation approaches towards new solutions to ensure collaboration and knowledge exchange. Existing researchers have highlighted transformational leadership with open innovation in the Western context. However, open innovation is less explored in Southeastern Europe specifically in SMEs which is an important context to unravel the useful insights. Significantly, open innovation became enabler of value creation, improved competitiveness and economic growth.</p> Elona Cera Zuhair Abbas Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on Management Leadership and Governance 2023-11-13 2023-11-13 19 1 63 71 10.34190/ecmlg.19.1.1583 Factors Influencing the Human Talent Recruitment Process in Private Companies: A Systematic Review <p>Over time, organizations have made important changes with respect to the perspectives of human capital management, going from being a resource that is easy to replace to a resource with a sustainable vision in the company. Changing situations and technological advances have allowed organizations to give due importance to human participation, since it is a resource that, through its activities, makes the achievement of objectives possible. Therefore, organizations consider that the recruitment process must go through more demanding filters where the productive factors possessed by human talent are reliably captured. The present review has been submitted to databases such as: Dialnet, Redalyc, Scielo and Scopus, obtaining 25 articles, Redalyc had a greater contribution with 48% and the countries with greater implication for the study were Ecuador and Peru with 24%, the methodological design with greater use in the literatures was quantitative with 48% and the most used instrument was the questionnaire with 52%. Likewise, to detail the search procedure, the PRISMA 2020 diagram was used, and from a total of 3411 articles, a total of 2857 was excluded between non-retrieved and ineligible reports, arriving later under a final filter to a total of 25 articles. In conclusion, the results showed that the most influential factors in the recruitment process were education; where relevance is given to knowledge and professional and specialized training for effective decision making around their functions; on the other hand, work experience that links the technical and practical aspect of the collaborator who seeks efficiency in the processes; finally, the psychological traits that reflect the emotional balance and management of pressure situations and soft skills that affect productivity and performance. This research contributes to future researchers to identify the most used parameters in human recruitment processes for success and consistency in business decision making.</p> Cinthya Liliana Chalco-Chávez Gisela Analy Fernandez-Hurtado Franklin Cordova-Buiza Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on Management Leadership and Governance 2023-11-13 2023-11-13 19 1 72 79 10.34190/ecmlg.19.1.1796 Attitudes of Managers towards Ethical Programs in Slovakia <p>In the modern world, ethical programs have high importance regarding the ethical behavior of companies. Developing and maintaining the corporate ethical culture and reputation is the responsibility of top managers. The current paper aims to reveal the main characteristics of employees influencing their attitude towards selected elements of the ethical program that are considered the most suitable for supporting the ethical behavior of managers, as well as to identify the components of the ethical program with less impact on ethical behavior of managers. The study applied the questionnaire survey method for quantitative data collection in the selected Slovak company. The results show that a code of ethics is an essential part of an ethical program and is crucial for companies. Moreover, although employees’ attitudes towards selected elements regarding ethical behavior are positive, only the attitude to employee care is dependent on the position of respondents in the company. We concluded about employees considering training, employee care, conflict of interest monitoring and transparency in stakeholder relations as the most influential components of the ethical program.</p> Simona Cincalova Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on Management Leadership and Governance 2023-11-13 2023-11-13 19 1 80 88 10.34190/ecmlg.19.1.1789 Digital Τransformation in Family Businesses: A Systematic Literature Review and Research Agenda <p>Digital transformation has become a necessity for many organizations, including family firms. Understanding the role and impact of digital transformation is crucial to guarantee family firms' survival and long-term prosperity in an uncertain and constantly developing environment. This study aims to synthesize the limited existing body of knowledge on digital transformation in family firms and identify future research directions. We employed a systematic literature review to address the goals and identified 30 relevant peer-reviewed papers published between 2019 and 2023. The limited number of existing family firm studies indicates the nascent state of research in this area and highlights the increasing research need in the rapidly expanding and evolving field of digital transformation and digitalization. The studies identify and provide insights into the drivers, challenges, strategies, and outcomes of the digital transformation process in family firms. Moreover, the review highlights challenges family firms face during digital transformation, such as the development, activation, or reconfiguration of new and existing capabilities and the deployment of resources by the family. Based on the findings, this systematic literature review identifies several promising avenues for future research. Within the particularities of the family business context, these include the role of family influence, possible antecedents to the process, enablers and barriers, explanatory mechanisms, and performance outcomes and implications. Although the number of identified studies is relatively limited, this review contributes to the literature by consolidating the current knowledge on digital transformation in family firms and highlighting areas for further investigation. Practitioners and policymakers can draw insights from this review to inform their decision-making processes regarding digital transformation strategies for family firms. Researchers are encouraged to address the identified research directions to advance our understanding of issues related to digital transformation in family firms and pave the way for future theoretical and practical advancements.</p> Efthymios Daskalopoulos Ondřej Machek Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on Management Leadership and Governance 2023-11-13 2023-11-13 19 1 89 95 10.34190/ecmlg.19.1.1740 Can Teal practices increase employees’ work engagement? <p>Because engaged employees work with passion, in deep connection with their company and are innovative, they may drive their organization’s performance. Teal organizations, which implement original and inspiring ways of working, appear particularly favourable to create and support engagement in the long run. The aim of this paper is twofold: first, to study engagement drivers and barriers among many organizational dimensions, and secondly to characterize Teal Organization through their practices. We also hypothesize that Teal practices may drive employees’ engagement. To this aim, we built a questionnaire and performed a cross-industry survey in France. The survey included a standardized measure of engagement, an assessment of organizational structure, management, leadership styles and social climate based on scholarly literature, and a series of questions dealing with Teal practices that we designed. The sample was composed of 767 respondents on behalf of their company. Using multiple regression analysis, we observe that engagement is predicted by social openness of the company and by organizational trust. Teal practices aggregate in a statistically reliable manner into a construct that we call Teal index. If Teal index is not a direct predictor of engagement, it appears to contribute to predicting trust, which itself predicts engagement. These results are insightful in many ways: they highlight trust as a key factor of engagement, offer a first overview of the adoption of Teal practices among French companies and open up avenues for capturing Teal philosophy beyond observable and measurable practices in everyday corporate life. These findings are discussed with an evolutionary viewpoint to better understand current and future transformation of organizations.</p> Muriel Davies Stéphanie Buisine Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on Management Leadership and Governance 2023-11-13 2023-11-13 19 1 96 105 10.34190/ecmlg.19.1.1662 Empowering Changemakers <p>Social entrepreneurship is a powerful driver of positive change, allowing individuals to address social and environmental issues through innovative and sustainable business models. This approach requires a deep understanding of social challenges, strong business expertise, and collaboration to achieve common goals. Transversal skills like critical thinking, communication, teamwork, and problem-solving are essential and applicable across various industries and roles. By embracing digital transformation, social entrepreneurship can be further amplified, enabling the creation of new products, streamlined operations, and expanded outreach to diverse audiences. Staying well-informed about digital tools and technologies is vital for social entrepreneurs to effectively achieve their impact goals. This study focuses on evaluating students' perceptions of the relevance of their current training in acquiring skills sought after in the market, particularly in the context of social entrepreneurship. It also seeks to understand students' expectations for their professional future. Conducted at the Polytechnic Institute of Cávado and Ave in Portugal, the research utilized two questionnaires based on 21st-century competencies and the Profile of the Social Entrepreneur to collect data. The results of this empirical study hold significant potential for enhancing Higher Education. Identifying areas for improvement, such as curriculum redesign and innovative teaching approaches, can better equip students to address future challenges sustainably and responsibly. In an era of expanding digital transformation, it becomes increasingly vital to equip students with relevant skills and knowledge, enabling them to shape a better world through social entrepreneurship.</p> Teresa Dieguez Paula Loureiro Isabel Ferreira Mário Basto Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on Management Leadership and Governance 2023-11-13 2023-11-13 19 1 106 113 10.34190/ecmlg.19.1.1844 Exploring Team Role Typologies and Taxonomies <p>The field of team role typologies and taxonomies is characterized by a lack of conceptual clarity and dominance of a single primary source. This study aims to shed light on the relationships between authors of team role typologies/taxonomies by conducting a systematic literature analysis. The focus is on analyzing authors listed in articles specifically addressing team roles. The resulting analysis provides a list of authors of typologies or taxonomies of team roles as a preparation for further phases of our research.&nbsp;The methodology employed involves a literature review. The selection of articles was based on the Scopus database, with additional searches conducted on publisher websites and ResearchGate to ensure comprehensive coverage. Advanced lexical search software facilitated the identification of authors associated with typologies and taxonomies. The study presents a waypoint list of probably relevant authors for further analysis. Furthermore, the potential of AI tools in literature review and the use of applications for creating schematic maps based on bibliographic records are discussed, with a promise of further investigation in future studies.&nbsp;Overall, this study provides a comprehensive summary of authors involved in the development of team role typologies and taxonomies, providing a foundation for future research to validate and expand upon the identified author relationships. It emphasizes the need to explore the diverse approaches in this field, while also recognizing the significant influence of seminal figures such as M. Belbin. By unraveling the complexities of author relationships, this study paves the way for deeper insights into team dynamics and roles within organizations.</p> Vít Dočekal Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on Management Leadership and Governance 2023-11-13 2023-11-13 19 1 114 120 10.34190/ecmlg.19.1.1606 The Effectiveness of Governance Through Fiscal Policy Management in South Africa <p>Fiscal Policy is an important instrument for managerial decision-making. Many countries in Africa have adopted this policy to ignite socio-economic development. In South Africa (SA), several fiscal policy strategies have been adopted and implemented since the country's transition to democracy in 1994 with the aim of stimulating economic growth. Fiscal Policy is the utmost significant tool of economic management that is used by government to achieve the growth of economic activities. It is a vital measure of economic policy that achieves the foremost objective of managing economic growth, accomplishing complete employment, preserving the stability of price, settlement of economic balance and attaining societal integrity. The objective of this paper revealed a positive relationship between fiscal policy and managerial decision making in South Africa. In addition, the findings suggests that government spending has proven unsustainable, and continued spending on some of these policies may exacerbate the country's economic situation, given the fact that its expenditure is largely dependent on income tax. Based on the findings, this paper recommends that, for the SA economy to perform better, resources should be diverted from government consumption (thereby reducing funding for some of the current fiscal policies) to investment spending (e.g., job creation, poverty alleviation and promotion of long-term economic growth through infrastructure development).</p> Emmanuel Innocents Edoun Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on Management Leadership and Governance 2023-11-13 2023-11-13 19 1 121 124 10.34190/ecmlg.19.1.1958 Organisational competencies: The Essence of Emerging Resilience <p>This paper investigates organisational resilience as an emergent property arising from the interactions of specific organisational competencies. Drawing on the principles of emergence and the Resource-Based View (RBV) theory, the study aims to support Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) by identifying the competencies that contribute to resilience; and defining how these competencies should interact for an organisation to be considered resilient. The paper outlines the process for consolidating an organisational resilience framework based on the ISO 22316 and BS 65000 international standards, as well as on the resilience cycle defined by the Fraunhofer institute. The methodology employed in this study includes a review of the relevant literature on organisational resilience, systems thinking, and the RBV theory. Additionally, the paper provides an analysis of the relationships between the three pillars of the framework, as well as the identification and merging of activities and abilities from both the ISO 22316 and BS 65000 standards. The study then identifies the organisational competencies required to acquire the abilities and execute the activities present in the organisational resilience framework. It also classifies the identified competencies into a competence atlas based on Erpenbeck’s competence atlas but adapted to organisational competencies. The methodology applied in this work supports SMEs by defining a process for: identifying organisational competencies; and, defining their interactions to achieve desirable properties at the organisational level, while offering significant insights for the strategic planning process of organisations. Furthermore, it aims to raise awareness on the importance of carefully analysing the interactions among organisational assets in complex operational scenarios. Finally, the findings obtained, provide organisations with a set of organisational competencies, classified into a competence atlas, which enables them to become resilient in accordance with a resilience framework based on internationally recognized standards.</p> Oroitz Elgezabal Kristina Mirchuk Katrin Singer-Coudoux Maria Kretschmer Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on Management Leadership and Governance 2023-11-13 2023-11-13 19 1 125 135 10.34190/ecmlg.19.1.1859 Public Administration Leadership and Public Policies <p>This is a study of Portuguese central public administration addressing leadership typology, using the Full Range Leadership (FRL) model to better understand the leadership effectiveness process (Bass &amp;amp; Avolio, 1994). The study examines of the impact of training, professional experience, and organizational context on managers performance as well as predominant leadership styles. A total of 422 participants in the Portuguese state central public administration responded to this quantitate research.<br>The results indicate that the perception of leadership style differs significantly between leaders and followers, as does the perception of evaluation. Regarding the organization where they work, significant differences were found in the perception of transformational leadership, contingent rewards, laissez-faire, recruitment, training, and evaluation. The association between leadership style and public policies is significant, and this relationship is moderated by whether the participant holds a managerial position. This study tells us what type of leadership is predominant in public administration and its association with<br>public policies.</p> Elisabete Fialho Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on Management Leadership and Governance 2023-11-13 2023-11-13 19 1 136 146 10.34190/ecmlg.19.1.1937 Neurofinance: Exploratory Analysis Stock Trader's Decision-Making Process by Real-Time Monitoring of Emotional Reactions <p>Human emotions can be associated with decision-making, and emotions can generate behaviors. Due to the fact that it could be biased and exhaustively complex to examine how human beings make choices, it is necessary to consider relevant groups of study, such as stock traders and non-traders in finance. This work aims to analyze the connection between emotions and the decision-making process of investors and non-investors submitted to the same set of stimuli to understand how emotional arousal might dictate the decision process. Neuroscience monitoring tools such as Real-Time Facial Expression Analysis (AFFDEX), Eye-Tracking, and Galvanic Skin Response (GSR) were adopted to monitor the related experiments of this paper and its accompanying analysis process. Thirty-seven participants attended the study, 24 were classified as stock traders, and 13 were non-traders; the mean age for the groups was 35 and 25, respectively. The designed experiment initially disclosed a thought-provoking result between the two groups under the certainty and risk-seeking prospect theory; there were more risk-takers among non-investors at 75%, while investors were inclined toward certainty at 79.17%. The implication could be that the non-investing individuals were less complex in thought and therefore pursued higher returns besides a high probability of losing the game. In addition, the automatic emotion classification system indicates that when non-investors confronted a stock trending chart beyond their acquaintance or knowledge, they were psychologically exposed to fear, anger, sadness, and surprise.&nbsp;On the contrary, investors were detected with disgust, joy, contempt, engagement, sadness, and surprise, where sadness and surprise overlapped in both parties. Under time pressure conditions, 54.05% of investors or non-investors tend to make decisions after the peak(s) of emotional arousal. Variations were found in the deciding points of the slopes: 2.70% were decided right after the peak(s), 37.84% waited until the emotions turned stable, and 13.51% were determined as the emotional indicators started to slide downwards. Several combinations of emotional responses were associated with decisions. For example, negative emotions could induce passive decision-making, in this case, to sell the stock; nevertheless, it was also examined that as the slope slipped downwards to a particular horizontal point, the individuals became more optimistic and selected the "BUY" option. Future works may consider expanding the study to larger sample size, different demographic groups, and other biometrics for further analysis and conclusions.</p> Hsin-Tzu Hsu João Alexandre Lobo Marques Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on Management Leadership and Governance 2023-11-13 2023-11-13 19 1 147 155 10.34190/ecmlg.19.1.1692 Navigating Global Markets: The Strategic Role of Roadmaps in International Market Expansion <p style="font-weight: 400;">The potential of adopting roadmaps to support internationalisation strategy is critical to organisations yet it has limited development. The process of introducing products into foreign markets poses considerable challenges due to the presence of numerous uncertainties and assumptions during market selection. Limited research has been conducted on the utilisation of roadmaps specifically for international markets. While scholars have explored roadmaps in various contexts and offered diverse methodologies for their implementation; there is a shortage of literature addressing the process of market expansion. Consequently, there exists limited guidance on the use of a visual, strategic, and collaborative tool to assist companies in developing an internationalisation strategy.</p> <p style="font-weight: 400;">A qualitative based interview approach was taken where seven interviews were conducted with industry professionals and experts in roadmapping. The aim was to gain experts' insight into the purpose and role of roadmaps during market expansion. The findings show that roadmaps serve varying roles during the process of market expansion but ultimately entail a strategic narrative. All the participants listed different benefits the roadmap had during their market expansion journey illustrating that the multifaceted role of a roadmap links to different elements of market expansion. Therefore, roadmaps should advance the current advice on market analysis and strategy. The paper offers a roadmap tool which is a non- prescriptive guide with prompts to aid in product launch and help with consistency against strategic goals to industry professionals.&nbsp;</p> Urooba Jaami Abdul-Hadi G. Abulrub Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on Management Leadership and Governance 2023-11-13 2023-11-13 19 1 156 163 10.34190/ecmlg.19.1.1878 Governance in family firms: how to ensure continuity <p>Family firms play a key role in the world economy, yet their success is often plagued by family-related issues and conflict. Succession is one of the most critical hurdles they face. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate how specific governance instruments, such as the family protocol, can aid mitigate the conflicts by establishing a set of guidelines and procedures to aid govern the operation, management and continuity of family firms. To study the underlying strategic decision making process of the multiple stakeholders involved, this paper resorts to game theory. The results will provide valuable determinants of the family protocol which may aid smooth managerial transfer in the family firm and uphold harmony in the family setting.</p> Shital Jayantitlal Sílvia F. Jorge Paulo Alcarva Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on Management Leadership and Governance 2023-11-13 2023-11-13 19 1 164 170 10.34190/ecmlg.19.1.1668 Crowdfunding as Entrepreneurial Funding for Investigative Journalism in Portugal <p>The 2007 financial and economic subprime crisis arising from the collapse of the Lehman Brothers Bank in the USA had severe impacts on all the economic sectors. Journalism in Portugal was highly affected, and the most remarkable impacts led to editorial budget cuts. These cuts led to a drastic decrease in human resources in newsrooms, leading to a consequent breach of investigative journalism. These aspects resulted in a surge in unemployment for many experienced journalists, a decrease in the quality of information, and the consequent impoverishment and reduction of research journalism, with losses for the entire Portuguese society. Considering this context there is the need to explore alternative sources of funding for research journalism. Crowdfunding has been portrayed as an alternative to traditional models of financing research journalism, capable of generating a new dynamic, to provide for a more skilled and informed society. The main goal of this paper is to analyze crowdfunding as a tool to fund Portuguese investigative journalism. The methods include a narrative literature review on the causes, impacts, and consequences of the decrease in Portuguese investigative journalism and a case study methodology focused on the Portuguese platform of journalism crowdfunding ‘I Fund News’. In addition, qualitative research was applied to analyze the curricula of Portuguese journalism degrees with minors in entrepreneurship, business, and economics. The results show that the number of ECTS courses in entrepreneurship, business, and economics in journalism and communication degrees is very low in the Portuguese higher education sector. A relationship between entrepreneurship, business, economics, and the capacity for journalists to readapt and find the necessary funding sources is established. These results may be of interest to Portuguese police makers and higher education stakeholders, to promote the development of study programs with increased entrepreneurship, business, and economics courses. More literate journalists in the referred subjects may enhance their entrepreneurial potential and, consequently, their freelance potential to develop investigative journalism projects.</p> Natacha Jesus-Silva Maria Dos-Santos Nuno Baptista Fernando Mata Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on Management Leadership and Governance 2023-11-13 2023-11-13 19 1 171 179 10.34190/ecmlg.19.1.1921 Intelligent Behaviour Analytics: A Novel Framework for Effective Leadership Style Transitioning <p>The last three decades saw a reliance on the use of personality tests by businesses and organisations trying to gain a competitive advantage in the market through avenues such as recruitment, team building, leadership development and culture alignment. The commissioning of early 20<sup>th</sup> Century personality models such as DISC and Myers-Briggs are claimed to provide valuable insights and benefits in various aspects of the employment process. They have however been controversially debated in the academic community due to issues surrounding validity and reliability. Discussions concerning leadership styles and leaders responsible for managing employees, are similarly indeterminate despite being subject to extensive research and analysis for many decades. Academics have yet to provide a comprehensive explanation of the holistic mechanisms underlying effective leadership. Instead, they have argued over factors such as a leader’s traits, attributes, power relations or unidimensional versus collaborative models of engaging a work force. Current leadership theory literature demonstrates a paucity of leader self-understanding and self-reflection. We consider these two attributes as fundamental qualities of effective leadership, whereby an individual can transform and enhance their use of any leadership style. In this paper, we propose an advanced 21<sup>st</sup> Century solution that leverages the Intelligent Behaviour Analytics (IBA) framework, incorporating a deep and more effective understanding of leaders and their ability to transition between different leadership styles. Additionally, this framework offers methods for transitioning to more effective leadership styles based on situational requirements and takes into account a leader’s own emotional and behavioural registers. This approach offers a structured opportunity for leaders to identify any biases, understand the reasons that these may develop and furthermore, evaluate the efficacy of their own behavioural traits and the way they, as individuals interact, manage and lead a team. The IBA framework is a multi-stage, holistic approach that proposes to improve performance metrics, organisational culture, business outcomes and increased wellbeing.</p> Stephen Johnson Adam Crizzle Katharine Lam Louise Toner Ryan Marcovich Paul Coulter Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on Management Leadership and Governance 2023-11-13 2023-11-13 19 1 180 185 10.34190/ecmlg.19.1.1918 Assessing the State of Corporate Digital Transformation: Results and Implications From a Global Survey <p>Digitalization has a significant impact on value-creating organizations of all sectors. New business models and processes are becoming established, the development of products and services is changing as well as the interaction with customers, partners and suppliers. As these changes create new requirements for companies, they need to reorient and adapt to them. To structure the topic of corporate digital transformation with its many individual elements, which can either be digitized and networked/integrated or create the conditions for the digital transformation of further elements, a reference framework has been developed that covers the essential value creation elements of a company in the context of digital transformation. Based on this framework, a self-assessment tool (‘Digital Transformation Assessment (DTA)’) was developed to carry out a survey on the current status of corporate digital transformation globally. This contribution outlines the key analysis results, through an applied and observational research, within the timeframe from 2020 to 2023, based on a quanti-qualitative analysis of answers from over 880 companies worldwide. The paper contributes to the literature on digital transformation by verifying through the analysis of the results that effective digital transformation requires not only investments in technology, but also a holistic approach that encompasses organizational, cultural, and strategic changes. Therefore, the role of leaders and the creation of a digital transformation-oriented corporate culture are keys to driving success in this process.</p> Florian Kidschun Felix Budde Alida Soar Gomes Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on Management Leadership and Governance 2023-11-13 2023-11-13 19 1 187 197 10.34190/ecmlg.19.1.1959 Leadership and job satisfaction in the public healthcare sector: An empirical analysis of employees’ motivations <p>The supply of health services, which are primarily supplied by the human resources that staff the health facilities, makes the field of health extremely difficult. The conduct of health professionals as a result of their efforts heavily influences the quality of the services under study. To boost their efficiency and, by extension, the effectiveness of the health units, the administrations of the health units must place a high value on the use of the human component. Simply said, incentives are necessary to incentivize healthcare staff in order for them to please patients and improve their efficacy. Incentives provided to healthcare personnel appear to help them overcome these issues and provide patients with the best care possible, even in situations where they lack the appropriate resources and tools. Many academics argue that giving employees what they need in the form of incentives is a potent weapon that managers may use to motivate them and boost productivity. All health organizations should make use of this component, as it can assist them in addressing and resolving significant issues that restrict their effectiveness. In this context, it's critical to stress that motivating healthcare professionals is urgently needed because doing so improves their performance, which in turn improves the effectiveness of the services offered and the satisfaction of patients. The purpose of the current study is to investigate the potential sources of employee motivation at a public hospital in Northern Greece. Regression analysis was used to examine data that were gathered from 74 hospital personnel. The findings indicate that connections with co-workers and degree of performance are the primary drivers of employee motivation, with pay and job features playing a supporting role. These findings demonstrate that in order for the hospital's administration to increase employee performance, it is necessary to foster a positive work environment and recognize people for their contributions.</p> Fotis Kitsios Maria Kamariotou Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on Management Leadership and Governance 2023-11-13 2023-11-13 19 1 198 204 10.34190/ecmlg.19.1.1663 Technological vs. Non-Technological Mindsets: Learning From Mistakes, and Organizational Change Adaptability to Remote Work <p>The permanent implementation of the change in working methods, e.g., working in the virtual space, is problematic for some employees and, as a result, for management leaders. To explore this issue deeper, this study assumes that mindset type: technological vs. non-technological, may influence the organizational adaptability to change. Moreover, the key interest of this research is how non-technological mindsets adapt to remote work in the long run. Based on the OLS regression (SPSS PROCESS), authors analyze three data sets gathered via the questionnaire distributed using the CAWI method among Polish knowledge workers; the first data set was gathered in December 2019 before the COVID-19 crisis, and the next in 2021 and 2022. Findings revealed that before COVID-19, high intensity of contacts via technology-supported change adaptability only for the IT industry. Results obtained two and three years later exposed that interactions via technology also increased the change adaptability in other sectors. This study confirms that the technological environment can change the employee mindset. Nevertheless, at the same time, the adaptability process can be prolonged and complex even for highly educated knowledge workers’ groups. Since there is no development without technology today - patience and long-run perspective thinking are recommended to achieve sustainable growth. It is critical. Adaptation to technology-dominated virtual workspaces must continue, even if this is problematic for non-technological mindsets; abandoning this idea will only make the inevitable transformation longer and more challenging. Collective intelligence creation requires inclusion and patience instead of exclusion of those who face problems or abandonment of change when facing implementation problems rooted in mindsets.</p> Wioleta Kucharska Maciej Kucharski Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on Management Leadership and Governance 2023-11-13 2023-11-13 19 1 205 214 10.34190/ecmlg.19.1.1902 The local labour market as a focus of place marketing <p>Analysing the use of place marketing, in which the labour market is treated as a territorial sub-product, both in the scientific literature and in local government activities, a significant deficiency is to be found. Scientific studies, concentrating on place marketing, point out that its area of interest includes workplaces, but there is little development of this issue. The question arises whether local labour markets should be treated as a territorial product? In the opinion of the authors, in view of the manpower shortage and changes in demographic processes, this area should be one of the centres of attention of local governments in their development processes, because destabilisation of local labour markets threatens their proper development. The aim of this paper is to provide guidelines concerning place marketing in local governments, the product of which is the local labour market. The value of the study and the recommendations derived from it is based on providing a new perspective on the process of place marketing, taking into account an important element for the functioning of local governments' resources, which is the labour market. The research results emphasize the importance of taking a comprehensive approach to place marketing, especially when it comes to the labor market. Instead of treating the labor market as a minor part, local governments should recognize its significance in a holistic manner. The study also highlights the need to learn from marketing practices in economic sectors and how they can enhance local government development. However, it's worth noting that political divisions can hinder marketing efforts, so involving various stakeholders and considering potential drawbacks is essential. Local governments should be involved in creating conditions for the development of their labour markets, and place marketing can be an appropriate tool for this purpose. Designing marketing activities should help to adjust the territorial offer to the needs of potential target groups of customers. Marketing activities towards territorial products are included in the marketing management of local governments, understood as a process of managing a settlement unit with the use of marketing concepts. The implementation of the place marketing concept in management practice is a response to the dynamics of change in the areas where local governments are forced to compete.</p> Lenka Labudová doc. PhDr. Denisa Jánošová, PhD. dr. hab. Zbigniew Widera, prof. UE Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on Management Leadership and Governance 2023-11-13 2023-11-13 19 1 215 222 10.34190/ecmlg.19.1.1928 Determinants of risks disclosure in non-financial companies. Evidence from Portuguese capital market <p>The present study aims to determine the level of disclosure about financial risks in Portuguese non-financial companies and to identify the determinants of the level of disclosure. To carry out this study, the research methodology used was the content analysis of the reports and accounts, for the period 2017, of 40 non-financial companies listed on Euronext Lisbon, using a disclosure index for financial risks, created based on the requirements contained in the International Financial Reporting Standard No. 7 - Financial Instruments: Disclosures. After the content analysis, to identify the determining factors of disclosure level, a linear regression model was built to relate certain characteristics of the companies with the disclosure level presented. It was possible to conclude that the companies under study have an average disclosure level of about 50% of the requirements contained in IFRS 7 and that the size of companies and the concentration of capital significantly and positively influence the level of disclosure about financial risks. Indebtedness was also a determinant factor, but with a negative sign, being an uncommon result in relation to most other studies.</p> Kátia Lemos Filipa Pacheco Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on Management Leadership and Governance 2023-11-13 2023-11-13 19 1 223 231 10.34190/ecmlg.19.1.1840 Leadership and Neurosciences - The analysis of emotional arousal during decision-making processes with decision-makers exposed to acute stress <p>Corporate leaders are constantly dealing with stress in parallel with continuous decision-making processes. The impact of acute stress on decision-making activities is a relevant area of study to evaluate the impact of the decisions made, and create tools and mechanisms to cope with the inevitable exposure to stress and better manage its impact. The intersection of leadership and neurosciences techniques is called Neuroleadership. In this work, an experiment is proposed to detect and measure the emotional arousal of two groups of business professionals, divided into two groups. The first one is the intervention/stress group, n=30, exposed to stressful conditions, and the control group, n=14, not exposed to stress. The participants are submitted to a sequence of computerized stimuli, such as watching videos, answering survey questions, and making decisions in a realistic office environment. The Galvanic Skin Response (GSR) biosensor monitors emotional arousal in real-time. The experiment design implemented stressors such as visual effects, defacement, unfairness, and time-constraint for the intervention group, followed by decision-making tasks. The results indicate that emotional arousal was statistically significantly higher for the intervention/stress group, considering Shapiro and Mann-Whitney tests. The work indicates that GSR is a reliable stress detector and may be useful to predict negative impacts on executive professionals during decision-making activities.</p> Joao Alexandre Lobo Marques Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on Management Leadership and Governance 2023-11-13 2023-11-13 19 1 232 239 10.34190/ecmlg.19.1.1950 Organizational Behavior in Small and Medium Enterprises: A Systematic Review and Future Research Agenda <p>The main objective of the research is to determine the impact of organizational behavior among small and medium-sized companies in the scientific literature between 2012 and 2022. The Prisma 2020 methodology (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta - Analyses) was used for the processing of data obtained in the collection of articles supported by databases such as: Redalyc, Scopus, Dialnet and Scielo from which a total of 18 articles related to the study variable were obtained, 90% of them coming from Latin America, occupying the first place Colombia followed by Ecuador, all in Spanish language; on the other hand, the sectors and items that were used for the studies were 30% private and industrial educational sector. For the analysis of relevant information and keywords on the variable, ATLAS ti.22 was used, which allows identifying the concepts and topics with greater mention and relevance, among them: the authors indicate that the study of organizational behavior allows predicting the behavior of people within companies; it also helps to find the best work structure, identifies people's skills and improves the flow of horizontal and vertical communication; at the same time, it is the most complex to develop because each person is considered a genuine and unique link, which have different criteria, thoughts and points of view. In conclusion, it is argued that in order to maintain a good working environment within the company where effective labor relations based on ethical and moral values are fostered or executed, the full understanding and management of behaviors and attitudes among the members of the organization must be prioritized; only in this way will there be a satisfactory impact on the performance of the collaborators. This research will allow future researchers to link organizational culture with the performance and loyalty of their collaborators, prioritizing policies and norms that sustain harmony and efficiency in a company.</p> Shesira Belén Mamani-Ildefonso Vanessa Noemi Quispe-Martinez Franklin Cordova-Buiza Gisela Analy Fernandez-Hurtado Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on Management Leadership and Governance 2023-11-13 2023-11-13 19 1 240 248 10.34190/ecmlg.19.1.1930 Network governance in Healthcare, a systematic literature review <p>The typical structure of the healthcare sector involves (specialist) intertwined practices co-occurring in formal or informal networks. These practices must answer to the concerns and needs of all related stakeholders. Multimorbidity and the need to share knowledge for scientific development are among the driving factors for collaboration in healthcare. To establish and keep up a permanent collaborative link, it takes effort and understanding of the network characteristics that must be governed.</p> <p>It is not hard to find practices of Network Governance (NG) in a variety of industries. Still, there is a lack of insight in this subject, including knowledge on how to establish and maintain an effective healthcare network. Consequently, this study's research question is: How is network governance organized in the healthcare sector?</p> <p>A systematic literature study was performed to select 80 NG articles. Based on these publications the characteristics of NG are made explicit. The findings demonstrate that combinations of governance style (relational versus contractual governance) and governance structure (lead versus shared governance) lead to different network dynamics. Furthermore, the results show that in order to comprehend how networks in the healthcare sector emerge and can be regulated, it is vital to understand the current network type. Additionally, it informs us of the governing factors.</p> Arjen Maris Stijn Hoppenbrouwers Pascal Ravesteijn Jos van Hillegersberg Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on Management Leadership and Governance 2023-11-13 2023-11-13 19 1 249 257 10.34190/ecmlg.19.1.1798 Leadership and Negotiation in Public Health Management: A Systematic Review of the Literature <p>The domain of public health management has seen an increase in emerging issues that require attention to improve organizational performance. To address these challenges, this study presents a systematic review of the literature conducted between 2015 and 2023 to illuminate trends in healthcare research, including leadership and negotiation. Based on the PRISMA analysis framework developed by Liberati et al. (2009), we took an approach to assess the coverage of public health management research. Using selection criteria based on the SCOPUS database, our investigation identified 2674 articles. These publications were subjected to analysis, selecting 54 articles deemed particularly insightful and impactful. Furthermore, we developed a conceptual model using Grounded Theory that accentuates the key determinants that influence organisational performance in healthcare institutions. The main factors examined in our model include healthcare negotiation, organizational behaviour, leadership, evidence-based practices, sustainability, and corporate governance. The results of our study shed light on the intricate relationships between these determinants and their impact on overall performance in the public health sector. By elucidating these dynamics, our research provides valuable information to policymakers, administrators, and practitioners striving to achieve excellence in healthcare management. Based on our analysis, we propose an agenda for future research in public health management. This agenda seeks to address knowledge gaps, explore new approaches, and stimulate innovation in addressing healthcare organizations' complex challenges. By focusing on areas such as adaptive leadership strategies, transformative negotiation techniques, evidence-based practice, and sustainable governance models, our proposed agenda aims to catalyse advances in this field, ultimately leading to better health outcomes for individuals and communities. In conclusion, this study represents a significant contribution to public health management. Its review and the development of a conceptual model and research agenda provide stakeholders with the tools and knowledge needed to promote optimal organizational performance and drive positive change in this domain.</p> Isabel C P Marques Fernanda Nogueira Sónia P Gonçalves Raysa Geaquinto Rocha Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on Management Leadership and Governance 2023-11-13 2023-11-13 19 1 256 268 10.34190/ecmlg.19.1.1609 Social Responsibility Actions in Financial Institutions: A Systematic Review <p>There are financial institutions that do not focus on social responsibility in their management, because they focus on non-priority aspects; for this reason, it is necessary to promote it within the organizations, identifying relevant aspects. This increases customer retention, as well as the loyalty of its collaborators, which promotes persistence in companies, has a solid reputation, creates confidence among customers and investors, alleviates risks related to environmental, social and governance factors and actively contributes to sustainable development and the development of society can promote ethical practice, transparency and the existence of a community. Financials, aim to give performance without exposing the utility of the whole in its interest, preserving self-sufficient utilities, while abiding by different rules and regularizations. Therefore, the objective of the systematic review is raised in describing what has been published in the scientific literature about social responsibility actions in financial institutions between the years 2015 to 2023. The methodology used was Prisma, a systematic guide used in studies to perform reviews and meta-analyses in a strict and transparent manner, it helped to improve the quality and consistency of systematic reviews, which, in turn, contributes to decisions based on reliable evidence, the results obtained were that 35% were obtained from the DIALNET database, 24% were published between 2018 and 2021, 35% of scientific articles were found in Colombia, these have English and Spanish as their language, while the sources of information used in our systematic review correspond to the following databases: Scopus, Scielo, Dialnet, Redalyc, EBSCO and Doaj. Finally, it is determined that social responsibility actions in financial entities are of utmost relevance for financial organizations, since they help to create a positive reputation, have a significant social impact, manage non-financial risks, comply with rules, and attract and have talented employees, these practices are useful not only for society as a whole, but also for the success and sustainability of a financial organization.</p> Elizabeth Mayuri-Ramos Geraldine Cervantes-Acuña Angye Isabel Condori-Silva Franklin Cordova-Buiza Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on Management Leadership and Governance 2023-11-13 2023-11-13 19 1 269 277 10.34190/ecmlg.19.1.1882 Social responsibility leadership in the banking sector in times of pandemic <p>The present work is a research on social responsibility in the financial sector, considering that social responsibility has achieved great notoriety since the end of the last century, both in the business, academic and social fields, basically due to the Internet, the globalization of the economy and policies increasingly focused on the interests of individuals involved with the companies, considering that the banking sector had to implement and reinforce fundamental aspects to survive the pandemic. The objective of this study is to determine the corporate social responsibility initiatives within the financial sector, to analyse the strategies implemented to provide timely responses to the economic reactivation in the face of the pandemic and to determine the main strategies and approaches of the financial system in the scientific literature between 2020-2023. The methodology applied is the research of scientific articles in recognized databases such as ScienceDirect, Scopus and Web of Science, where we found 25 research studies included for this systematic review of which we will see the 14 countries where the information was collected. In all the countries the economies suffered significant devastation and during this period they tried to adapt to new experiences to survive the pandemic and have profitability, as part of the affectation was the economic growth, unemployment, the closing of several companies, the economic activities slowed down, the expenses in elements of health services and protection increased, among others, besides the greater collaboration was sought between the governments and the banking institutions to put in practice measures of economic support, then it is concluded that financial institutions managed to change consumer priorities by adapting to digital technology ensuring that transactions are safe and reliable in order to avoid contagions and crowds, digitized financial services have the benefit of reaching millions of people and businesses, most research recommended that the financial system keep constant track of the prospects for improvement of economic activity and monitor the evolution of its customers and partners.</p> Elizabeth Mayuri-Ramos Pamela Liset Villanueva-Vasquez Yuri Vanessa Conde-Beltran Franklin Cordova-Buiza Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on Management Leadership and Governance 2023-11-13 2023-11-13 19 1 278 285 10.34190/ecmlg.19.1.1934 A Conceptual bridge where critical reflexivity meets the leadership warrior mystique archetype <p>The objective of this paper is to present a conceptual integration of critical reflexivity and leadership archetype theory to capture the traits and characteristics of leaders leading in extreme contexts. Casting a historiometric glance at wars, battles and conflicts led by women warriors alongside their men in Africa during the trans-Atlantic trade period in the 15th to the 19th century, this paper argues that there is no context where leadership qualities are more discernible and pivotal than in extreme contexts. The paper offers the dance metaphor and archetypes as a theoretical bridge and a tool to problematise leadership performance in extreme contexts. Dance as an operative metaphor makes visible the invisible virtuosity of a leader. The paper builds an argument that dance mobilises a visual expression of mental, emotional, spiritual and physical reflexivity. Epistemically, the paper take a stance that the warrior mystique archetypical energy of an effective leader is relative, and is imprinted in a leader’s “inner theatre” within cultural contexts facilitated by reflexivity capabilities. The paper concludes by demonstrating the contingent and fluid nature of leadership in extreme contexts, and how its practices enable the development of a special kind of nimbleness, agility, kinetic, intuitive, visual, mystique warrior leadership capabilities, required to lead influentially and impactfully in transformative and liberating ways.</p> Pumela Msweli Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on Management Leadership and Governance 2023-11-13 2023-11-13 19 1 286 293 10.34190/ecmlg.19.1.1951 Change Management in a South African Municipality: Can it Work? <p>The business environment is ever-changing, and even companies with dominant market share needs to keep up with these changes. Not all change initiatives prove to be successful. Numerous obstacles have been highlighted in literature such as a lack of communication and poor support from management. This study, therefore, set out to identify the different factors that affect the successful implementation of change management initiatives in the City of Tshwane Metropolitan Municipality. The study followed a quantitative method, and the primary data was collected by means of an online questionnaire through SurveyMonkey. The data was analysed via SPSS software and presented in graphs and tables for easy interpretation. The results and knowledge gained from this study will add to the existing body of knowledge in the discipline. It might also assist municipalities to effectively identify and quantify factors that affect their ability to manage constructive change at the workplace. All ethical requirements were considered during the study. The outcome of the study indicated that managers seem to be unaware of the benefits and principles of change management. Organisational structures and processes were found to be key contributors to the employees’ resistance to change. The participants also displayed uncertainty whether communication, employee readiness for change initiative, leadership, and resources were fully addressed in the implementation of change management. The study therefore recommended that the city presents awareness sessions to all city employees including managers on the change management models, the principles of change management as well as the benefits of implementing such models and principles in the operations of the City of Tshwane. The study further recommended that the city provides the required resources for the implementation of change initiatives, and fully address the requirements for communication and employee readiness for change initiatives.</p> Phatutshedzo Dapsey Mukheli Vinessa Naidoo Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on Management Leadership and Governance 2023-11-13 2023-11-13 19 1 294 304 10.34190/ecmlg.19.1.1960 Increasing Task Administration Efficiency by Means of a Customizable ICT Solution <p>In production companies, managers frequently deal with inefficiencies caused by employees learning about new tasks with a considerable delay. The paper focuses on solving the lack of real-time interaction in currently used task administration systems by means of an ICT solution. The main causes of the inefficiencies consist in insufficient real-time information on the sides of both workers and managers. Employees view updates in the information system randomly, thus increasing unnecessary periods of idle time, while their superiors are not fully informed about the status of tasks in progress and about current workload of individual workers. The presented ICT solution was developed for production companies and implemented for the purpose of administering production line failure records. The solution is based on informing employees about a new maintenance task online in real time, using a combination of the designed information system with a mobile phone. The presented system utilizes advanced information technologies – cloud messaging, mobile applications, and web applications. The employee will be equipped with a smartphone with a specially designed application. By a notification sent to the mobile phone, the employee will be immediately informed about the task assigned. As regards task administering, employees enter information about the phases of task execution and managers are informed about the status of executed tasks. Another key feature of the system is providing managers with managerial overviews and compiling reports in order to monitor a number of key indicators. The Unified Process (UP) methodology was used to design the information system. The system accelerates the process of receiving tasks by individual maintenance workers after a failure has been reported, an online overview of the status of work on failures, including a managerial overview of the work of individual workers and the total time spent on solving the task (e.g. a production line defect removal). The system is designed to be universally applicable in other workplaces.</p> Marek Musil František Smrčka Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on Management Leadership and Governance 2023-11-13 2023-11-13 19 1 305 312 10.34190/ecmlg.19.1.1698 Autonomous Systems landscape in Hungary: model and the first results of a survey <p>The global economy increasingly responds to industrial digitization trends and develops its digitalization strategies, i.e., through application of Industry 4.0 concepts. Thereby, initiatives and developments are often carried out on a company-, industry- or country level.<br>Hungary is one of the most industrialized countries in Europe since many leading car companies, together with their suppliers and related industries have production sites in this area. <br>Witnessing the unprecedented scale and speed of industry transformation due to digitization in general and the emergence of autonomous solutions in all aspects of production and logistics in particular, it is well justified to deal with the question of what Autonomous Systems (ASys) will look like. How influential will it be when the changes' hard challenges and disruptive effects will be overcome, and what are the chances to meet the critical requirements of collaboration and cooperation? What are the technological and management tools to avoid being stuck in the so-called pilot purgatory? <br>To analyse the ASys development status on a high level in the main part of this study, we introduce a conceptual model, including pillars and dimensions aiming to understand the Hungarian ecosystem in terms of ASys. The suggested framework follows a holistic approach in assessment by integrating the following pillars: ecosystem smart factory, human, product.<br>In the second part a questionnaire’s first results are presented: there is yet a lot to do to facilitate a definite turn in the mindset of the actors and to make them realize the relevance of simultaneous and continuous cultural and technological development.<br>It's a newly developed, but already tested model to evaluate ASys ecosystems, which can be used in other countries, as well.</p> Gábor András Nick Istvan Mezgar Adam Szaller Eszter Bartis Laszlo Zahoran Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on Management Leadership and Governance 2023-11-13 2023-11-13 19 1 313 321 10.34190/ecmlg.19.1.1708 Leadership Development Programs Today: A Guide to Effective Strategy Execution or Fads du Jour? <p><em>Leaders</em> are answerable. O<em>rganizational performance </em>is attained by successful <em>strategy</em> execution. Consequently, organizations heavily spend on <em>leadership development</em> to hone leaders’ <em>competence</em> aimed at ensuring the organization’s <em>competitive success. </em>However, the success of such programs is questioned because of, amongst others, (a) frequently reported strategy implementation failure, allegedly owing to the absence of a <em>competitive advantage</em> and (b) observations that leadership as a mandatory source of competitive advantage has declined, despite <em>leadership development</em> initiatives. Thus, the <em>question</em> arises whether organizations systematically use leadership development foundational metrics (e.g., direction-setting capacity, trust, etc.) for effective strategy implementation. As part of a larger study, this report accounts for organizational use of leadership development metrics in strategy implementation. We followed the guidance of reputable scholars in conducting the empirical study. Limited information on the topic dictated an <em>exploratory approach</em> to gain insights to lay the foundation for future descriptive and explanatory studies. The considerable amount of data required to answer the question necessitated an exploratory survey. We collected data from a purposely selected population with an online questionnaire, based on a literature review and pre-tested with Human Resource professionals, complying with ethical principles. The <em>findings</em> include: The study met norms for exploratory surveys and trustworthiness criteria. More than half of the diverse respondents (concerning demographic variables, strategies applied, and ensuing organizational performance) reported the use of leadership development metrics in strategy implementation. However, few respondents linked the metrics used to competitive advantage. The <em>implications</em> include that the leadership development interventions may not have been optimal in ensuring effective strategy implementation based on competitive advantage. It can be <em>concluded</em> that the leadership metrics the respondents’ organizations have used may have been ineffective in ensuring competitive success. The <em>value</em> of this paper stems from its actionable insights based on proven theory and validated by an exploratory survey. However, the main <em>limitation</em> of the study is its cross-sectional nature. Hence, we recommend further descriptive and explanatory research to enable broader generalizations.</p> Hester Nienaber Richard McNeill Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on Management Leadership and Governance 2023-11-13 2023-11-13 19 1 322 331 10.34190/ecmlg.19.1.1671 Abusive Supervision and Organizational Resilience: The Role of Employees’ Psychological Capital <p>Crises present important opportunities to study leadership. While previous research has established that abusive supervision occurs more frequently during a crisis, its effect on organizational resilience has not been studied. Micro-level mechanisms through which abusive supervision affects organizational resilience are also largely missing from prior studies. The aim of the present research was to investigate how abusive supervision relates to organizational resilience via employees’ psychological capital through the lens of the job-demands resources theory. Multi-level structural equation modelling using Stata version 18 was used to test a mediation model using a sample of 301 small and medium sized enterprises from Kenya.&nbsp; Results revealed that abusive supervision erodes organizational resilience however employees' psychological capital offsets the negative effects of abusive supervision. Ultimately, this paper showed that psychological capital can aid in lessening the deleterious effects of abusive supervision in crisis.</p> Faith Njaramba Daniel Skarlicki John Olukuru Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on Management Leadership and Governance 2023-11-13 2023-11-13 19 1 332 340 10.34190/ecmlg.19.1.1942 Leadership in a Private Higher Education Institution in Mexico: <p style="font-weight: 400;">Leadership for the new digital era and the 4.0 industry comes with some challenges for organizations across the board; and, in the education field, for institutions and educators alike. Understanding the need to transform and innovate processes is necessary to offer high-quality programs to students and competitive opportunities to educators. In Higher Education (HE) institutions, it is of great urgency to assign and distribute such leadership skills and tasks to educators and students, to provide and ease specific tasks at hand, and to encourage collaborators in the development of leadership skills for the classroom and to promote lifelong leadership skills for students too. In Mexico, the HE system looks to include new ways to innovate, collaborate and even compete with other national and foreign institutions for the most qualified human capital. <em>Tecnologico de Monterrey,</em> a private institution, is not only one of the top-ranking universities in Mexico, but it also has a strong emphasis on leadership development for its students and collaborators. The case of Sonora Norte Campus is a successful one, its empowerment approach toward building, nurturing, and developing quality leaders. A qualitative study was conducted to identify the practices of the institution and the leadership practices in the institution's different schools. We conducted semi-structured interviews with leaders and collaborators which resulted in understanding the leadership dynamics on the campus, the different styles of leadership among its collaborators as well as some of the challenges they face. This study provides a look into the leadership in a private HE institution, and some of its successful practices. This study proves to be relevant for other heads of HE institutions in the world (and in other <em>Tecnologico de Monterrey</em> campuses nationwide) interested in adding and researching effective leadership practices to their agendas.</p> ELSA CATALINA OLIVAS CASTELLANOS LEONEL DE GUNTHER DELGADO EDUARDO RODRÍGUEZ ÁLVAREZ CÉSAR DÍAZ MALDONADO ELISA ANAETTE FIGUEROA ISLAS Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on Management Leadership and Governance 2023-11-13 2023-11-13 19 1 341 348 10.34190/ecmlg.19.1.1664 From Academic Design Science Research to Start-up: Building a Digital Platform Ecosystem to Promote a Sustainable Knowledge Co-Creating Community <p>As the new digital era is accompanied by accelerating change, people as well as institutions need to adapt and transform. Crucial for their success is how well leaders can cultivate the absorption and sharing of knowledge as a resource and its integration into the organisational endeavours. Innovative system designs may prove vital to providing crucial support.</p> <p>Based on a prior academic design science research project and published outputs, a recently established start-up aims to create a digital community platform for knowledge co-creation to serve members with diverse ambitions and potentials in their personal and collaborative contexts. The digital platform ecosystem follows a novel knowledge management approach by favouring personalization, mobility, generativity, and entropy reduction. How to sustainably address the inherent system complexities and scaling needs in an entrepreneurial environment known for short iterative cycles of minimum viable developments have proven to be an expected challenge, closely followed by the limited power of academic detail and lingo to create enthusiasm in start-up spaces where attention slots are measured in pitch decks and elevator rides.</p> <p>This paper looks at this particular case and at the lessons learnt in the transition phase from academia to a business incubation space and, hence, aims to contribute to the discourse between scholars, practitioners, and clients on how digital entrepreneurship and innovation spaces may be best served for mutual benefit.</p> Ulrich Schmitt Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on Management Leadership and Governance 2023-11-13 2023-11-13 19 1 349 358 10.34190/ecmlg.19.1.1718 Maturity or gender? An abductive approach to study workplace meeting effectiveness <p>Meetings are an integral part of organisational life, and their effectiveness is essential both for organisations and their employees. Meeting literature provides a rich overview of various factors impacting meeting effectiveness; however, the content of meetings is neglected as an important factor of meeting effectiveness. The content of the meeting can be assessed through related tasks, which form the central tenets of stratified systems theory. Stratified systems theory posits that a specific job position category is associated with a particular time horizon and characteristic tasks. Therefore, we used stratified systems theory as an appropriate framing for the research to test how the fit between the meeting content (characteristic tasks) and the employee's time horizon contributes to perceived meeting effectiveness. The study draws on a quantitative research design. Data were collected via a survey of seven organisations in different industries in the Czech Republic (n=96). Regression models and ANOVA were used as methods for data analysis. The findings reveal that neither an employee's time horizon per se nor the fit between meeting content (characteristic tasks) and the employee's time horizon influence perceived meeting effectiveness, which does not support the main hypothesis. However, the data revealed three other interesting findings, which we elaborated on using an abductive approach. First, by controlling all possible discriminating factors (such as job position category, education, age, and characteristic tasks), we found that women operate within a shorter time horizon. Second, women perceive meetings as more effective. Third, while we found a fit between the employee's time horizon and job position category, we did not find a fit between the employee's time horizon and meeting content (characteristic tasks) nor a fit between the job position category and meeting content (characteristic tasks), which challenges stratified systems theory. The research results contribute to meeting effectiveness literature by challenging the role of job position categories and meeting content. However, in the first place, the results open up a space for a fruitful research inquiry into gender studies and stratified systems theory.</p> Petr Šimáček Věra Králová Tereza Mňuk Pavel Král Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on Management Leadership and Governance 2023-11-13 2023-11-13 19 1 359 369 10.34190/ecmlg.19.1.1832 Developing Capabilities for Sustainable Business Models –Exploring Project Maturity for Innovation Processes <p><em>Companies must cultivate new dynamic capabilities to meet the demands for sustainable solutions in an uncertain and dynamic world. This longitudinal case study explores the significance of project maturity as a critical capability within complex innovation processes for developing sustainable business models. The purpose of the study is to gain a better understanding of the central factors companies encounter when making efforts to build sustainable business models through innovation projects. Tracking a market-leading company's journey from ideation to implementation over an extended period, this study focuses on creating a sustainable business emphasising waste reduction, heightened customer satisfaction, and profitability. Key insights emerge through qualitative methods, including interviews, observations, and document analysis.</em><em>&nbsp;</em></p> <p><em>The findings highlight the pivotal role of project maturity in innovation projects centred around sustainable value propositions. Project maturity is salient in creating an autonomous unit, fostering agility, and promoting open collaboration. It encompasses organisational ambidexterity and collaborative engagement with vital stakeholders. Furthermore, proficient project managers well-versed in agile project management and innovation processes and contextual resolution emerge as crucial drivers in innovation projects aimed at developing capabilities for sustainable business models. By tailoring project maturity to the specific needs of each project and integrating agile methodologies, organisations can forge the necessary capabilities for crafting sustainable business models. Additionally, dynamic capabilities can be cultivated by aligning projects with the overall business strategy and implementing practices that facilitate continuous learning and improvement. </em></p> <p><em>This study underscores the importance of project maturity within innovation processes and its role in creating profitable and sustainable business models by developing new dynamic capabilities. The research findings offer valuable insights for businesses seeking to design effective innovation processes supporting sustainable business model realization.</em></p> Torgeir Skyttermoen Gunhild Wedum Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on Management Leadership and Governance 2023-11-13 2023-11-13 19 1 370 379 10.34190/ecmlg.19.1.1897 Leading transformation in an uncertain world: A case for strategic speculative design <p>Strategic speculative design is an uncertainty-oriented approach to perceptually bridge today with envisioned futures through knowledge-seeking design practices such as User experience design. As such, it may complement practices for facilitating transformative change found in management theory and innovation. Despite gaining importance in design schools, strategic speculative design however remains largely unfamiliar in leadership and management research and practice. We argue that this perspective may enable more active participation and dialogue with a variety of stakeholders about forthcoming or possible transformations, which may open for new or improved construction of opportunity in the present. Our paper is conceptual and offers a new model for strategic speculative design as an organisational change method relevant for transformation leadership and discusses possible managerial implications.</p> Ingjerd J. Straand Birgit Helene Jevnaker Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on Management Leadership and Governance 2023-11-13 2023-11-13 19 1 380 387 10.34190/ecmlg.19.1.1947 Diversity and sustainability as a new base for leadership <p>Current developments in contemporary society require a fundamental re-discussion of some commonly accepted “truth”. This paper highlights some critics of economic, societal and environmental aspects relevant to sustainability. Analysing these three aspects affecting individuals and society makes us consider the different beneficiaries, their knowledge sources and management. Our paper discusses a new type of leadership in our uncertain world by shifting the focus from economic, societal and environmental aspects to regarding the beneficiaries as well: the individuals (Me), the organisations (We) and the society (All). Experiences built under changing circumstances require less and less focus on knowledge transfer and more on knowledge exchange. Basing ourselves only on knowledge sources (from scientific (trustworthy?) sources) is questionable and needs reconsideration. The importance of exchanging experiences among managers and leaders shows the need for life-long learning. The use of information/knowledge is becoming more relevant than its ownership. Moving the focus to use and interpreting knowledge is a differentiating factor that forms the basis for creating value. In cooperation, where decision-makers share ownership and communicate their interpretations, we explore a new role for the “we” (the organisational value), compared to the traditional orientation where organisations only fulfil individual (shareholder) value or alike. Our finding lead to new forms of equity, where the chances for success are equal, regardless of educational level, gender or cultural background. A sustainable society for everyone requires a broader view of reality than only for the privileged ones. It is also a different approach to striving for diversity. For sustainability, as the world’s ability to host our successors, managers and leaders should not limit themselves to traditional certainties, like intellectual property, value and ownership.</p> Emoke Takacs Toon Abcouwer Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on Management Leadership and Governance 2023-11-13 2023-11-13 19 1 388 396 10.34190/ecmlg.19.1.1898 Spiritual Leadership and Meaningful Work: The Roles of Intrinsic Motivation and Gender <p>In recent years, many employees have come to view their work not only as a means to earn a living but also as a source of personal fulfillment and purpose. This shift in perception is driven by various factors, including changes in societal values and the human desire to make a difference in the world. As such, organizations with insufficient knowledge of employees’ need for meaningful work suffer reduced performance and productivity, higher employee turnover, and employees’ physical and mental work-related health conditions. Although prior studies have found that spiritual leadership positively and significantly influences employees’ meaningful work, relatively little is known about the underlying mechanism and the condition under which this relationship occurs. This empirical study aims to investigate how and when spiritual leadership relates to employees’ meaningful work focusing on intrinsic motivation as a mediator and employee gender as a moderator using data from employees of public and private commercial banks in Kenya. The study’s cross-sectional design adopted a self-reported data collection approach. The banks were stratified into three tiers: 1, 2, and 3, and 532 questionnaires were distributed to randomly selected respondents from the tiers, and 448 valid responses were received. A semi-structural equation modeling using SmartPLS 4 was used to analyze the data. The results reveal that spiritual leadership, directly and indirectly, impacts meaningful work partially mediated by intrinsic motivation, while gender moderates this relationship. The study contributes to theory by examining intrinsic motivation and gender as the underlying mechanisms of how and when spiritual leadership translates into employees’ meaningful work. Practically, the findings suggest that incorporating spiritual leadership as a potential leader behavior in the banking sector and paying attention to employees’ gender can improve the perception of meaningful work, which has been found to relate to employees’ well-being and positive job outcomes. Implications of our findings and recommendations for future research are further discussed.</p> Fidelis Udahemuka Fred Walumbwa Ben Ngoye Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on Management Leadership and Governance 2023-11-13 2023-11-13 19 1 397 405 10.34190/ecmlg.19.1.1841 Corporate Social Responsibility Latin America: A Systematic Review and Future Research Agenda <p>This research topic studies the main implications and approaches of social responsibility in Latin American companies, and becomes a topic of great importance due to the need of many organizations to transcend and differentiate themselves with their target audience, promoting inclusive and sustainable growth, managed by policies that promote welfare and development. The databases used for this systematic review were Dialnet, Scielo, Redalyc and Scopus, using information from 2012 to 2022; likewise, the method used was the search of empirical literature with the analysis of descriptive designs and quantitative and qualitative methodological approaches. On the other hand, the country with the highest number of studies on the subject was Mexico with 24%, followed by Colombia with 20%; likewise, descriptive and explanatory studies of quantitative type are addressed; and among the populations with the highest study implication are companies in the commercial and productive area. Finally, the objective of this study is to determine the factors that induce Latin American companies to apply corporate social responsibility; one such factor being environmental leadership, as the main finding, which seeks to maintain standards of image and acceptance in the market that differentiate it from the competition; the next factor is ethical labor actions, which ensure a fair internal system in relation to its stakeholders, who are the heart of the operation of its business; and finally, maintaining a successful corporate philanthropy, which strengthens human relations and creates awareness of respect and quality in the organizations. The contribution of this research will allow future research to know the repercussions of corporate social responsibility practices and how these factors influence the creation of a competitive image valued by the market.</p> Damari Jomara Usuriaga-Medrano Ines Farro-Portocarrero Gisela Fernandez-Hurtado Franklin Cordova-Buiza Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on Management Leadership and Governance 2023-11-13 2023-11-13 19 1 406 415 10.34190/ecmlg.19.1.1653 Mapping Knowledge Needs of Hospital Estates and Facilities Management Teams: Insights from a Delphi Study <p>The role of Estates and Facilities Management (EFM) in the healthcare sector is often overlooked despite its crucial contribution to the efficient delivery of clinical services. This paper explores the knowledge needs of EFM professionals at different job levels within the National Health Service (NHS) in the UK. Using a modified Delphi-technique approach, we collected data from three rounds of online questionnaires with a total of 152 EFM professionals. With the use of content analysis and descriptive statistics, we identify the most commonly reported knowledge needs across different organisational levels. Hierarchical clustering heatmaps visualise these varying knowledge needs of different job roles and their priority levels, allowing for easy identification of target areas for professional development. We identify four key categories of knowledge areas, illustrating evolving needs as professionals progress in their careers. Within these areas, four trends emerged across various hierarchical levels. Firstly, a reliance on external Authorising Engineers (AEs) for <em>Technical Expertise &amp; Experience</em>, <em>Benchmarking &amp; New Technologies</em>, and <em>Professional Development</em> was evident, raising concerns about aligning organisational expectations with top management expertise. Secondly, the skills required for the sustainability and digitalisation agenda lack emphasis, highlighting a crucial gap between organisational strategy and practical focus. <em>Collaborative Proficiency</em> surfaced as important for Managers and Heads of EFM, underscoring the importance of interdisciplinary collaboration. However, at the Director of EFM level, there is a lower emphasis on networking and collaboration, which is in contrast to the current restructuring of the NHS towards Integrated Care Systems. Furthermore, the Directors of EFM have a strong focus on <em>Financial Management</em> skills, possibly influenced by the prevalent Board reporting structures. This focus, paired with the lack of focus on <em>Technical Expertise &amp; Experience </em>and <em>Benchmarking &amp; New Technologies</em> could influence the ability to secure funding for cutting-edge technologies while posing a large financial risk of relying on legacy systems. These findings underscore the need for targeted training programmes addressing these disparities and emphasise the importance of aligning organisational structures with evolving knowledge needs for effective healthcare EFM management. The research contributes to the understanding of knowledge management in organisational hierarchies and offers a framework applicable to other sectors and organisations. To enhance understanding, future studies could delve deeper into the identified trends, aiming to uncover the underlying causes and intricacies shaping the identified patterns.</p> Carl-Magnus von Behr Tim Minshall John Clarkson Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on Management Leadership and Governance 2023-11-13 2023-11-13 19 1 416 426 10.34190/ecmlg.19.1.1940 A Leadership and Governance Stage Model (LGSM) in Digital Transformation in Data Management <p>In this era of digital transformation, organisations and individuals have the ability to generate, collect, process, and analyse a vast volume of data to gain benefits and valuable insights. However, despite recognising the competitive advantage of digital transformation in data management, they often face challenges in navigating the transformation process and aligning their existing practices with on-premise technologies. Leadership and governance play a very significant role in digital transformation procedures. The main objectives of this research are 1) to establish a Leadership and Governance Stage Model (LGSM), which provides a standardised, structured, and objective roadmap for organisations to determine their current leadership and data governance maturity stage in digital transformation in data management and 2) to guide organisations in progressing to the next maturity stage by using LGSM as a framework. This research adopts a qualitative approach, utilising a Systematic Literature Review (SLR) conducted over the past ten years, applying Grounded Theory. A total of 14 well-defined Capability Maturity Models (CMMs) of data management were reviewed, summarised, and consolidated. In this way, LGSM is established, comprising six stages: Stages 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4, with Stage 5 representing the most developed and mature stage. The holistic view of this stage model has been summarised at the end of this research, which demonstrates the significance of leadership and governance in digital transformation.</p> Shuo Yan Dr Jeff Jones Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on Management Leadership and Governance 2023-11-13 2023-11-13 19 1 427 435 10.34190/ecmlg.19.1.1899 Neuromarketing: Evaluating Consumer Emotions and Preferences to Improve Business Marketing Management <p>The invention of neuroscience has benefited medical practitioners and businesses in improving their management and leadership. Neuromarketing, a field that combines neuroscience and marketing, helps businesses understand consumer behaviour and how they respond to advertising stimuli. This study aims to investigate the consumer purchase intention and preferences to improve the marketing management of the brand, based on neuroscientific tools such as emotional arousal using Galvanic Skin Response (GSR) sensors, eye-tracking, and emotion analysis through facial expressions classification. The stimuli for the experiment are two advertisement videos from the Macau tea brand “Guanding Teahouse” followed by a survey. The experiment was conducted on 40 participants. 76.2% of participants that chose the same product in the first survey responded with the same choice of products in the second survey. The GSR peaks in video ad 1 measured a total of 60. On the other hand, video ad 2 counted a total of 55 GSR peaks. The emotions in ad1 and ad2 have similar responses, with an attention percentage of 76%. The results showed that ad1 has a higher engagement time of 11.1% and ad2 has 9.6%, but only 19 of the respondent’s conducted engagement in video ad1, and 31 showed engagement in video ad2. The results demonstrated that although ad 1 has higher engagement rates, the respondents are more attracted to video ad 2. Therefore, ad2 has better marketing power than ad 1. Overall, this study bridges the gap of no previous research on measuring tea brand advertisements with the neuroscientific method. The results provide valuable insights for marketers to develop better advertisements and marketing campaigns and understand consumer preferences by personalising and targeting advertisements based on consumers' emotional responses and behaviour of consumers' purchase intentions. Future research could explore advertisements targeting different demographics.</p> Ian Mei Zeng João Alexandre Lobo Marques Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on Management Leadership and Governance 2023-11-13 2023-11-13 19 1 436 444 10.34190/ecmlg.19.1.1876 Lean and Safety Management in Primary Care Centres: an Italian Case Study <p>The primary care sector is globally recognised as the pillar of an efficient and patient-centred care model. Despite its importance, many countries fail to ensure equitable access and individualised care. This problem significantly impacts the most vulnerable part of the population, such as chronic and elderly patients. In this context, considering the large number of people affected by multiple diseases, multidisciplinary and multi-organisation teamwork has become fundamental to guarantee high levels of quality, increasing patient satisfaction, and continuity of care. Furthermore, working in a multidisciplinary primary care team can improve information exchange between care providers and patients, positively impacting on clinical performance. Despite these opportunities, the primary care workforce is often overloaded in its daily activities and not adequately organised and coordinated to avoid burnout experiences and inefficient skills deployment. In this context, implementing Lean and Safety Management (L&amp;SM) as a process improvement methodology can increase care pathways performance and integration, patient safety and satisfaction through the reduction of wastes and risks. The current study aims to implement L&amp;SM in a primary care centre in Italy, with the final goal of increasing productivity and effectiveness in daily activities performed by primary care physicians. This project is carried out following the DMAIC cycle; a managerial approach that combines qualitative and quantitative techniques to support process improvement. The implementation roadmap will combine HLM and CRM, planning to achieve the main steps listed as follows: mapping the care demand and the available resources to define the focus of the study; identifying the most representative and critical patients; mapping the target care pathway; identifying wastes and risk and their root causes; identifying critical aspects and improvement events; implementing countermeasures; evaluating and monitoring results. The expected results of the forthcoming months consist of measurable improvements within the healthcare pathway, supporting the optimisation of the primary care centre. Moreover, this initiative may represent a pilot case for other similar projects, contributing to spread L&amp;SM culture throughout primary care centres with benefits for both patients and clinical staff.</p> Caterina Pozzan Anna Tiso Fabrizio Ronchi Chiara Verbano Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on Management Leadership and Governance 2023-11-13 2023-11-13 19 1 550 552 10.34190/ecmlg.19.1.1919 Lean and Safety Management: a Project to Improve the Continuity of Care for Chronic Patients <p>Enhancing the quality of care for chronic patients means guaranteeing the delivery of integrated care. Integrated health systems help overcome the fragmentation of care processes, by bridging the organisational, managerial, and informational gaps, with the final purpose of improving the access, quality, and continuity of services. Indeed, chronic patients require the assistance of multiple providers, referring to different levels of care (primary, secondary, or tertiary). However, hyper-specialised and fragmented healthcare systems hamper the achievement of these goals, resulting in suboptimal care, higher cost, and poor quality of care. The implementation of lean and safety management (L&amp;SM) within hospitals demonstrated its ability to improve efficiency, effectiveness, and patient satisfaction, through proactive identification and reduction of risks and wastes. The novelty lies in adopting this approach to act on integration and continuity between different levels of care. With this aim, a L&amp;SM project has been developed in a Spanish hospital. The project focuses on improving the discharge process from internal medicine to primary care, essential to prevent further patients’ readmissions. In fact, cooperation between the hospital and primary care is crucial to ensure continuity in chronic pathways, providing adequate assistance to patients’ healthcare and social needs. The first results show how this approach was instrumental to engage in the project all key actors involved in the pathways, overcoming departmental barriers, and enhancing continuity of care. Moreover, this approach facilitated the convergence of identified inefficiencies with the clinicians’ interests, focusing only on the aspects considered of primary importance, such as the communication between the hospital and primary care. The expected outcomes encompass the achievement of a better understanding of the process, the identification of the criticalities in terms of risks and waste, the proposal and implementation of improvement interventions. This project represents an innovative attempt to implement L&amp;SM outside of hospital boundaries to improve new performance dimensions, focusing on integration and continuity of care.</p> Anna Tiso Joan Cháfer-Vilaplana Macarena Torrego-Ellacuría Manuel Francisco Morales Contreras Chiara Verbano Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on Management Leadership and Governance 2023-11-13 2023-11-13 19 1 553 556 10.34190/ecmlg.19.1.1854 Assessing the impacts of a firm’s reputation on the financial performance of SMEs- Evidence from selected Literature. <p>Financial performance has been the beckon of growth of most SMEs worldwide as such there is a growing need to improve small and medium-sized enterprises’ (SMEs) reputation to gain more financially and to be highly competitive. For this reason, this study reviewed 25 articles referenced in Web of Science and Scopus journals using a systematic literature review to explain the impacts of reputation on SME firms’ financial performance. The author identified differences in theoretical models in the articles and conceptualize them summarily based on the outcome. Articles were selected from 2018 to 2022. The resultant effect of this review asserts that business reputation significantly influences SMEs’ financial performance, and it is mediated by leadership. However, profitability reduces if SME leaders concentrate more on investment in reputation as acclaimed by some CEOs. This research will leverage more studies in the field of SME performance and reputational management factors. It will give guidance to future researchers thematically.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: Corporate reputation, financial performance, SMEs, leadership, Corporate social responsibility, intangible Asset Management, management, and systematic review</strong></p> Charles Randy Afful Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on Management Leadership and Governance 2023-11-13 2023-11-13 19 1 446 454 10.34190/ecmlg.19.1.1952 Moroccan Cultural Diplomacy: Challenges, Opportunities and Levers of a New Model of Influence and Soft Power <p>Cultural Diplomacy has emerged as a vector of influence and a potent tool for soft power in international relations. Nowadays, the realm of cultural diplomacy has become fiercely competitive. It leveraged by many countries aware of its pivotal role in increasing their soft power and expanding their sphere of influence. Morocco, a secular kingdom and one of the oldest States in the world, is also keen on investing in the field of cultural diplomacy to bolster its soft power, increase its influence and assert its position as a regional and continental leader in this area. This paper presents a new conceptual model of a Moroccan Diplomacy which takes into account the extremely rich and distinctive cultural heritage of the Kingdom of Morocco, the various achievements in this cultural field. This model is designed to be more integrated, synergistic, well-governed in order to address internal and external challenges and capitalize on the strengths and new opportunities. The paper identifies the main challenges facing Moroccan Cultural Diplomacy that impact its proficiency, including in particular the lack of a global and integrated strategic vision and thinking, limited financial resources, lack of coordination between the different stakeholders and, weak involvement of the private sector and weak culture of assessment and performance measurement. However, the paper also identifies great opportunities, such as its impressively rich cultural heritage, characterized by its multidimensional cultural diversity, which requires a new and innovative approach based on a global and integrated strategic vision. The proposed Model is designed as a new framework based on a benchmark of international best practices of several pioneering countries in the field of cultural diplomacy and combined with a documentary approach and the results of interviews carried out with professionals, managers and experts in this field. It focused on several levers of influence and counter-influence that emphasizes the importance of a global and strategic vision, strong governance standards and structures involving Regions, Cities, Non-Governmental Organizations, Moroccan Diaspora. It focused also on enhanced evaluation and measurement, and a more proactive and innovative approach to promoting Moroccan soft power by investing cultural marketing, Public-Private Partnerships, digitalization and new technologies for networking, cultural creativity and strategic cultural partnerships. The paper argues that a renewed and more strategic approach to cultural diplomacy should be guided and steered by a specialized national agency that would perform the various functions of study, research, monitoring, influence, coordination, policy convergence, control and evaluation at national and international level. Thus, by institutionalizing this strategic, synergistic and holistic approach, we can lay the foundation of a new and innovative model that could help Morocco strengthen its soft power and promote its rich and unique cultural assets and values on the global stage in a more effective manner, and strengthen so its international reputation and influence.</p> Loubna FOUINNA Abdelmjid LAFRAM Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on Management Leadership and Governance 2023-11-13 2023-11-13 19 1 455 462 10.34190/ecmlg.19.1.1843 What are the drivers of competence management? <p>Globalization and technological transformations emphasize the need for developing new skills and acting at the peak of one’s capacities. Competence is defined as the combination of external and individual resources to fulfill one’s job demands and contribute to the organization’s purpose. It corresponds to feeling effective and efficient in one’s actions. As such, competence is one of the basic psychological needs, according to self-determination theory. In this paper we focus on diagnosing the drivers of competence in order to implement transformations in a specific organization to improve the use of existing resources, stimulate the development of skills and increase performance. The study was conducted in a major French company from the energy sector. We re-analyzed the corpus of an annual survey gathering the perception of about 11,000 respondents representing all job categories and all hierarchical levels. We conducted a Principal Component Analysis followed by multiple regressions in order to identify the predictors of feeling competent. The first analysis shows that the data could be summarized in 5 key indicators: 1. Involvement and trust in the unit, 2. Team management, 3. Meaningfulness at work, 4. Working conditions, 5. Organization and cooperation. We observed that the item addressing the feeling of competence showed high correlation with the third dimension related to meaningfulness, which further highlights the importance of competence for self-accomplishment. The next step was to search for the drivers of feeling competent in several job categories. The results show that production and maintenance exhibit very different profiles. The only common driver appears to be the role of the manager in developing employee’s skills. For production employees, feeling competent is mainly linked to external resources (unit organization and social identification) whereas for maintenance employees, feeling competent rather depends on individual resources (work content, professional development). Beyond the design of custom interventions based on the specific needs of each job category, this study emphasizes that there is no unique solution for managing competence and that the key to performance and fulfilment should be found in careful analysis of the organization and its members.</p> <p> </p> Lisa GAUDENS Muriel Davies Stephanie Buisine Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on Management Leadership and Governance 2023-11-13 2023-11-13 19 1 463 470 10.34190/ecmlg.19.1.1905 Servant Leadership Knowledge Structures: A Bibliometric Review <p>Servant leadership is an emerging approach that appears timely debate for scientific progress in leadership research. There have been several qualitative, quantitative, and systematic reviews on servant leadership. Surprisingly, there needs to be more research using bibliometric analysis on servant leadership. For this reason, this study addresses methodological limitations by using a bibliometric review to analyze and visualize the historical background of servant leadership, its present state of knowledge structures and emerging trends. To do so, we included a sample of 214 peer-reviewed articles over the period 2004 to 2022 by using the Web of Science (WoS) database. The bibliometric analysis revealed three major clusters in servant leadership: (1) Servant leadership and innovativeness, (2) Servant leadership with employees' extra-role behaviours and personality traits, (3) Attitudinal and behavioural employee outcomes such as emotional labour and ethical followers. Significantly, our contribution recognizes more nuanced results than previously partially identified and highlights servant leadership research. This study also opens a fresh avenue for future scholars by providing future research questions.</p> Ghulam Kalsoom Roman Zámečník Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on Management Leadership and Governance 2023-11-13 2023-11-13 19 1 471 479 10.34190/ecmlg.19.1.1674 Unveiling the Mediating Nexus of Digital Transformation on Digital Leadership and Enterprise Performance in Manufacturing Firms. <p>In today's rapidly evolving business landscape, digital transformation has become an imperative for organizations seeking to stay competitive and relevant. The relentless advancement of technology has brought about unprecedented opportunities and challenges, necessitating a shift in leadership paradigms to embrace the digital era fully. This investigation seeks to test the nexus between digital leadership, digital transformation, and enterprise performance. Empirically, the Smart PLS approach was employed to test the affiliation between digital leadership and enterprise performance, through the mediating effect of digital transformation. We collected data on manufacturing firms consisting of 471 managers across the various regions of Ghana. The finding indicates that digital leadership and digital transformation exhibit a positive affiliation with enterprise performance. Finally, digital transformation had a favorable mediating effect on the nexus between digital leadership and enterprise performance. Practitioners and firms would be motivated to seize the advantages of digital transformation as an opportunity to improve firm performance. Again, manufacturing firms that want to be leaders in the digital space have to acquire the services of a digital leader as part of their management portfolio team. This study contributes to the literature by providing new theoretical explanations for the inconsistent affiliation between digital leadership, digital transformation, and enterprise performance. This investigation also assists enterprises in reevaluating their digital strategies.</p> Kwabena Nsiah Takyi Beata Gavurova Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on Management Leadership and Governance 2023-11-13 2023-11-13 19 1 480 487 10.34190/ecmlg.19.1.1944 Identity of Vocational Education and Training Teacher: Pathways and Competences <p>A teacher’s identity can be understood as comprehensive approach to the self-concept of the teacher and the teacher’s external environment. The teacher’s identity already begins to form during the teacher’s preparation for the future teaching profession. The requirements about necessary education and requested competences for the teaching profession are usually set by the state institution such as Ministry of Education. Even though the current conditions for becoming a vocational education and training (VET) teacher are relatively strict, in practice there are teachers in secondary vocational schools whose preparation for the profession varies greatly. It often happens that VET teachers have undergone a transition from the practical economic sphere to the teaching profession, transition from the branch expert to the VET teacher. Vocational education is an important part of the education system, preparing pupils directly for the labour market needs. For most pupils, it is the last formal form of education in their lives. In the Czech Republic, approximately 70% of the population is educated in vocational education every year. The paper identifies main pathways to the identity of VET teacher, consisting of the professional identity of an expert in relevant field and the professional identity of a teacher. When the identity of VET teacher is created, there is often a "boundary crossing" associated with the creation of a new identity, or problems with the loss of the original identity. The intertwining of the teacher’s identity areas subsequently affects development of wider spectrum of competences. These competences need to be developed in the preparation of VET teachers or they can be related to the requirements for the performance of the profession of VET teacher. They can be divided into general pedagogical competences, competences in the field of branch didactics and professional competences of the expert in relevant field. Teachers also participate in the implementation of the curriculum in a particular school and thus become part of the practical side of educational policy. The above-mentioned approaches thus create the basis for the subsequent investigation of "teacher agency" in the conditions of vocational education.</p> Peter Marinič Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on Management Leadership and Governance 2023-11-13 2023-11-13 19 1 488 494 10.34190/ecmlg.19.1.1904 What are the relations between the characteristics and context of the board and its effectivity in decision-making? <p>The decision-making process in boardrooms has a significant impact on organizational performance. In the last two decades, scientific research on the decision-making process in boardrooms has increased. This resulted in a substantial body of knowledge about boardroom factors and their relation to organizational performance. However, the effectiveness of the decision-making process in boardrooms is still mainly a black box. Amongst other things, scientific findings seem to contradict each other, which could mean additional insights are still missing.</p> <p>This research aims to contribute to a better understanding of this black box. This is done by providing an overview of the existing scientific literature on the relations between these factors, the circumstances, and the effectiveness of the boardroom. The study described in this paper is based on a preliminary literature research and insights from this study will be used to conduct a more in-depth structured meta-literature review.</p> <p>In addition to insights into the factors and characteristics that influence the decision-making process in boards and the mechanisms that influence the boards effectiveness, the most important insights for follow-up research from this study are: findings from earlier research seem contradicting, and the research area cannot be fully understood by observing it from a single- or even double lens (like boardroom characteristics, psychological factors or organizational perspective).</p> <p>Part of the explanations for the effectiveness of decision-making in boardrooms must be sought in variables that are difficult to observe, difficult to measure, under difficult circumstances from multiple scientific lenses and theories.</p> Paul Morsch Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on Management Leadership and Governance 2023-11-13 2023-11-13 19 1 495 504 10.34190/ecmlg.19.1.1954 Pre-recruiting HR marketing for new Gen talent acquisition: the mediating role of Word of Mouth <p>The purpose of this study is to investigate how, at the pre-recruitment stage, product brand awareness and publicity of a company affect the knowledge of the company's Employer Brand and the intention to apply for a job in this company. Furthermore, it will be investigated whether these associations are strengthened by the mediating effect of the positive Word of Mouth about the company as a desired employer. The Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM) software was used on a sample of 737 students and recently graduates from Greek public universities. Overall, the findings of our research indicate the impact of a company's product/service brand awareness on the formulation of positive comments about the company as an employer. Indeed, product knowledge, when linked to company publicity initiatives and both are leveraged in a general pre-recruiting marketing plan of the HR department, positive Word of Mouth (WOM) commentary is enhanced. The information that job seekers receive from employees' feedback helps them to gain practical and useful details about the work conditions and the opportunities for training and personal development within it. Moreover, through the descriptions of the employee experience in the company the job seekers’ intention to search employment in this particular employer is strengthened.</p> SOFIA PANAGIOTIDOU Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on Management Leadership and Governance 2023-11-13 2023-11-13 19 1 505 511 10.34190/ecmlg.19.1.1675 HR Analytics in The Commercial Aviation Sector: a literature review <p>HR Analytics is the area of Human Resources Management (HRM) that uses the techniques of artificial Intelligence, social sciences, and innovation to extract, treat, and present data for decision-making. This has been a big trend in HR in recent years, with already business cases, academic studies, and industry applications, but it is still in an early stage of development. The commercial aviation industry has people at the heart of its strategy, as it is a people-to-people service. But there are no satisfied customers without satisfied employees. In addition, the topic of aviation safety is a central one, and the sector has extensive regulations on the subject. Aviation safety is also based on human-machine interaction and crew resource management (CRM). People must therefore be in the core strategy of aviation companies because, for the provision of their service, the human factor in the interaction with the machine, the team, and the customer is a critical success factor. An appropriate approach to HR Analytics is to start with the problems that the business faces and, from there, create indicators and models that can measure them. In this paper, a sectoral and problem-based HR analytics is discussed, which is one of its main contributions. HR analytics techniques are descriptive, predictive, and prescriptive. Starting from the nature of the air operation and its problems, HR analytics is an essential strategy to better know and act on the evidence of aviation service and operation. The purpose of this publication is to understand what academic studies exist on the applications of HR Analytics to the aviation industry. Through a literature review, it was concluded that the aviation sector has also few academic studies about HR analytics; however, there are already some indicators and models that can point in the right direction for the future. This is an area that can help measure performance indicators of HR policies and provide management with important data for decision-making in human resources management. The results of this research are presented, future research paths are suggested, and the limitations of this study are pointed out.</p> António Pimenta de Brito Maria José Sousa Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on Management Leadership and Governance 2023-11-13 2023-11-13 19 1 512 519 10.34190/ecmlg.19.1.1706 Theoretical Research into Leadership for Sustainability <p>Given the social and environmental challenges facing all organizations, there is a need for new leadership models, methods, and tools for implementing organizational change for sustainable development. Thus, throughout this article, it is reviewed the current approaches to leadership for sustainability in terms of their conceptual frameworks and extant research, which all advocate a balanced stakeholder approach to leadership to address the social and environmental issues related to sustainability and sustainable development. Being drawn from spiritual and centered on leadership theories, the article offers a Global Leadership for Sustainability model that incorporates and extends the conceptual domain beyond current approaches to leadership for sustainability. Spirituality, through the qualities of self-transcendence and interconnectedness, is critical for sustainability and fundamental for Global Leadership for Sustainability. The article also emphasizes the importance of cultivating a Global Mindset for Sustainability, which incorporates two ethical principles—an ethic of remote moral responsibility and an ethic of care and compassion. As a result, global leaders for sustainability become more committed to moving beyond satisfying stakeholders’ demands for economic returns, towards a more sustainable, triple-bottom line, balanced approach. Finally, we discuss implications for theory, research, and practice. Global leaders for sustainability are consequently more dedicated to adopting a triple-bottom-line, balanced approach that goes beyond meeting stakeholders' needs for financial gains. To change the paradigm of leadership and develop leaders who can cooperate to tackle difficult sustainability challenges, sustainability education is crucial. An up-to-date and broadened understanding of leadership is what ‘leadership for sustainability' means, putting sustainable values into practice, leading from a paradigm of living processes, and developing an inclusive, collaborative, and reflective leadership style. To make recommendations for best practices in leadership development, this study reviews and integrates literature on leadership, leadership development, and sustainability education. The following are some recommended pedagogical strategies for developing leaders: self-observation and awareness, contemplation, inquiry into various and ecological viewpoints, experiential learning, and community engagement.</p> Ioana-Alexandra Sbîrcea Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on Management Leadership and Governance 2023-11-13 2023-11-13 19 1 520 526 10.34190/ecmlg.19.1.1961