European Conference on Research Methodology for Business and Management Studies https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/ecrm <p>The European Conference on Research Methods has been run on an annual basis since 2001. Conference Proceedings have been published each year and authors have been encouraged to upload their papers to university repositories. In addition the proceedings are indexed by a number of indexing bodies.</p> <p>From 2022 the publishers have decided to make all conference proceedings fully open access. Individual papers and full proceedings can be accessed via this system.</p> Academic Conferences International en-US European Conference on Research Methodology for Business and Management Studies 2049-0968 Q-sort Methodology - the systematic study of participant viewpoints in Social Research https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/ecrm/article/view/398 <p>In social sciences research there are instruments made up of questions and that aim to ascertain opinions, behaviors and attitudes, aim to find out how the person would act in a given situation, instead of putting the person to the test. Although there are no right or wrong answers, there is a tendency to respond in a socially acceptable way, even if the answer does not correspond to reality. This problem can be circumvented through the Q-sort methodology that combines quantitative and qualitative data and analytical techniques that are not present in other methods. In this way, it consists of presenting participants with a set of statements on a given topic and asking them to classify them according to their opinion, according to a predefined distribution, which, in general, is approximately normal. This methodology forces participants to distribute the score among the items on the scale, thus avoiding the constraints associated with social desirability and the tendency to respond in the same way or always through the midpoint to different questions. Another advantage is that it provides linearity and near-normality to the scale, which makes it possible to compare subjects more easily with each other. Notwithstanding its advantages, Q-sort methodology also has negative points because forced-choice measures produce ipsative data that lead to distorted scales and problematic psychometric properties. As the data are obtained by ordering a set of items or by forcefully choosing one item over another, it is impossible to reach very high or very low values on all scales, which gives rise to a large number of negative values that, in turn, they result in an average correlation between the scales, which is also negative. In view of the above, it was considered pertinent to review the research carried out on the q-sort methodology, presenting its main advantages and disadvantages.</p> Paula Lopes Rosa Rodrigues Miguel Varela Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Research Methodology for Business and Management Studies https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-05-23 2022-05-23 21 1 221 226 10.34190/ecrm.21.1.398 Editorial, Biographies and Review Committee https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/ecrm/article/view/427 <p>Dr. Manuel Au-Yong-Oliveira &amp; Professor Carlos Costa</p> Manuel Au-Yong-Oliveira Carlos Costa Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Research Methodology for Business and Management Studies https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-05-23 2022-05-23 21 1 Seeking Differentiated Instruction in Higher Education: An Analysis of the Literature https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/ecrm/article/view/417 <p>This research is a part of the Erasmus+ internationally funded InDo research project, involving a consortium led by an Italian higher education institution. An objective of the project is to include desk and field research on the topics of Understanding by Design and Differentiated Instruction, which led to this article having been produced, for knowledge transfer purposes. To carry out this research study, the Boolean operators "Understanding by design"; "Differentiated instruction"; "Higher education" and, "Cross-disciplinary material" applied to the title, abstract, and keywords in the Scopus database were used. Using all operators simultaneously returned no results. Only the Boolean operators "Differentiated instruction" AND "Higher education" and the operator "Cross-disciplinary material" alone brought results. 24 articles were found on Differentiated instruction and Higher education. This group of articles was previously analyzed in a Bibliometric way, using the "Bibliometrix" package from the free software R Studio. Regarding the searches for the term "Cross-disciplinary material", the Scopus database returned only 1 result, which was combined with the 24 articles previously identified, totaling a total of 25 articles related to the two themes. Given the difficulty of access - articles, books, and book chapters with restricted access - 6 investigations were excluded, leaving 19 potentially relevant articles, which were read in their entirety. From the analysis of the 19 articles selected for full reading, 1 investigation was excluded for not fitting the parameters of this research, resulting in a total of 18 articles that were analyzed using a meta-synthesis. After the analysis performed, it can be seen that the main theory used has been differentiated instruction coupled with issues such as standardized assessments for the identification of learning styles, personalized feedback instruments, online applications, the perception of self-efficacy, as well as concern for the development of analytical models for differentiated instruction. Less expressively, other theories that emerge from the analysis performed, are the flipped classroom, Universal Learning Design, a diagnostic assessment and interdisciplinary education.</p> Manuel Au-Yong-Oliveira Au-Yong-Oliveira Cicero Eduardo Walter Walter Andrea Mangiatordi Mangiatordi Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Research Methodology for Business and Management Studies https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-05-23 2022-05-23 21 1 1 10 10.34190/ecrm.21.1.417 Parental Leave as a Potential Demographic Policy Instrument in Russia: Mixed-Methods Research https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/ecrm/article/view/217 <p>In many countries, parental leave is an effective demographic policy measure. Its regulation is considered an important determinant of the birth rate. In Russia, the parental leave system is not flexible; however, the legislation provides for one of the longest parental leave in the world—36 months. According to a popular stereotype in Russia, as parental leave is longer than in other countries, there is no need to debate its effectiveness. This very reason may explain a lack of parental leave research in Russia.</p> <p>Our paper aims to demonstrate how mixed-methods research can be applied to study parental leave in Russia. In 2021, to analyse the problem in the Sverdlovsk Region (one of the largest), we did the following:</p> <p>1) surveyed 500 parents with both children under the age of 12 and currently living parents (i.e., grandparents);</p> <p>2) surveyed 500 grandparents with grandchildren under the age of 12.</p> <p>In both surveys, we used river sample. To increase the randomicity of the sample, we recruited respondents using multiple channels and sampled them with equal probability into the population analysed;</p> <p>3) conducted focus groups with parents having both children under the age of 12 and currently living parents and with grandparents having grandchildren under the age of 12.</p> <p>Our mixed-methods research yielded the following results.</p> <ol> <li>The parents surveyed view mothers as primary leave-takers. They also refer to grandmothers (most often, maternal ones) and fathers as potential leave-takers.</li> <li>Grandparents’ opinions on leave-takers are also diverse; their responses vary as much as parents’ ones. However, they are more restraint in terms of their own role as potential leave-takers.</li> <li>As focus groups revealed, “if a need arises”, parents are willing to delegate the right for parental leave to grandparents, who agree to take it.</li> </ol> <p>Our methodology is based on the mixed-methods research strategy. It allowed us to identify social attitudes towards the existing parental leave system in Russia and to draw attention to its transformation. The results may be of use when developing new mechanisms for the Russian state demographic policy.</p> Anna Bagirova Natalia Blednova Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Research Methodology for Business and Management Studies https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-05-23 2022-05-23 21 1 11 21 10.34190/ecrm.21.1.217 The relationship of the change context with the resilience of hotels: Proposal for a Research Framework on Hotels during the Covid-19 crisis https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/ecrm/article/view/287 <p>COVID-19 pandemic has brought many changes to the way that the tourist sector operates. Almost all of the tourist businesses are affected by the impact of the measures which were taken in order to deal with the effects of COVID-19. As a result there is high uncertainty on the internal and external environment that the management of tourist businesses would have to take into consideration. Indeed, the change context (internal and external environment) is unstable and this creates uncertainty. For this reason, this publication aims to develop a research framework which links the change context with the level of resilience of hotels during the COVID-19 crisis as well as the impact that this has on the performance. For this reason the paper recommends the use of Melián-Alzola et al (2020)’s research framework which is going to be enriched with the measure taken for COVID-19, which is its key contribution on the academia and the practitioners.</p> Dimitrios Belias Nikolaos Trihas Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Research Methodology for Business and Management Studies https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-05-23 2022-05-23 21 1 22 30 10.34190/ecrm.21.1.287 Wine tourism market research: Bringing the psychophysiology lab to the field https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/ecrm/article/view/160 <p>Wine tourism is of growing academic and business interest, being also acknowledged as an important driver of rural development. Successful management and marketing decisions, matching visitor demand, requires solid market data. The questionnaire-based survey is one of the most popular approaches to collect quantitative data in tourism, with statistics playing an important role in supporting management decisions. One of the advantages of this data collection method is the possibility of obtaining large amounts of data from large numbers of tourists in a relatively easy, economic, broadly accessible and not too time-consuming way. However, given the subjective character of self-report responses, which are highly influenced by aspects such as social desirability, conscious data processing, validity and reliability of the measures used, many experts argue that questionnaires are insufficient to fully understand human behavior, attitudes and feelings. One way to obtain more objective data is through the use of psychophysiological indicators such as peripheral nervous system measurements, usually collected in the laboratory. The artificial character of this collection method (in the lab) is recognized, however, as its main disadvantage. In the present work, an innovative methodology (through peripheral nervous system measures) for collecting objective data in wine tourism contexts is proposed, thus overcoming the subjectivity of survey data and the possible bias resulting from the collection of objective measures in artificial laboratory contexts. Visitors at two Bairrada wineries wore small portable and wireless sensors to capture their electrocardiogram and electrodermal activity during guided visits to the premises. A small hand-held push button allowed them to register any moment they found particularly interesting or exciting. Signals were recorded on a smartphone by the experimenter, who was part of the visitor group, and who also registered different stimuli and activities along the visit. Additionally, psychophysiological data were complemented by an interview and survey data to enhance the interpretation of results. Preliminary results will be presented, illustrating the potential of this method to produce important and valid evidence in wine tourism, to inform stakeholders about their market and allow better management decisions.</p> Pedro Bem-Haja Isabel Santos Diana Cunha Elisabeth Kastenholz Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Research Methodology for Business and Management Studies https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-05-23 2022-05-23 21 1 31 37 10.34190/ecrm.21.1.160 A Psychoanalytical Approach to Management Research: https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/ecrm/article/view/162 <p>Karl Popper has locked the reasoning of many researchers on a particular kind of rational thinking, that is, hypotheses stating and testing. For this reason, social sciences started to privilege a specific theory of personality. It is accurate to state that the common-sense knowledge, and resultant human "irrational" action, can be explained and even confronted by testing its assumptions. Nevertheless, Popper's categorization is not the only one possible. It neglects the irrationality of unconscious' intentions, a competing drive that directs human actions. In this paper, we discuss that, in accordance, management research and practice have strict relations with theories of personality that neglect the unconscious. For that reason, it assumes that humans are self-interested organisms like guinea pigs, neglecting this complementary supposition: the unconscious's intentions, structure, and dynamics that also drive human behavior, thinking, feeling, perceiving, and learning. The crucial integration of objective knowledge with the unconscious dynamic supposes the addition of the <em>psychoanalytical problem</em> to Popperian's psychological problem. Thus, the derivate capacity to explain human and social action understood as intention, plan, and act must consider conscious and unconscious intentions. The psychoanalytical approach to management research also provides ingenious methods like the awareness-enhancing interviews we present.</p> Evandro Bocatto Eloisa Perez-de-Toledo Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Research Methodology for Business and Management Studies https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-05-23 2022-05-23 21 1 38 45 10.34190/ecrm.21.1.162 KPI for the Evaluation of Growth Scenarios for the Strategic Organizational Development https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/ecrm/article/view/307 <p>Today's world faces constant change and increasing complexity. This also influences companies in their actions. In order to ensure growth and resilience, technology companies must innovate and strive for internal adaptability within the organization. A field of tension can be observed between the values of effectiveness and efficiency. Effective actions lead to the company and its products becoming better by doing the right things. Efficient actions allow the company and its products to become less costly by doing the things right. The expression of these values in the field of tension changes over the life cycle of a company. Strategic organizational development can thus only take place sustainably in balancing effective and efficient values.</p> <p>Based on these ideas, a performance indicator model was developed to promote value balance by assigning concrete parameter to several perspectives. Balance is not a static condition, but the basis for healthy and above all sustainable growth. Without balance, too much of a good thing is done and destructive exaggerations are the result. The model takes a holistic, systemic and balancing position.</p> <p>The main aim of this paper is therefore to describe the development, application and critical evaluation of this key performance indicator model to validate the underlying research methodology. The key performance indicator model is to be understood as a thought model, with the help of which the alignment of a company and its employees is to be achieved. The model is used to evaluate growth scenarios. As part of a case study, the organization, culture and environment of an exemplary company were examined with the help of representative workshops and expert interviews. The results of the status quo analysis were able to confirm the basic principles and logic of the key performance indicator system. Based on the information about the environment and organization gathered in the workshops and interviews, the KPI model was applied as an example to evaluate growth scenarios of an exemplary company.</p> <p>Finally, interviews were conducted with top managers with many years of management experience to evaluate the KPI system and examine its general validity. The applicability of the KPI model could be conclusively determined for innovation-driven technology companies in the transition between the growth and maturity phase.</p> Felix Budde Ronald Orth Lars Förster Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Research Methodology for Business and Management Studies https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-05-23 2022-05-23 21 1 46 55 10.34190/ecrm.21.1.307 Technology Audit - Procedure for the assessment of the technological maturity of applied R&D organizations https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/ecrm/article/view/364 <p>Applied research and development (R&amp;D) organizations – or research and technology organizations (RTOs) in a broader sense – strive to develop technological solutions that translate results from research and science into state-of-the-art products and services. This can only be achieved if technological resources and competences are effectively and efficiently used to build up competitive advantages. Therefore, the assessment of the technological capability can provide applied R&amp;D organizations with information on strengths and weaknesses in their specific technology areas, on the basis of which technology strategies can be derived to contribute to the development and training of substantial (core) competences, which in turn improve the quality of unique and differentiating products and services.</p> <p>The main objective of this paper is to describe the technology audit as a procedure for evaluating the technological maturity of applied research organizations. Hence, the focus will be put on the technological capabilities needed to execute the intended research activities on the way to becoming a reference in the respective technology area. In addition, the aim of the application of the procedure is to provide a detailed insight into the working methods of research institutions with focus on the R&amp;D portfolio (e.g. complexity of R&amp;D projects). Furthermore, the sustainable impact of R&amp;D projects of the applied R&amp;D organization (e.g. optimizations of customers processes) will be discussed, as well as the used &amp; developed technologies and the necessary competences to generate innovative solutions for the Brazilian industry.</p> Fabian Hecklau Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Research Methodology for Business and Management Studies https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-05-23 2022-05-23 21 1 56 65 10.34190/ecrm.21.1.364 Methodological procedure for the development of a qualitative and quantitative evaluation concept for project benefit assessment https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/ecrm/article/view/347 <p>The fourth industrial revolution not only brings great opportunities for the economy, but also poses major challenges for all stakeholders. Manufacturing companies in particular are affected by challenges such as a lack of innovative strength or the risk of being overtaken by innovative start-ups. However, the dynamic environment and the resulting complexity require faster and better decisions to remain competitive in the long term. Current business practices of established companies do not meet this challenge and risk losing control of their core business. Taking a purely technological approach to this subject harbors costly risks. Only the integration of the various individual technologies into a holistic digital strategy creates efficiency and new growth areas. To exploit the full potential of Industry 4.0 (I4.0) in the manufacturing industry, companies must therefore take a strategic view of the technological options and adapt their organizational structure and culture.</p> <p>The main objective of this paper is therefore to describe the procedure for developing a suitable evaluation concept for assessing the economic benefits of digitization projects. The evaluation concept to be developed is designed to be able to perform a multidimensional examination and evaluation of digitization projects in order to enable a quick and well-founded decision on the implementation as well as the prioritization of a specific project or several projects from a qualitative and quantitative point of view. The paper therefore describes a seven-step approach to developing a multidimensional matrix diagram that serves as the basic structure for such an evaluation concept.</p> <p>To develop a suitable evaluation concept, the research focus will be carefully examined and in-depth research on two overarching themes will be conducted, resulting in the definition of appropriate evaluation criteria: From a methodological point of view, existing assessment models are considered in general and the strengths and weaknesses of these models are discussed. From a practical perspective, the special requirements of digitization and Industry 4.0 will be addressed. To this end, expert interviews will be conducted and a total of 100 practical examples will be selected from an extensive database and analyzed in a criteria-oriented manner in order to derive assessment dimensions and assessment criteria from both a quantitative and qualitative perspective.</p> Gamze Gül Hizal Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Research Methodology for Business and Management Studies https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-05-23 2022-05-23 21 1 66 75 10.34190/ecrm.21.1.347 Content analysis or thematic analysis https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/ecrm/article/view/316 <p>Research has a long tradition of quantitative research which still dominates many university courses on research methods. Qualitative research is a younger phenomenon that was established in research after the second world war. An emerging research field that needed new analysis methods tailored for qualitative data. Two of the most frequently used approaches in qualitative data analysis are content analysis and thematic analysis. In several aspects content analysis and thematic analysis both share a common approach to analytically examine qualitative data, and the fact that they have been used interchangeably has made it difficult for the more unexperienced researchers to distinguish and choose between them. The aim of this study is to examine doctoral students’ perceptions of qualitative analysis with content analysis and thematic analysis. The study had a qualitative approach with data collected from two webinars on qualitative data analysis, where a total of 76 doctoral students participated. Data consists of participant reflections in a Padlet on content analysis and thematic analysis at the two webinars. Webinar participants have given their consent to use their reflections in the Padlet for research. Content analysis with an abductive coding approach was used to analyse the collected data and formulate categories that answer the study’s aim and research question. Results show both perceived similarities and differences between content analysis and thematic analysis. Both are perceived to have a similar process in the coding of data, although content analysis has a wider selection of coding approaches and thematic analysis support deeper immersion. Content analysis is also perceived as more practical and straightforward, while thematic analysis is perceived as more intuitive and faster to learn. Both content analysis and thematic analysis are perceived to have individual opportunities and challenges that make them appropriate for different types of research. Findings presented in this study can be used by researchers at any level to explore similarities and differences between content analysis and thematic analysis, and where to apply them in research.</p> Niklas Humble Peter Mozelius Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Research Methodology for Business and Management Studies https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-05-23 2022-05-23 21 1 76 81 10.34190/ecrm.21.1.316 Understanding lived experiences through inclusive lens of Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) and Narrative Analysis (NA) https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/ecrm/article/view/387 <p>The paper presents the findings of a PhD study carried out and completed in 2021. The study adopted Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) and elements of Narrative Analysis (NA) as an inclusive methodological approach to investigate and understand the experiences of educated professionals of African origin living in Finland. Through the voices of ten participants (five females and five males) in semi-structured interviews, the study provides insights into the experiences of the participants and created a basis for new hybrid epistemologies through a reconceptualisation of Western working cultures and discourses.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>The study makes several contributions. Within postcoloniality, it contributed to a discussion on the postcolonial interrogative space as well as postcolonial identity by proposing concepts such as ‘duality of being’, ‘belonging ambivalence’, and ‘validation ambiguity’. Within social studies, the study reconceptualised the notion of positive identity validation. Regarding sensemaking, the study contested the claim that individuals change and adopt various identities according to the demands of different situations. Instead the study &nbsp;proposes&nbsp; that &nbsp;the sense of self, performance, and representation of&nbsp; identity are interrelated, and &nbsp;influenced by power.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>As the study was carried out by a culturally diverse researcher (not purely western and sharing socio-historical commonalities with the participants), it also disrupted epistemic colonisation and cultural imperialism.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Methodologically, the study widened the application of Interpretive Phenomenological Analysis primarily used in psychology. By combining IPA with elements of interpretive poetics borrowed from NA, it showed how IPA can be combined with other methodological tools. This will hopefully encourage researchers from other fields, not only practitioners of psychology, to apply IPA in their studies.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Anna Kimberley Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Research Methodology for Business and Management Studies https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-05-23 2022-05-23 21 1 82 90 10.34190/ecrm.21.1.387 Developing a framework of information governance addressing online health information quality https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/ecrm/article/view/153 <p>The adoption of the Internet has increased a large number of users that search for online health information to make healthcare decisions. The quality of these decisions heavily relies on the quality of information identified on the Internet. Prior studies focused on assessing the quality of online health information. Although a few researchers encouraged the use of information governance frameworks to manage the information, while addressing the information quality was not the focus of these frameworks. This paper presents a research protocol that outlines planned steps and procedures of a systematic review and a Delphi method, in order to develop a framework of information governance towards online health information quality. The components in the framework are proposed to be divided into micro, meso and macro levels. Research protocol for establishing the framework has been developed and we have started its implementation. The outcomes of this study will be state-of-the-art of empirical evidence supported to develop an information quality governance framework, establishing links between the components that have received limited attention in the literature. From a practical perspective, the proposed framework will help guide information governance practices from all relevant sectors of society for addressing online health information quality.</p> Caihua Liu Guochao Peng Shufeng Kong Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Research Methodology for Business and Management Studies https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-05-23 2022-05-23 21 1 91 102 10.34190/ecrm.21.1.153 Collecting data online from young students during a pandemic. Reflections. https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/ecrm/article/view/301 <p>As researchers we need to be able to reflect deeply to constantly improve the research processes.&nbsp; Reflection can help researchers to engage critically and objectively with the worldview while acknowledging what works and what doesn’t. This paper focuses on reflections emerging from online data collection during a pandemic.</p> <p>This paper presents what was learned from conducting online research by collecting data through an online survey administered to school children during the Covid-19 pandemic.&nbsp; Following a brief review of relevant literature, the research process employed is outlined.&nbsp; This includes the sample, measures used and ethics clearance.&nbsp; Secondly, we explore the advantages and limitations of conducting online research.&nbsp; In particular we explore the issues that were encountered and how online research made data collection from a school possible during a pandemic. The main stumbling blocks were related to: (a) parental engagement and the subsequent collection of consent forms; (b) issues that emerged during the actual data collection.&nbsp; These issues and others are explored through a reflection process using cycle outlined by Gibbs (1988).</p> <p>The aim of the study was to explore how students aged between 9 – 11 years perceived their own creative self-concept and their wellbeing at school.&nbsp; In this quantitative study, 530 students coming from different schools were surveyed using an online platform.&nbsp; Participants were recruited through their respective schools following the dissemination of information letters and consent forms.&nbsp; While various advantages emerged from conducting online research, a number of challenges were encountered throughout the process.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; This data collection exercise presented an opportunity for learning and growth through a process of reflection and evaluation.&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Margaret Mangion Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Research Methodology for Business and Management Studies https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-05-23 2022-05-23 21 1 103 110 10.34190/ecrm.21.1.301 Measuring Political Trust: Recognising the Drivers of Trust in Public Institutions https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/ecrm/article/view/214 <p>Citizens’ trust is fundamental to the proper functioning of public institutions. This paper explores<br>how the construct of ‘political trust’ can be measured to reflect the underlying theoretical factors driving trust<br>levels. It proposes a quantitative methodology to develop a scale that measures trust in public regulatory<br>institutions. Some measurements of trust are dependent on a scale for questions such as ‘What is your level of<br>trust in…?’ Alternatively, composite indicators are used, based on, for example, trust levels in a set of public<br>institutions. Such measures do not recognise what influences a citizen’s trust. The methodology presented<br>here is also a composite measure but incorporates nine drivers and their extent of influence on a citizen’s<br>trust. These drivers, identified through a literature review on political trust, include consistency, transparency,<br>outcomes, competence, integrity, openness and inclusiveness, fairness, reliability and responsiveness. The<br>proposed methodology follows four steps: (i) It determines drivers that citizens recognise as influential on<br>their trust in a regulatory institution; (ii) it establishes the extent to which the drivers are influential; (iii) the<br>institution is rated on a scale for each factor; and (iv) each factor rating is weighted on the extent of its<br>influence and a weighted average is computed to determine the level of trust. This methodology was applied<br>to measure trust in Malta’s environmental authorities following a demerger. A survey was conducted with the<br>questionnaire’s design reflecting this methodology. The empirical findings confirmed that all these factors lead<br>to trust, but variations in the extent to which each driver influences a citizen’s trust exist. Responsiveness,<br>outcomes, integrity and openness emerged as slightly less influential on citizens’ trust, whereas fairness,<br>consistency, reliability, transparency and competence were the most influential factors. Significant differences<br>are recorded when comparing methods of measuring trust for the two institutions. This composite measure<br>recognises the multidimensional nature of trust, is grounded in the construct’s theoretical foundations and<br>provides reasons for variations in trust levels. Institutions can adopt this approach as a tool to regularly<br>monitor citizens’ trust and identify areas requiring attention.</p> Marie-Louise Mangion George Frendo Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Research Methodology for Business and Management Studies https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-05-23 2022-05-23 21 1 111 121 10.34190/ecrm.21.1.214 A Transdisciplinary Approach in Studying Organisational Transformations https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/ecrm/article/view/159 <p>Digital transformation has a notorious record of failures. Maybe the enterprise architects do not have a holistic model to study and model the organisational transformation. An enterprise consists of several structural components, which vary from culture to technology layers defined in the Enterprise Architecture. Usually, the transformation of an enterprise involves most of the interrelated layers in connection to the environment around the organisation. <br>Seemingly, no single science provides frameworks to study the transformation of a whole system of systems (including the layers of enterprise strategy, culture, business, information, and technology). Therefore, the paper proposes a transdisciplinary approach combined with spiral research design as a framework for the business sciences and enterprise architecture. The proposed framework connects different sciences of sociology, business, strategy, history, information, and technology to understand the evolutionary particularities of each layer of enterprise in transformation. The transdisciplinary approach supports the modelling of the entire enterprise in all of its complexities and over a longer time. In contrast, the current monodisciplinary focuses only on parts of an enterprise at a particular window of time. By definition, transdisciplinary research fuses findings across the disciplines, between the disciplines and beyond the disciplines. <br>Furthermore, the framework supports spiralling between scientific methods and non-scientific practices. The case study utilised a spiralling research process that provided a tighter feedback loop from application in practice to model development in theory. The transdisciplinary spiralling approach provided an iterative approach to verify the outcome, reduce the complexity, and address the practitioner’s reality. Hopefully, the research approach used in the case study and the tool created will improve enterprise architecture practice to ensure a successful digital transformation of military organisations.</p> JUHA KAI MATTILA Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Research Methodology for Business and Management Studies https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-05-23 2022-05-23 21 1 122 131 10.34190/ecrm.21.1.159 Brand Awareness and Promotion in Social Networks Based on the Example of a Lithuanian Supermarket Chain https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/ecrm/article/view/206 <p>With the rapid spread of technology, consumers spend most of their free time on computers, smartphones, and social networks. It is becoming increasingly difficult for businesses to reach the consumer directly, and more and more businesses are reorganizing all or part of the electronic space. This process was particularly evident during the COVID-19 pandemic. Merchants are discovering ever new ways to present their goods and services. Thus, the changing needs of the user also change the means of promotion. However, the question constantly arises, what factors influence one or another consumer's choice, what increases the brand awareness, how to promote it most effectively on social networks?</p> <p>We carried out a systematic and comparative analysis of the concepts published in the scientific literature, a study of the brand, brand awareness, brand promotion concepts, and factors increasing brand awareness.</p> <p>The article aims to identify the factors that increase brand awareness and, based on the results of the Eye-tracking system research, to make suggestions for increasing brand awareness on social networks.</p> <p>Research methods: a systematic and comparative analysis of concepts and methods published in the scientific literature, statistical processing, expert survey, research of the Eye-tracking system, multicriteria evaluation</p> Ieva Meidutė-Kavaliauskienė Renata Činčikaitė Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Research Methodology for Business and Management Studies https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-05-23 2022-05-23 21 1 132 140 10.34190/ecrm.21.1.206 The challenges of writing an effective literature review for students and new researchers of business. https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/ecrm/article/view/169 <p><strong> </strong>The literature review is a key part of a dissertation or journal paper, yet it is also one of the areas that is often the most challenging. The multidisciplinary nature of business and management studies adds to the demands of writing a critical review by deciding which theories, subject areas and texts to interrogate. There are a number of approaches that students and academics might take in writing a literature review that require a differing approach, resources and timeframe. The purpose of this conference paper is to review the literature and develop an understanding of the complexities and challenges faced both by students and new researchers in preparing journal papers. We share our experience as faculty with teaching and writing at undergraduate and postgraduate level, and identify a number of the problems typically faced. Recent trends with regard to the proliferation of open access journals are outlined, and a journal Editor addresses common mistakes that lead to poor submissions and reviews. A popular business school text is amongst those views considered. Specialist types of software for analysis associated with the complexities of Systematic literature reviews are also outlined. We close with guidelines for success and conclusions. More research is encouraged as students now have fewer opportunities to develop the skills required for critical writing.</p> <p> </p> <p>Key words: type of literature review, critical review, systematic reviews, narrative reviews</p> Anthony Mitchell Martin Rich Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Research Methodology for Business and Management Studies https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-05-23 2022-05-23 21 1 141 148 10.34190/ecrm.21.1.169 Trait Emotional Intelligence & Leadership: A study of managers and employees https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/ecrm/article/view/330 <p>Over the past 30 years, Emotional Intelligence has been gaining ground in the field of business and management. Much has been written about the importance of Emotional Intelligence (EI) in leadership, which overlaps with the concept of management (Young &amp; Dulewicz, 2008). Although, there are many researches into the connection between leadership and emotional intelligence, there seems to be a research gap between Trait Emotional Intelligence and Transformational Leadership (TL). This study examines the effects of the factors of Trait EI (emotionality, self–control, sociability, well–being, adaptability and motivation) (TraitEI, 2021; Petrides, 2009) on the dimensions of Transformational Leadership (vision, inspirational communication, supportive leadership, intellectual stimulation, personal recognition) (Rafferty and Griffin, 2004). Two groups were surveyed for this study. One (with 74 participants) consisted of managers who work in public or private sector’ organizations. The other sample (with 120 participants) consisted of employees who work in public or private sector’ organizations. The aim of the study was to investigate the connection between Trait EI and Transformational Leadership from the manager’s point of view, and from the employees’ point of view. Are there any differences between those two points of view? Are there any differences between Trait EI and Transformational Leadership due to the sectors (private – public) of the organizations? The tools used in this research include the following: a) Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire (TEI-QUE SF) by Petrides (2009) and b) Rafferty’s and Griffin’s (2004) Five Dimensions of Transformational Leadership Test. The current paper hopes to contribute to the comprehension of the linkage among Trait EI and TL on Greek organizations managers’, and trigger future empirical research in the area.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Angelos Ntalakos Ioannis Rossidis Dimitrios Belias Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Research Methodology for Business and Management Studies https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-05-23 2022-05-23 21 1 149 156 10.34190/ecrm.21.1.330 The external factors leading to product innovation outcomes in the Visegrad Group-Structural Equation Model Approach https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/ecrm/article/view/212 <p>This paper empirically investigates the role of external factors which drives small and medium enterprises product innovation in the Visegrad Group. An empirical analysis is based on the Business Environment and Enterprise Performance Survey conducted by the World bank with a combined sample of 2002 small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Poland, and Hungary. The results of the Structural Equation Model indicate that product innovation performance is slightly higher among SMEs that are proactive in strengthening their relationships with innovative suppliers, users, and consumers. Furthermore, the findings of this paper support the view that SMEs will have better new product development results if they improve their relationships with foreign-owned firms and collaborate with external research firms. Again, the empirical study will give insights into the SME's product innovation outcomes in the Visegrad Group and a wake-up call to SME's practitioners and stakeholders on the need to collaborate externally across the European regions.</p> Michael Amponsah Odei Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Research Methodology for Business and Management Studies https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-05-23 2022-05-23 21 1 157 162 10.34190/ecrm.21.1.212 The “Conceptual Framework” as a Threshold Concept for Investigating Processes in Leadership Research https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/ecrm/article/view/156 <p>A process perspective in research has been largely neglected, including in studies of leadership. This neglect is partly because of the dominant quantitative variance approaches to research that have been adopted in many disciplines. However, it is also because of the difficulties that researchers encounter in conceptualising and investigating their research from a process perspective. This process of conceptualisation is particularly challenging for post-graduate students. Threshold concepts are critical to student learning, providing gateways to understanding particular fields or disciplines. This paper adopts this idea of threshold concepts and relevant teaching practices to illustrate its use in post-graduate students' teaching and learning activities to develop a conceptual framework that can investigate a process. Several key topics are addressed: How conceptual frameworks are introduced and taught; Differentiating quantitative variance conceptual frameworks from qualitative process conceptual frameworks; and Explaining and illustrating how to conduct process theory in qualitative research using the case study method, grounded theory method, and critical incident technique.</p> Noel Pearse Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Research Methodology for Business and Management Studies https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-05-23 2022-05-23 21 1 163 170 10.34190/ecrm.21.1.156 Caught in a net: Opportunities and Challenges of a Netnographic Study https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/ecrm/article/view/199 <p>This paper reports on the opportunities and challenges associated with the use of the qualitative methodology of netnography, an interpretative method which represents a written description of fieldwork emerging from on-line or computer mediated data. Specifically, a humanist netnography which focussed on answering research questions connected with deep social values with the aim to influence social change within the context of business and management research was applied. Over the course of 26 months, a total of 2033 comments from a bespoke, in-house social media monitoring tool were analysed and ratified through triangulation with 107 posts from an engagement survey. The data was captured within an automation and engineering organisation in the private sector in England.&nbsp;&nbsp; The context of the study was to use netnographic research to explore the impact on employees subjected to the implementation of multiple, consecutive redundancy programmes. The aim was to understand areas of concern for employee wellbeing and identify opportunities to improve the redundancy implementation strategy. Humanist netnography was applied to allow a specific focus on the culture of the community within the organisational setting, and the emotions experienced amongst employees within this community. The findings highlight that netnograhic research can offer rich and meaningful data when used in a controlled, digital environment for organisations as well as for academic research.&nbsp; This study discusses the opportunities associated with netnography and how the use of in-house bespoke social media monitoring tools can help drive and improve organisational effectiveness. In addition, this paper identifies challenges associated with the use of netnography such as the little perceived value of emoticons defined as symbolic netnography, as real meaning were found in the expressed words. Concerns with respect to ethical considerations and protecting individual participants when using netnographic data are discussed.</p> Madeleine Stevens Terri McGarry Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Research Methodology for Business and Management Studies https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-05-23 2022-05-23 21 1 171 178 10.34190/ecrm.21.1.199 Wrapping up a Business and Public Administration Research Report https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/ecrm/article/view/230 <p>Like the first component of a research report (introduction to the research), the last component (research summary, conclusions, limitations, and recommendations) is an important component in business and public administration research as is the case in any humanities and social science research. In sum, the ‘introduction to the research’ component focuses on conceptualising the research, that is, ‘what’ research we are pursuing and ‘why’. The ‘research summary, conclusions, limitations, and recommendations’ focuses on <em>four</em> related aspects of a research report. First, it provides for the outputs of research by summarising its process and content. Second, it provides for the outcomes of research by pointing out its conclusions. Third, it documents aspects that took away (limitations) from the research process and its resulting content. Lastly, based on the foregoing, it proposes some policy, operational, practical, and future research recommendations. However, when undertaking this ultimate component, we often fail to explicitly tie in all that happened (research process) and how this led to the content. Therefore, this paper pursues the question, ‘how can we effectively summarise a business and public administration research report and critically point out its conclusions as well as limitations and recommendations’. In doing so, we propose some approaches and considerations when wrapping up our business and public administration research. Generally, we should realise that this component feeds off and links in with the other five components of a research report, implying that its quality is only as good as the quality of the other components. Further, since this component also feeds into the other components of a research report, we can use it to improve our research report especially the first component (research conceptualisation) and the second (the conceptual framework). Specifically, the four subcomponents namely, research summary, conclusions, limitations, and recommendations, are interlinked and, therefore, we should have this in mind when dealing with this component. Like any other component, it should be well structured, well written, and its content comprehensive and critical. We should remember that it is a platform for us to stand out from anyone else doing similar research. We believe that the approach proposed in this paper provides a firm starting point for wrapping up our business and public administration research.</p> Kambidima Wotela Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Research Methodology for Business and Management Studies https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-05-23 2022-05-23 21 1 179 189 10.34190/ecrm.21.1.230 The evidence of case study research in Business Management: https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/ecrm/article/view/285 <div><span lang="EN-US">The case study is one of the preferred research methods in Business Management field due two main reasons, i) it is recommended for exploring new themes, subjects, relations, or contexts, and ii) it helps the researcher to build theory from analyzed case(s). Despite the extensive contributions from different authors in management research for addressing the case study method, the definition, constitution, and operationalization of evidence analyses are still not fully clear. This research has as goal to fulfil this gap in the research methods literature by defining, constituting, and guiding researchers in operationalizing the evidence analyses for case study research. In this research, the evidence concept was triangulated from Forensic Sciences in order to achieve a more specific and detailed definition. The notions of quality and types of evidence are revisited. Thus, evidence from empirical case studies is analyzed aiming to provide its constitution. The manuscript offers a guideline for researchers in the case study method for better identifying, gathering, analyzing, and presenting evidence found from empirical research.</span></div> Marcos Ferasso Cícero Eduardo Walter Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Research Methodology for Business and Management Studies https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-05-23 2022-05-23 21 1 209 212 10.34190/ecrm.21.1.285 Antecedents of crowdsourcing in science: scale development and initial testing https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/ecrm/article/view/352 <p>Crowdsourcing in science has become a growing field of research interest. Although the importance of crowdsourcing in science along with its barriers and requirements have been well recognized in the literature, many questions remain open. One of them refers to factors that determine the intention of academics to use crowdsourcing in science. Besides, previous research is held back by the lack of a rigorous measuring instrument. The aim of the article is to identify the antecedents of crowdsourcing in science, as well as the construction and initial testing of the measuring scale. Identifying the antecedents of crowdsourcing in science followed a combined approach, i.e., systematic literature review and nine focus group discussions were used. The process of developing the scale and its initial testing includes a pilot study conducted among 66 researchers. The final scale consists of 38 items covering the five antecedents of crowdsourcing in science.</p> Regina Lenart-Gansiniec Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Research Methodology for Business and Management Studies https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-05-23 2022-05-23 21 1 213 215 10.34190/ecrm.21.1.352 PRISMA GUIDELINES FOR SYSTEMATIC AND SCOPING REVIEWS: CULTURAL MAPPING OF CREATIVE INDUSTRIES https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/ecrm/article/view/272 <p>While policymakers have had a great interest in debating Cultural and Creative Industries (CCIs), there is a lack of literature presenting a systematic overview of existing relevant research regarding CCIs mapping. &nbsp;This paper discusses and compares PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) guidelines for Systematic Review (SR) and PRISMA for Scoping Review (ScR) for synthesizing research on CCIs mapping. ‘A systematic review attempts to collate all empirical evidence that fits pre-specified eligibility criteria to answer a specific research question. It uses explicit, systematic methods that are selected to minimize bias, thus providing reliable findings from which conclusions can be drawn and decisions made’ (Liberati et al. 2009: 65). ScR ‘(…) follow a systematic approach to map evidence on a topic and identify main concepts, theories, sources, and knowledge gaps’ (Tricco et al. 2018: 467). After analyzing and applying the guidelines and further documentation on both protocols, the ScR revealed to be more suitable in a complex field with distinct terminologies, production contexts, methodologies and objectives. Since certain topics in SR become optional, ScR is easier to apply in fields in which methods are difficult to compare and quantify, such as the Arts and Humanities.</p> Luana Santos Ana Luísa Sousa Luís Teixeira Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Research Methodology for Business and Management Studies https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-05-23 2022-05-23 21 1 216 219 10.34190/ecrm.21.1.272 Deriving a Theoretical Framework for Interpreting Management Research Results in South Africa https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/ecrm/article/view/418 <p>Drawing from a study investigating performance management in South African public institutions, this article highlights the significance of literature review as a technique for deriving a theoretical framework for interpreting public management research results. Specifically, the article argues that the process of developing an interpretive framework begins with understanding the difference between a conceptual frameworks and a theoretical framework. Understanding this distinction is important because students and seasoned researchers often treat these concepts as synonyms, of which they are not. As a result, most postgraduate management students in South Africa struggle to effectively use literature review as a technique for constructing a framework for interpreting their research findings. Exacerbating this struggle is that most universities do not offer structured teaching on how to do literature review and specifically use it to construct a theoretical framework. Therefore, this article provides guidance on how postgraduate management students in South Africa should effectively use literature review to develop a framework for interpreting research findings. In developing this guidance, the article drew from an ongoing research and existing literature on research conceptualisation to demonstrate the significance of literature review as a technique for interpreting research results. In other words, the article applies a combination of research theory and practice to contribute knowledge on how to construct a theoretical framework for interpreting research results.</p> Basia Dennis Bless Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Research Methodology for Business and Management Studies https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-05-23 2022-05-23 21 1 191 198 10.34190/ecrm.21.1.418 Using Mixed-Method Technique to Investigate Role of Local Governments in City Branding https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/ecrm/article/view/164 <p>Local governments provide a range of local services, preserve the life and liberty of residents, creating space for democratic participation and civic dialogue, supporting market-led and environmentally sustainable development. City branding supplies the principles for the city developing policy to sustain the local development. In other words, city branding means being powerful to face the increasing wild competition for resources, investment, and tourism facilities, both for addressing crucial social issues and cultural variation. The purpose of this study is (i) to investigate the role of local governments in city branding, (ii) to determine city branding contribution to local economic development (LED). Although there are plenty place branding techniques in the world, the success of the city branding strategy cannot be performed without the participation of a local government.</p> <p>In addition, the current study selects the city of Durban in the Province of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa as the context of the study and a local government to focus on. The problem is that the city of Durban has not been successful at making the city competitive enough to attract the needed investments. The city officials have also not been effectively marketing the city to the world to make known of its inherent potentials. This study seeks to overcome this issue by developing city branding strategies. The city management need to take proactive action in implementing them to effectively market the city to the world.</p> <p>To achieve objectives, the study adopts the form of a mixed-methods approach, using quantitative (survey questionnaire) and qualitative (in-depth interview) as methods and instruments for data collection. The study follows a sequential design starting with quantitative and followed by qualitative data collection. Since the study employs both quantitative and qualitative methods, both purposive sampling (for qualitative phase) and simple random sampling (for quantitative phase) techniques will be selected. The researcher selected participants from Durban municipality. The study’s sample size constitutes 350 participants (N=320 was surveyed) and (30 were interviewed). The researcher analysed the data collected with questionnaires through descriptive and inferential statistics and data collected using in-depth interviews through content analysis.</p> Simangaliso Bayabonga Zulu Maxwell Phiri Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Research Methodology for Business and Management Studies https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-05-23 2022-05-23 21 1 199 207 10.34190/ecrm.21.1.164