European Conference on Social Media https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/ecsm <p>The European Conference on Social Media has been run on an annual basis since 2014. Conference Proceedings have been published each year and authors have been encouraged to upload their papers to university repositories. In addition the proceedings are indexed by a number of indexing bodies.</p> <p>From 2022 the publishers have decided to make all conference proceedings fully open access. Individual papers and full proceedings can be accessed via this system.</p> <p><strong>PLEASE NOTE THAT IF YOU WISH TO SUBMIT A PAPER TO THIS CONFERENCE YOU SHOULD VISIT THE CONFERENCE WEBSITE AT<a href="https://www.academic-conferences.org/conferences/ecsm/"> https://www.academic-conferences.org/conferences/ecsm/</a> THIS PORTAL IS FOR AUTHORS OF ACCEPTED PAPERS ONLY.</strong></p> Academic Conferences International en-US European Conference on Social Media 2055-7213 Editorial, Biographies and Review Committee https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/ecsm/article/view/1280 <p>Edited by</p> <p>Dr Iwona Lupa-Wójcik</p> Iwona Lupa-Wójcik Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on Social Media https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2023-05-11 2023-05-11 10 1 Origins of Cyberwarfare: How the Internet got Weaponized https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/ecsm/article/view/1270 <p>Cyberspace was until last decade and half a perfect additional intelligence gathering tool. Within a phase of time during the spread of the world wide web, the cyberspace expanded outside the boundaries of intelligence gathering to a perfect weapon in the hands of both state and non-state actors for destabilizing or devastating the state of critical infrastructures of perceived enemy or competitors. In the heart of the storm, Social Scientists have either focused on extensive definitions and clarifications of cyberwar, others are fixated on explaining the various emerging dangers of cyber weapons on society, like the consequences of weaponizing the cyberspace against a nation’s power grid, nuclear command, and control systems, neutralizing a petrochemical plant, paralyzing a government’s health care or governance structure and possibilities of manipulating elections. But few, if any have considered the question which is central to this paper: How did the cyberspace evolve from an intelligence tool to a cyberweapon against critical infrastructures? The obvious answer is that the magnified global access and use of networked systems provided the perfect battle space for deploying cyberweapons. The preceding explanation is essentially correct, but it is entirely lacking in detail explaining how cyberspace became weaponized? Under what conditions was cyberspace purely an intelligence tool. Under what conditions is cyberspace weaponized? This research incorporates these and other questions into a framework through the means of a model designed to aid understanding of how the cyberspace evolve from an intelligence tool to a destructive weapon targeted at critical infrastructures. Primary sources include relatively untapped 107 Congress Laws on Cyber related legislations. From the 105th congress to the current 116th congress, 1, 177 legislations have been introduced on cyber or cyber related issues. Other primary sources include White House fact sheets, statements, press releases, President Trump’s 2018 National Cyber Security Strategies, President Obama’s 2016 Cyber Security National Action Plan, and cyber related executive orders, statements, and press releases from President Johnson of the last 5 US administrations.</p> Ada Peter Ujunwa Ohakpougwu Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on Social Media https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2023-05-09 2023-05-09 10 1 364 372 10.34190/ecsm.10.1.1270 The Image Rights Over Social Media Profile: Whose Identity is it Anyway? https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/ecsm/article/view/1239 <p>We live in an online identity age where employees use their creativity to make their profiles distinctive to attract clients and collaborators. Social media profiles give employees, businesses, and organisations commercial advantages in their respective markets. However, social media profiles can cause problems when employees leave organisations. It is in the interests of the employer to maintain relations with clients that are connected to an employee’s profile. However, given that a social media profile is made up of personality attributes, the employee has a legal and social interest in the commercial value of their identity. This article critically assesses whether image rights can protect the social media profile as an attribute of a person’s identity when the profile has been used in the course of employment. The article begins with a legal analysis that raises questions about the nature and value of a social media profile as an aspect of the right to identity under the South African law of delict. The paper concludes with recommendations on how image rights can protect the employees’ interests over a social media profile even after their term of employment as their identity is inseparable from their person.</p> Nomalanga Mashinini Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on Social Media https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2023-05-05 2023-05-05 10 1 346 352 10.34190/ecsm.10.1.1239 Sovereign Wealth Funds' (SWFs') social media strategies https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/ecsm/article/view/1235 <p>It is estimated that there are currently 100 major Sovereign Wealth Funds (SWFs) in operation worldwide, which command an asset total of some US$10.31tr (SWFI, 2023). SWFs are thus the largest class of nontraditional (alternative) pooled investment vehicles by assets under management (outstripping by far more conspicuous hedge-, private equity- or exchange traded funds (TheCityUK, 2021). Although SWFs tend to pursue a variety of objectives or their combinations: efficient management of foreign exchange (f/x) reserves, socioeconomic development, pension reform, macroeconomic stabilization and direct investments, their overriding goal is an intergenerational transfer of wealth – in conformity with the tenets of sustainable development (Brundtland, 1987). Despite fiduciary mandates to manage the savings of entire countries, states or provinces, SWFs tend to be highly opaque - their information disclosures performed via traditional media are scrimpy, infrequent and irregular. Most SWFs, although theoretically accountable to their societies, including the future generations of their beneficiaries, tend to shy away from social media engagement, i.e. the very media that such beneficiaries will increasingly use. The primary hypothesis set and examined in this research is thus a pervading and chronic lack of proactive social media policies by most SWFs. Although 78 SWFs maintain proprietary websites and some even use selected social media platforms to promulgate user-oriented content, they fail to engage societies (their primary stakeholders) in any form of interactive dialogue or accountability. SWFs’ use of social media is thus primarily geared to disseminating self-selected scraps of information without any pretense to comprehensiveness, regularity and interactivity. The paper empirically examines the social media strategies of most active SWFs and their role in enhancing the social accountability of their operations. The research also raises the need for more public awareness of SWFs’ objectives and activity.</p> Piotr Wisniewski Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on Social Media https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2023-05-05 2023-05-05 10 1 353 363 10.34190/ecsm.10.1.1235 Short-term Impact of Instagram on Livelihoods of Artisans at Accra Arts Centre https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/ecsm/article/view/1226 <p>The Accra Arts Centre in Ghana is a physical commercial hub for over eight hundred artisans. However, due to an ongoing construction project, the Marine Drive Project, the artisans' livelihoods are threatened. The Marine Drive Project aims to transform parts of the Accra coastline into a residential business district; hence will demolish the current Accra Arts Centre. Therefore, there is a need to explore sustainable livelihoods – ones that withstand stresses and shocks, such as the Marine Drive Project. Within the sustainable livelihoods framework, socially sustainable livelihoods encompass the economic gain that persons can derive from meeting their needs and affording them a decent living – such as the economic gain the artisans get from selling. To promote this social livelihood and withstand the stress of the project, artisans can use Instagram for commerce due to its visual emphasis, social features and embedded e-commerce platform. The Digital Business Transformation Initiative has taught about 120 artisans how to use Instagram for trade, and this research investigates its impact on the artisans' livelihood. Through the literature reviewed, brand awareness is a step towards increasing the sales volume on social commerce. Therefore, the impact on brand awareness was studied to investigate the short-term effect of Instagram on the artisans' business. The independent variable is the number of followers the artisan has, and the dependent variables are the frequency of posts by the artisan and the number of persons they follow. The findings gained external validity through a comparative analysis against selected African artisans to confirm patterns in the initial data set. Both datasets revealed that artisans could gain brand awareness through Instagram commerce and build their network through literature in the short term. However, other factors, such as the quality of posts and the quality of the artisans' network, play a role in achieving brand awareness. From the literature, the increasing brand awareness due to frequent posting and the quality of the artisans' following can lead to sales and improve the artisans' social livelihoods.&nbsp;</p> Ayeyi Ohene-Adu Zanetor Agyeman-Rawlings Gordon Adomdza Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on Social Media https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2023-05-09 2023-05-09 10 1 373 375 10.34190/ecsm.10.1.1226 Mediatized Teachers-Students Interactions: How Mobile Social Networks Modify Pedagogical Contact https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/ecsm/article/view/1163 <p>This paper is inspired by work on a doctoral thesis ''Transformation of intersubjectivity in mediatized higher education'' (EHU, Lithuania), where the implementation of social networks in education is treated as one of the cases of a broader process of mediatization. To analyze the transformation of intersubjective interaction in the mediatized pedagogical process, phenomenological optics is used. In contrast to research that treats ''student experience'' as ''user experience'' that is open to manipulation, measurement, and optimization (Ginzburg, 2011), the phenomenological approach considers it as a subject-subject interaction and the event of coexistence in pedagogical contact (Friesen and Hug, 2009; Friesen 2011). Thus, the paper substantiates the relevance of phenomenological optics for searching for answers to the following questions: how does the use of mobile social networks transform the intersubjective interactions of teachers and students?; how does this implementation modify pedagogical contact?; what are the consequences for the whole pedagogical process? Application to phenomenological methodology and conducting hermeneutic interviews are proposed as ways to get answers to these questions.</p> Nadzeya Ilyushenka Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on Social Media https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2023-05-05 2023-05-05 10 1 336 340 10.34190/ecsm.10.1.1163 A Case Study of YouTuber’s use of Twitter for Consumer Engagement https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/ecsm/article/view/1002 <p>Twitter as a popular social media site has become a widely used platform for brands to establish consumer engagement (CE), a connection between firms and consumers beyond product consumption and purchase. CE is important for brands to build a long-standing relationship with consumers, leading to positive marketing outcomes. Meanwhile, famous YouTubers, who have obtained large fanbases also use Twitter to connect with their viewers beyond the YouTube platform, as a part of their self-branding process. Existing studies found various strategies brands use to engage consumers on Twitter. Studies on individual users and other celebrities also found that they implement similar factors as brands for engaging their followers, suggesting the application of CE from organisations to individual bases on Twitter. However, while it can be argued that as personal brands, YouTubers also implement similar CE strategies as traditional brands on Twitter to engage their viewers as their consumers, little research has explicitly explored the CE factors implemented by YouTubers on Twitter. Therefore, by adapting the concept of CE, this research explores “How do YouTubers use Twitter for consumer engagement?”. &nbsp;The research implemented a qualitative case study on UK beauty vlogger Zoe Sugg (Zoella)’s Twitter account. In the study, a qualitative content analysis was performed on over 3000 tweets collected from Sugg’s Twitter via API to identify strategies implemented by Sugg that can be seen as CE factors that are also used by brands. The results show that like other brands, Sugg uses various CE factors, including interaction, information offers, topical messages, rewards, and visual elements on Twitter to engage her viewers. The research proposes that CE strategies that are used by traditional brands are also implemented by YouTubers and similar online personalities for engaging audiences on Twitter. The research contributes to understanding the building of YouTube-viewer relationships from the perspective of achieving CE on social media sites beyond YouTube.</p> Hantian Zhang Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on Social Media https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2023-05-05 2023-05-05 10 1 341 344 10.34190/ecsm.10.1.1002 Disinformation is Everywhere.Why Should we Change our Perspective on this Phenomenon? https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/ecsm/article/view/1242 <p>Disinformation is a complex phenomenon, although we associate it mainly with politics and the media. However, its tools and consequences can be seen in various areas of social life. Understanding the nature of disinformation, its mechanisms and possible ways of influencing it seems necessary to fully understand this phenomenon. Campaigns targeting minority groups, manipulation in business, falsified messages in the area of health, tools of political propaganda or pseudoscience are examples of disinformation that allow you to see it in a broad perspective. And only this will allow you to develop a system of immunity to fake news.</p> Katarzyna Bąkowicz Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on Social Media https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2023-05-05 2023-05-05 10 1 2 10 10.34190/ecsm.10.1.1242 Age Differences in the Spread of Misinformation Online https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/ecsm/article/view/1156 <p>Research in the area of misinformation online has identified various factors as the reason why people spread misinformation online such as availability of technology, entertainment, ignorance, to pass time, altruism etc. However, how these factors differ from one age group to another is not known. Research also suggests that people of different generations or age groups behave differently and are influenced differently. While people of each age range will have differences among them, they will likely behave similarly compared to people of other age groups. Therefore, in determining why people spread misinformation online, it is important to investigate any differences based on the age groups of online users. This will ensure that interventions designed to curb the spread of misinformation can be tailored to people based on their age. To contribute to research in the area of determining why people of different age ranges spread misinformation online, we surveyed 113 social media users of varying age groups. Our results show that the younger participants between 18 and 34 years are more likely to spread misinformation due to the availability of technology, entertainment, the need to pass time, the fear of missing out, peer pressure and trust in people online.</p> Ifeoma Adaji Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on Social Media https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2023-05-05 2023-05-05 10 1 12 19 10.34190/ecsm.10.1.1156 Maximising Social Media Platforms to Enhance Sexuality Education in Rural Schools https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/ecsm/article/view/1101 <p>Sexuality education is central to the South African government's strategy to promote adolescents' sexual and reproductive health, reduce student pregnancy, and prevent sexually transmitted infections, including HIV.&nbsp;The school-based sexuality education program aims to reduce young people’s vulnerability, enhance their decision-making skills, and improve their self-efficacy. The rising incidence of sexually transmitted infections and student pregnancy in some rural schools in King Cetshwayo district may indicate that their sexuality education programs are ineffective as a result of multiple contextual factors. In light of this, the author conducted a study that explored students' lived experiences with the sexuality education programs available in their schools. This phenomenological study was conducted in 2020. Nine schools were chosen, and 84 purposively sampled secondary school students participated in focus group interviews. The collected data were analysed using an interpretative phenomenological analysis framework. Study findings revealed that social media platforms could be utilised to improve the effectiveness of school-based sexuality education in the research setting. The study identified untapped opportunities to spread sexuality education messages to all stakeholders, including students, teachers, parents, and various community actors. Furthermore, the findings showed that using social media platforms could increase the spread and accessibility of sexuality education messages outside of the four walls of classrooms. In addition, it emerged that social media could be used to create platforms for confidential, private, and non-judgemental engagements on sensitive aspects of sexuality education. Based on the findings of the study, the author recommends that policymakers initiate and implement policies that will integrate the use of multiple social media platforms to advance the messages of sexuality education to all stakeholders. In addition, such platforms could be used for capacity building and support for both teachers and students, as well as a medium for multi-stakeholder engagement.</p> Ayobami Precious Adekola Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on Social Media https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2023-05-05 2023-05-05 10 1 20 27 10.34190/ecsm.10.1.1101 Social media withdrawal: what social media services and activities teenagers miss when they are “switched-off”? https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/ecsm/article/view/1097 <p>Nowadays teenagers grow up with social media and various possibilities of digital communication. The offline and online lives of “digital natives” are tightly bound together and for most of them life without Internet is unthinkabe. However, what happens when teenagers do not have access to modern communication facilities and to social media? Do they miss these media? What services and which activities do teenagers miss? We gathered qualitative data from teenagers after three weeks of being completely offline in frames of a long-term adventure education program. We also gathered quantitative data on teenage media use before media withdrawal. 135 teenagers (M=14.47, SD=.56, 52% female) answered our questions within four years (34 teenagers in each of these years - 2018, 2019, 2020 - and 33 teenagers in 2021). After three weeks of complete media withdrawal two thirds of teenagers reported not missing social media or missing them to a minor extent. They described social media services as stressful, disturbing, extremely time-consuming and boredom-related. Several respondents replied that they had enough communication offline and felt good in the community that made online social media superfluous. However, every third teenager reported missing social media. The main reason was the desire to contact the personal social network. A few teenagers reported missing social media as a source of relaxation and an efficient way to “switch-off”. One out of four teenagers (23%) reported missing WhatsApp. One out of ten (11%) mentioned Instagram, but just one half in a context of missing it. WhatsApp and Instagram were also the most popular services among teenagers before withdrawal (94.3% of teenagers reported having a profile in WhatsApp and 73,3% of teenagers reported using Instagram). Only a few teenagers (2.2%) - all boys - mentioned missing YouTube. The article presents further results, discusses perspectives and limitations of the project.</p> Zinaida Adelhardt Thomas Eberle Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on Social Media https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2023-05-05 2023-05-05 10 1 28 35 10.34190/ecsm.10.1.1097 The Social Media Manager Career: Accounting, tax, and Social Security Framework for a Self-employed Person in Portugal https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/ecsm/article/view/1108 <p>Purpose – The main goal of this paper is to understand the legal framework of the self-employed worker in the social media management area. Design/methodology/approach – The research uses the legal research method to analyse Portuguese legal resources such as the personal income tax law, the accounting law, and the social security law. Findings – The results show that a self-employed worker needs to pay attention to several legal commitments to fulfil all the obligations concerning the activity's development. This fact implies knowledge in all dimensions, mainly accounting, taxation, and social security. In the accounting domain, the Portuguese social media manager needs to know concepts related to the applied accounting system to recognise economic operations. The accounting legal framework can represent consequences in the tax sphere. The manager has two tax options in the personal income tax domain, according to the simplified regime and the organised accounting system. The second option implies that workers have an accountant to certify the activity accounts. In the social security domain, the law foresees a lot of legal obligations that are of frequent accomplishment, including the social security payment. Each scope has specific requirements that need to be observed and needs substantial knowledge that marketing people sometimes do not have, thus, it is frequent to recur to an accountant service to get help. This decision represents the increase of the context costs to the employee. The research of this case study evidences how the Portuguese tax system is complex and the difficulties the self-workers can feel when making-decision to develop the activity on their one.</p> Susana Aldeia Shital Jayantilal Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on Social Media https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2023-05-05 2023-05-05 10 1 36 41 10.34190/ecsm.10.1.1108 Studying the Influence of Toxicity and Emotion Features for Stress Detection on Social Media https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/ecsm/article/view/1028 <p>It is crucial to detect and manage stress as early as possible before it becomes a severe mental and physical health problem. Some authors even introduce stress as a “silent killer” to emphasize the significance of early stress management. Traumatic global events such as COVID-19 have amplified stress throughout online communities and it is quite common to see that social media users often vent about their problems or situations online. The ability to detect a person's stress from their posts on social media platforms like Reddit or Twitter in a timely manner can help early stress management and consequently counters mental health conditions. In order to detect stress from social media posts, we must obtain the characteristics that signal a user's stress. Which motivates us to study how salient features influence stress detection. On social media, text-based methods of communication predominantly overtake verbal forms, which makes these platforms a convenient rich medium with an extensive amount of text content to analyze a user's thoughts and emotions. We present a novel approach that helps improve stress detection on social media textual content with sentiment, emotion, and toxicity features. We design our framework based on multiple Transformer-based state-of-the-art sentiment, emotion, and toxicity analysis tools and models for feature extraction and discuss the stress detection tasks’ interpretability via inspecting multiple dimensions. For the evaluation, we use publicly available and high-quality datasets where the social media posts are real, carefully selected and labeled. Our experiments show the influence of the proposed new feature dimensions on stress detection by comparing the state-of-the-art baselines and suggesting future directions in stress detection on social media. Furthermore, our extensive feature correlation analysis highlights different aspects, such as 1) <em>Positive </em>and <em>Negative </em>sentiment, 2) <em>Joy, Sadness, </em>and <em>Fear</em> emotions, and 3) <em>Obscene </em>and <em>Insult</em> toxicity as governing factors in improving stress detection performance.</p> Zeyad Alghamdi Tharindu Kumarage Mansooreh Karami Faisal Alatawi Ahmadreza Mosallanezhad Huan Liu Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on Social Media https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2023-05-05 2023-05-05 10 1 42 51 10.34190/ecsm.10.1.1028 Communication Beyond COVID-19 of Portuguese Health Entities Through Social Media https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/ecsm/article/view/1135 <p>Health communication is critical for achieving positive clinical health outcomes. This work aims to analyse how Portuguese health entities communicated non-COVID-19 health content with the public on social media, during the COVID-19 pandemic. A retrospective study was conducted on the Portuguese National Healthcare Service’s communication with the public using social media platforms. Data from the National Health Service (NHS) and Directorate-General of Health (DGS) posts of the year 2020 were collected from Facebook, Instagram, and Twitter. A thematic analysis of all non-COVID-19-related posts was conducted, and the engagement (E) of the public was calculated. The most frequently published subject on social media platforms by NHS and DGS were “Commemorative Dates” (34.87%), “Miscellaneous” (19.95%), and “Emergency Preparedness and Response” (19.85%). On the NHS social media platforms, the posts with the highest public engagement were “Innovation” (E=926.0) on Instagram; “Vaccines, and Immunization” (E=577.9) on Facebook; and “Commemorative Dates” (E=23.0) on Twitter. DGS posts with the highest engagement of the public on all social media platforms were “Emergency Preparedness and Response” (E=2294.1) on Facebook; “Commemorative Dates” (E=122.5) on Instagram; and “Infant and Child Health” (E=107.7) on Twitter. The findings indicate that during the COVID-19 pandemic, the Portuguese National Healthcare communicated beyond COVID-19 disease.</p> Daniela Azevedo Vitor Roque Ana Isabel Plácido Maria Teresa Herdeiro Fátima Roque Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on Social Media https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2023-05-05 2023-05-05 10 1 52 59 10.34190/ecsm.10.1.1135 Social Media And Digital Influencers On Instagram: A Case Study https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/ecsm/article/view/993 <p>With the emergence of social media and continuous progress and paradigm-shifting breakthroughs in new media, communication professionals need to keep up to date with what consumers are talking about online. Brands tapped into this reality and understood that to influence interactions in this digital landscape, they would need to bring digital influencers into the equation about social media. By recognising that partnerships between beauty brands and digital influencers are a marketing strategy increasingly used by brands and by resorting to Instagram as a research environment, the project presented in this article aimed to understand, through a case study, the impacts that partnerships between the beauty brand Freshly Cosmetics and several digital influencers may have on its followers in Portugal. The study was conducted during the development of a master's dissertation in Applied Communication and, despite focusing on a single brand, enabled the authors to outline the methodology that will be further explored in future work with larger samples of brands. Ten publications from different digital influencers were selected and analysed according to a set of criteria, and a focus group was conducted with ten women who knew the brand under analysis. According to the results obtained, although digital influencers have some impact on decision-making, the participants preferred brands they already knew and their opinions were formed based on research and not on digital influencers' statements. For the participants, feedback from real consumers, external research conducted on their own, and the opinions of experts in the field are responsible for the brand's image in the eye of the consumer.</p> Salomé Morais Daniela Esteves Rui Raposo Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on Social Media https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2023-05-05 2023-05-05 10 1 60 67 10.34190/ecsm.10.1.993 Social Media Use and its impact on Egyptian MSMEs’ Growth https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/ecsm/article/view/1091 <p>Micro, small and medium enterprises (MSMEs) have benefited significantly from the use of social media (SM) in reaching customers and growing sales in a most efficient way. This study compares Facebook and Instagram as two separate social media platforms and examines to what extent the use of each of these SM platforms affects the growth of MSMEs. It distinguishes financial growth and non-financial growth and uses two theories to conceptualize the relations within the context of social media usage: the Social Exchange Theory (SET) and the Task Technology Fit (TTF) Theory. Results of the quantitative and qualitative analysis based on data of 383 MSMEs show that using social media (SM) has helped MSMEs achieve both financial and non-financial growth. Facebook, more specifically, leads to financial growth (higher sales volume in the short-term), while Instagram leads to more customer engagement and higher brand performance, with the positive and significant moderating effect of the length of social media use.</p> HADIA FAKHRELDIN Rania Miniesy Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on Social Media https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2023-05-05 2023-05-05 10 1 68 77 10.34190/ecsm.10.1.1091 Accounting and Social Media: A Structured Literature Review and Research Avenues https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/ecsm/article/view/1228 <p>Purpose: Over the last ten years, social media gradually gained an increasingly active and relevant role in social and economic and corporate contexts. Particularly, social media plays a key role in accounting issues such as corporate strategy, corporate disclosure towards stakeholders, balance sheet and reporting. Thus, social media has become the easiest and most immediate way for companies to make execution of strategies and disclosure information and in general manage several accounting issues. In this scenario, this paper has the purpose to investigate the relationship between accounting and social media to draft emerging research paths and future avenues of research understanding what role social media is playing in companies and their value. Design/Methodology/Approach: We adopted the structured literature review (SLR) to draft emerging issues and future avenues in this field. This methodology contributes to identifying research trends and future research directors (Di Vaio et al.,2021; Secundo et al.,2020; Popay et al.,2006; Jesson and Lacey., 2020). Investigating relevant literature, we selected the range of keywords to compose the research query, we validated our results on Scopus database using the operator “TITLE-ABS-KEY”. In Line with our purpose we limited research query only to “final” documents published in “English” between 2018 and 2022. We conducted a not grey analysis identifying 206 articles about the theme of accounting and social media.Findings: Our analysis provides results on emerging issues and avenues in this research stream. Emerging issues are directed towards the relationship among accounting and social media, the effect of social media on the company system, how social media can serve a strategic level in the company, the role of social media in the organizational system, how social media are regarded by investors and so on. Originality/value: Our research contributes to increase the study on accounting and social media to offer readers a renewed perspective of study drafting the future research avenue.</p> Rubina Michela Galeotti Maria Rita Filocamo Niccolò Paoloni Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on Social Media https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2023-05-05 2023-05-05 10 1 78 84 10.34190/ecsm.10.1.1228 Can social media be sustainable: economic and industrial modelling instruments to mitigate the unneeded use of resources in social media and Artificial Intelligence. https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/ecsm/article/view/1215 <p>Social media can help businesses and society implement sustainable practices (Bodin &amp; Prell (Eds.), 2011). They also contribute to excessive resource use in data collection and sharing, digital resource use, and energy consumption (Kamin &amp; Paireekreng, 2018). Thus, TikTok's feeds consume 15.81 mAh per minute and emit 2.63 gEqCO2/min in 2021. (Derudder, 2021). The generation that uses this tool most (Burns-Stanning, 2020) is also the most demanding and aware of climate change issues (Knight, 2016), even though its practices contribute to the current degradation. This hiatus illustrates how difficult it is to reconcile individual and collective goals. We propose shifting the question from the end-user to the service provider by detecting sobriety pits in data use and access to perpetuate or avoid disrupting end-user practices. Sobriety (frugality) is a critical variable in energy transition scenarios (Balzani, 2019) and one of the ecological transition's pillars. Social media and AI are particularly tense on these issues (Stein, 2020). Current solutions often pit energy efficiency against performance (Ikhlasse, Benjamin, Vincent &amp; Hicham, 2021). Given the industry's promises of information access, automation, intelligent decision-making, human error avoidance, and more, this is unacceptable. Thus, we propose an operational framework to pose a model of sobriety for data access, consumption, and use (such as in social media or AI agents training) that does not impair performance or accuracy.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Caroline Gans Combe Jae Yun Jun Kim Waleed Mouhali Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on Social Media https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2023-05-05 2023-05-05 10 1 85 95 10.34190/ecsm.10.1.1215 Cyberbullying of Children: The role of parental response https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/ecsm/article/view/1183 <p>Cyberbullying of children has been studied in many disciplines, e.g. psychology, education, criminology, information systems. However, much of the work consists of guidelines and only about half is empirical. Plus, the empirical research seldom has a sound, well-formulated theoretical underpinning.&nbsp;Although guidelines generally indicate what parents should do to prevent cyberbullying of their children, there is a paucity of research on how parents actually respond and what effect this has on their children. With all the best intentions in the world, very often parents may be responding inappropriately, thereby extending the bullying cycle and exacerbating the harm of the cyberbullying.&nbsp;The purpose of this qualitative research was exploratory and was to determine how parents respond to their children being cyberbullied. The research captured the interview responses of ten pairs of child/parent combinations, identified by means of purposive sampling. In particular, the responses of the parent to a cyberbullying incident involving their child were explored. The responses of each pair were compared to ascertain the role of the parental response, and then a more holistic thematic analysis was conducted of all the pairs of responses.&nbsp;Some of the findings indicate confusion about what exactly cyberbullying is; who believed that they/their children had experienced cyberbullying; what the experience had been; prior parental guidance of the children; who the children had told when they experienced cyberbullying; which parents had been told (if they were told) and why; how parents believed they had responded and how their children perceived them to have responded; the children’s response to their parents’ response; and the result of the cyberbullying incident discussed.&nbsp;This research contributes to the theoretical development of cyberbullying by building on a combination of self-discrepancy theory, social cognitive theory and parental mediation theory.&nbsp;In practical terms, the research will shine a light on an overlooked area of cyberbullying research. The findings will help guide parents, schools and counselors on how best to involve parents in the child's response to cyberbullying.</p> Val Hooper Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on Social Media https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2023-05-05 2023-05-05 10 1 96 102 10.34190/ecsm.10.1.1183 Manifestations of the Groundswell in the Online Environment and its Impact on the Electric Cars Sales https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/ecsm/article/view/1069 <p>Electric vehicles are popular in many countries, and they have become a symbol of eco-innovations and saving nature. Governments are getting innovative with their incentive policies to encourage clean vehicle sales without too much cost and without benefiting high-income households. On the other hand, the development of information technologies, the increased availability of the Internet and the sharp increase in online media users have caused a significant change in several areas of consumer behaviour. The paper examines the possible impact of the groundswell phenomenon in the purchase of electric cars in 21 countries and analyzes the groundswell manifestations in the online environment and the sales of electric cars in recent years. It also examines the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, the war in Ukraine and high electricity prices on the sales of electric cars, as well as on the interest in these products expressed by searching for related terms on the Internet. The author identifies trends in this area and provides an overview of current research and studies mapping the influence of the groundswell on the saleability and communication of eco-products.</p> Peter Krajčovič Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on Social Media https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2023-05-05 2023-05-05 10 1 103 108 10.34190/ecsm.10.1.1069 Predicting Food Safety Violations via Social Media to Improve Public Health Surveillance https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/ecsm/article/view/1009 <div><span lang="EN-US">Foodborne illness outbreaks originating in food service establishments (FSEs) are a serious public health concern. There are multiple ways that FSEs can contribute to the propagation of foodborne illnesses. However, not all these risks can be detected by health authorities during official inspections for two reasons. First, health authorities have limited resources, meaning not every FSE can be inspected as often and expediently as necessary. Second, because the food safety and hygiene standards of FSEs are dynamic, the inspection results might represent a snapshot that fails to resemble the current FSE situation. Consequently, it would be helpful to have an early warning system that can allow health authorities to predict the risk levels of FSEs and proactively intervene by demanding that high-risk FSEs take appropriate countermeasures. Considering that customers who feel sick after visiting an FSE may not report their experience to health authorities but instead disclose this information by posting online reviews on social media platforms, this study leverages social media data to predict food safety violations by FSEs. The empirical data for this study derive from two sources: the FSE inspection results from the Department of Health and Mental Hygiene in New York City, which labeled each FSE according to whether it violated food safety regulations, and textual reviews posted by FSE customers on Yelp. Machine learning algorithms were employed to extract textual features from the reviews and construct predictive models. Our results demonstrate that customer reviews posted on social media platforms are valuable for predicting FSE food safety violations. Health authorities can leverage social media data to construct predictive models and deploy them to optimize resource allocation and prioritize interventions to prevent foodborne illness outbreaks originating in FSEs, improving public health. FSE managers can also deploy the models to improve their hygiene standards in response to alerts raised. By taking appropriate countermeasures earlier, they can reduce their risk of financial loss due to negative inspection results.</span></div> Carmen Kar Hang Lee Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on Social Media https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2023-05-05 2023-05-05 10 1 109 116 10.34190/ecsm.10.1.1009 The Moderating Role of Social Media Advertising in Customers' Purchase Intention https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/ecsm/article/view/1205 <p> Social media advertising has been studied from different perspectives in the last decade. This research aimed to investigate how the advertising relevance moderates the relationship between social media advertising and customers' purchase intention. Social media networks advertising is a strategy that can be used to enhance the credibility of a promotional message from the brands, making the advertisement more persuasive and credible. The study included 1973 respondents, aged between 18 and 60 years (M = 29.60; SD = 9.73) with a majority of female respondents (53.0%). To measure Purchase intention, a composite variable was created, consisting of the four items developed by Duffett (2015), namely: (i) I will buy the products I see in the commercials; (ii) I wish to buy the products that are advertised in the commercials; (iii) I am likely to buy the products I see in the commercials; and (iv) I intend to buy the products I see in the commercials. Data analysis revealed that the most purchased products through online advertising on social networks are mass consumption products (71.7%), which are commercialized in large retailers. Based on these results, it was considered relevant to understand whether the relevance attributed to advertising moderates the relationship between online advertising on social networks and purchase intention. Data analysis revealed that, online advertising on social networks and the relevance attributed to advertising are analyzed separately, both variables significantly influence consumers' purchase intention. However, when they are in interaction, the effect is no longer significant. The positive effect of interaction suggests the tendency to buy mass consumption products through online advertising on social networks is greater when consumers consider advertising relevant.</p> Paula Lopes Rosa Rodrigues Fabio Sandes Rui Estrela Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on Social Media https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2023-05-05 2023-05-05 10 1 117 124 10.34190/ecsm.10.1.1205 Communication agencies and social media as a communication strategy – Portuguese case study https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/ecsm/article/view/1104 <p>The topic "communication agencies and social media as a communication strategy" arose from the need to understand how digital platforms, namely social media, are used as a communication strategy in the business world. Nowadays, organisations are increasingly aware of the importance of digital platforms and social media in the communication of their products and services, as well as their brand image. The online communication of an organisation has to be coordinated, the different channels and tools have to be in harmony and the message and image have to articulate with each other. Thus, the research question "What is the importance of digital platforms and social media as a communication strategy? The research objectives are: (1) to understand the importance of using digital platforms and social media as a communication strategy for organisations; (2) to analyse the management and production of digital content by a communication agency; (3) to identify what type of company requests a communication strategy; (4) to analyse the change in communication strategies after COVID-19. Methodologically, this case study will describe the communication strategy of a communication agency, using digital platforms and social media, and how it applies it in the communication management of client companies. This analysis will be enriched by an interview with the CEO and Creative Director of the communication agency under study. The results reiterate that companies are increasingly investing in communication through digital platforms, with the aim of reaching the consumer faster and more easily. Through this research it was possible to find out that digital platforms have a great importance in the companies' communication strategy, being fundamental for their dissemination and contact with the potential consumer.</p> <p> </p> Marlene Loureiro Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on Social Media https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2023-05-05 2023-05-05 10 1 125 133 10.34190/ecsm.10.1.1104 Facebook moms help! What to buy for teething? The impact of social proof on consumer decisions of young mothers https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/ecsm/article/view/1159 <p>Young mothers often look for solutions to problems related to childcare in groups associating other mothers on Facebook. One can find there not only numerous advice on, among others, nutrition, care or even treatment of infants, but also learn about various consumer trends. The aim of the article is to determine the role of social proof on groups of young mothers on Facebook in making consumer decisions. The research method used was the content analysis on a selected Polish group for young mothers on Facebook. It was hypothesized that social proof on Facebook groups is important in making consumer decisions of young mothers regarding their children. This applies to all products intended for young children, from care products, food products, toys, accessories for children, to medicinal products. Young mothers are often influenced by the prevailing trends and opinions of other members of the group for young mothers, who may be real mothers or – which one may not be aware of - representatives of various brands.</p> Iwona Lupa-Wójcik Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on Social Media https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2023-05-05 2023-05-05 10 1 134 143 10.34190/ecsm.10.1.1159 Modelling Responsible Digital Security Behaviour for Countering Social Media Manipulation https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/ecsm/article/view/1079 <p>While the digital environment, and in particular social media, surrounds not only human’s identity and its societal functions projection, e.g., institutional and financial aspects, it also captures both individual and collective thoughts regarding former, ongoing, and future concepts, trends, and incidents placed in the physical world, in the digital environment, or in both which could impact both individual and collective consciousness, behaviour, and attitude towards different dimensions of reality. Accordingly, an initial attempt to define and model responsible digital security behaviour was made and ongoing discourses and AI-based solutions for tackling and containing social manipulation mechanisms exist in this domain. Noteworthily is that dedicated attention to understanding and modelling responsible digital security behaviour in social media for tackling and/or countering social media manipulation, e.g., disinformation and misinformation, still lacks. &nbsp;To this end, this research aims (i) to capture the factors influencing user behaviour towards tackling and/or countering social media manipulation, (ii) to build a Machine Learning model that assesses user’s responsibility in relation to tackling and/or countering social media manipulation mechanisms, and (iii) propose a set of socio-technical recommendations for building resilience to such mechanisms. To accomplish these research objectives, a Design Science Research methodological approach is taken by designing, developing, and evaluating the model proposed through exemplification. Finally, this research aims to enhance digital security awareness and resilience to social media manipulation of users and policy decision-makers to manage and further extend in a responsible and safe way the digital environment.</p> Clara Maathuis Sabarathinam Chockalingam Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on Social Media https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2023-05-05 2023-05-05 10 1 144 152 10.34190/ecsm.10.1.1079 Analyzing the Role of Ukrainian and Russian Diaspora in Disinformation Campaigns https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/ecsm/article/view/1118 <p>Recent digital technological developments facilitate the translation, empowerment, and extension of expressing individual and collective ideas, beliefs, and attitudes towards specific concepts and events through different social platforms. In this complex arena, social media manipulation campaigns and corresponding mechanisms like disinformation and misinformation are used through techniques like deep fakes and fake news for, e.g., altering existing information and spreading manufactured information to {targeted, diverse} audiences or producing polarization among communities and users. Nevertheless, academic and practitioner efforts to capture, control, and limit social manipulation techniques exist in the form of strategies and policies based on human intelligence, Artificial Intelligence, or a combination thereof. However, such mechanisms and consonant techniques advance in adaptivity and complexity and can reach and impact broader communities. On this behalf, and especially in conjunction with the ongoing events surrounding the ongoing war in Ukraine, increased attention and dedication is shown to both current and recent events surrounding this conflict, e.g., Crimea’s annexation and the MH17 crash in 2014. Such events characterize old battles of ongoing conflicts that could teach important lessons on understanding the role and involvement of Russian and Ukrainian diaspora communities in corresponding social manipulation discourses in social platforms like Twitter and Facebook. To tackle this, multidisciplinary research is conducted using the Design Science Research methodology following the Data Science approach building a series of Machine Learning models. Accordingly, this research aims to build and bring social awareness and resilience to both users and social media policy decision-makers on the role, involvement, and implications of diaspora digital communities in conflicts.</p> Clara Maathuis Christiaan de Ridder Sylvia Stuurman Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on Social Media https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2023-05-05 2023-05-05 10 1 153 162 10.34190/ecsm.10.1.1118 First Six Months of War from Ukrainian topic and sentiment analysis https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/ecsm/article/view/1147 <p>Through technological advancements as well as due to societal trends and developments, social media became an active part and a catalysator of the ongoing conflicts and wars carried out in the physical environment. A direct example on this behalf are the cyber/information operations currently conducted in conjunction with the ongoing Russian-Ukrainian war. Due to such operations packaged in social media manipulation mechanisms like disinformation and misinformation using techniques such as controversies, fake news, and deep fakes, a high degree of confusion and uncertainty surrounds the events happened and users’ behaviour and beliefs. These operations also impact the civilians directly affected in the battlefield or their dear and known ones. To tackle this issue, currently limited scientific and objective effort is dedicated in this direction due to, e.g., data, strategic, and emotional implications. It is then the aim of this research to capture the main topics discussed and the feeling expressed by Ukrainian Telegram users on the ongoing Russian-Ukrainian war in 2022 using a Data Science approach by building a series of Machine Learning models based on multi-channel data collected in the first six of months of war. Accordingly, this research directly aims to contribute to efforts on understanding real discourses and dynamics involved in the ongoing conflict through direct resources, producing and sustaining social media security awareness, and building resilience to social media manipulation campaigns using AI.</p> Clara Maathuis Iddo Kerkhof Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on Social Media https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2023-05-05 2023-05-05 10 1 163 173 10.34190/ecsm.10.1.1147 Understanding the Motivations for SMEs in South Africa to Adopt Social Media https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/ecsm/article/view/1055 <p>Since the covid-19 pandemic in 2020, many businesses have relied on social media to stay abreast with the latest news, developments and to predict the future world of business. Many countries around the world instigated lockdown restrictions to curb the spread of the covid-19 virus, and social media platforms were very popular tools used for spreading the news. The proliferation of social media has also increasingly drawn the attention of Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) in South Africa to improve their efforts of sustaining their businesses.&nbsp; Social media platforms have become popular in the business environments for their ability to increase market reach, transfer knowledge, and sustain the business. While many benefits of social media to enhance business performance have been studied, there are also skeptics on data privacy issues that social medial brings to the business. In the SME sectors in South Africa, social media are adopted due to their cost effectiveness and ease of use. However, little is known about the effect of data privacy issues on SME business performance. The literature of social media adoption indicates that the older generation of SME owners are skeptical about sharing their confidential business insight on social media platforms. This is despite the availability of many other literature studies that report on the increase of social media studies to enhance business sustainability. This study aims to produce knowledge for understanding the key motivations of SMEs to adopting social media despite the existence of data privacy issues on social media. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 13 SME entrepreneurs who were purposively selected based on their knowledge of social media, experience of its application in the business, industries and premises of the SME business in South Africa. The results of the interviews indicated that SMEs are generally aware of the data privacy issues surrounding the use of social media, and the adoption rate differs from younger and older generation of SME entrepreneurs.</p> Stevens Mamorobela Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on Social Media https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2023-05-05 2023-05-05 10 1 174 180 10.34190/ecsm.10.1.1055 Analyzing Short Term Corporate Credit Risk Indicators Based on User Generated Content During the Corona-Pandemic https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/ecsm/article/view/1022 <p>During the Corona-Pandemic, information (e.g. from the analysis of balance sheets and payment behavior) traditionally used for corporate credit risk analysis became less valuable because it represents only past circumstances. Therefore, the use of currently published data from social media platforms, which have shown to contain valuable information regarding the financial stability of companies, should be evaluated. In this data e. g. additional information from disappointed employees or customers can be present. In order to analyze in how far this data can improve the information base for corporate credit risk assessment, Twitter data regarding the ten greatest insolvencies of German companies in 2020 and solvent counterparts is analyzed in this paper. The results from t-tests show, that sentiment before the insolvencies is significantly worse than in the comparison group which is in alignment with previously conducted research endeavors. Furthermore, companies can be classified as prospectively solvent or insolvent with up to 70% accuracy by applying the k-nearest-neighbor algorithm to monthly aggregated sentiment scores. No significant differences in the number of Tweets for both groups can be proven, which is in contrast to findings from studies which were conducted before the Corona-Pandemic. The results can be utilized by practitioners and scientists in order to improve decision support systems in the domain of corporate credit risk analysis. From a scientific point of view, the results show, that the information asymmetry between lenders and borrowers in credit relationships, which are principals and agents according to the principal-agent-theory, can be reduced based on user generated content from social media platforms. In future studies, it should be evaluated in how far the data can be integrated in established processes for credit decision making. Furthermore, additional social media platforms as well as samples of companies should be analyzed. Lastly, the authenticity of user generated contend should be taken into account in order to ensure, that credit decisions rely on truthful information only.</p> Aaron Mengelkamp Frederik Marinski Amy Oevermann Maximilian Vogelsang Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on Social Media https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2023-05-05 2023-05-05 10 1 181 190 10.34190/ecsm.10.1.1022 Factors Impacting Intention of Formalisation of Egyptian MSMEs; What about Social Media? https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/ecsm/article/view/1049 <p>Research on the impact of social media (SM) on the formalisation – switching from the informal to the formal sector – of micro, small, and medium enterprises (MSMEs) is scant if existent; Egypt is no exception.&nbsp; The need for MSMEs to increase productivity and growth are vital to Egypt’s own growth and development, and formalisation tops the list of prerequisites. This study aims to examine the impact of the factors perceived by informal entrepreneurs to motivate/hinder formalisation on those entrepreneurs’ intention to formalise their MSMEs. SM usage is a new factor whose impact on the intention of formalisation is also investigated. This is accomplished by adopting the conceptual framework of the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB). A logistic regression model was used on data collected through questionnaires from a sample of Egyptian female and youth male MSMEs owners, who comprise most informal entrepreneurs in Egypt. Results demonstrate that the factors affecting the intention of formalisation of female and youth male informal entrepreneurs are different. However, for both groups, higher educational levels and SM usage negatively affect their intention of formalisation. The one size fits all policies encouraging formalisation might not work given these differences.</p> Rania Miniesy Hadia Fakhreldin Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on Social Media https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2023-05-05 2023-05-05 10 1 191 200 10.34190/ecsm.10.1.1049 A Triple-Layered Business Model Framework for Social Media https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/ecsm/article/view/1051 <p>Social media are increasingly based on commercial business models. Scientific literature and articles in the mass media have been available for some time discussing individual aspects of economic business models and their environmental and social impacts. Often these statements are contradictory, biased towards a certain aspect, and without context by comparison with substitute goods that cover similar needs. This paper aims to develop a framework to understand the business models of social media, including their social and environmental impact, and to identify starting points for innovations. In addition to the economic layer of the business model, the environmental and social layers are also discussed. The latter two are still underrepresented in the domain of business model analysis. First, the elements of the economic layer of social media business models are defined. Then it is shown how the single economic view can be expanded to include the environmental and social impact. Finally, we argue why the different socioeconomic backgrounds of involved stakeholders should be considered to avoid a biased, ethnocentric view of business models.</p> Ootto Petrovic Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on Social Media https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2023-05-05 2023-05-05 10 1 201 209 10.34190/ecsm.10.1.1051 Non-Financial Reporting Through Social Media: Evidence from Spanish Local Governments https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/ecsm/article/view/1236 <p>In recent years, different non-financial information models have arisen trying to complete the traditional financial reports prepared by companies and public administrations. The fundamental objective of these models has been to satisfy the interest of the stakeholders, which goes beyond the numbers included in the balance sheet and the income statement. In the case of the public sector, this is coupled with the discontent and distrust of citizens towards politicians and administrators of institutions, which makes it necessary to emphasize tools and strategies that can improve the transparency and accountability of administrations and restore citizen trust. This requires that economic, but also social and environmental information be provided and that it be comprehensible and clear to users. On the other hand, the fast growth of Web 2.0 and social media technology is facilitating the improvement of communication between local government and their citizens. Several authors have indicated the relevance of social media as a key tool to encourage citizen engagement by facilitating for communication, discussion, and coordination of public and social activities. This study is a first step toward understanding the use of social media tools by Spanish local governments for transparency purposes. In this vein, based on content analysis, this paper aims to investigate the extent of non-financial reporting through social media in Spanish municipalities with more than 100,000 inhabitants. Although there are many social media platforms with different functionalities, participation/engagement is a common characteristic of all of them, such as openness, conversation, connectivity, and community. Specifically, this study is focused on social media such as Twitter, Facebook, and YouTube. We have chosen these social networks because they are the ones generally implemented in Spanish municipalities: Facebook and Twitter are present in 95.9% of the municipalities and YouTube in 82.8%. This paper contributes to the debate on local government transparency and provides guidelines for developing appropriate social media strategies and policies.</p> Yolanda Ramírez Agustín Baidez Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on Social Media https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2023-05-05 2023-05-05 10 1 210 217 10.34190/ecsm.10.1.1236 Opinion Aggregator Platforms In The Restaurant Sector https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/ecsm/article/view/1237 <p>This work intends to understand to what level consumers collect information before going to a restaurant and if they know and use online Apps for gathering information and restaurants reservation, and above all, what if they trust in these Apps. To understand consumer trust in online platforms, a set of variables was established with emphasis on consumer happiness with the experience, consumer satisfaction, online brand relationship, online brand experience, and time availability. We used a quantitative methodology – PLS-SEM - and data was gathering by an online survey collected in May 2021, for Portuguese consumers. The direct effect of the relations hypothesizes are conforming; however, the moderate effect of time availability only has effect on the relation between online brand experience and consumer’s happiness with the Apps. This study contributes to fulfill the gap existing in the research on consumer rating foods Apps.</p> Paula Rodrigues Ana Sousa Joel Vaz Paulo Riberio Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on Social Media https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2023-05-05 2023-05-05 10 1 218 222 10.34190/ecsm.10.1.1237 Collective Action on Facebook and Telegram During the Russia–Ukraine War https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/ecsm/article/view/1057 <p>Social media have been used for political bottom-up organizing and collective action since at least the Arab Spring protests. Social media provide unique affordances that reduce the costs of collective action facilitating anonymous communication and cooperation at a much larger scale than ever before. The Russian invasion of Ukraine provides multiple examples of social media use for collective action. In this conflict, social media platforms, most prominently Facebook and Telegram have been actively employed by Ukrainians as places for organisation, volunteering and gathering support from a variety of volunteers both inside the country and abroad. After nine months of the war, it can safely be said that volunteering has played a huge role in the resistance to Russian aggression. However, little is known about how collective action has been organised on social media during this conflict. This paper aims to advance knowledge on the subject by focusing on how different forms of collective action have been organized on two widely used platforms: Facebook and Telegram. Based on the qualitative analysis of the profiles engaged in the organisation of collective action on Facebook and Telegram we discuss common features and differences between activists on both platforms. Different approaches to the organisation of pages, groups, and channels (including user engagement, interaction, and reporting) are discussed. The theory of affordances is used as a theoretical lens in analysing how the design of Facebook and Telegram allow and constrain certain types of collective action. The paper aims to contribute to the understanding of online collective action and bottom-up organisation on Facebook and Telegram.</p> Alexander Ronzhyn Ana Sofia Cardenal Albert Batlle Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on Social Media https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2023-05-05 2023-05-05 10 1 223 230 10.34190/ecsm.10.1.1057 Virtual Influencer Marketing: Is It Effective in Engaging Younger Generations? https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/ecsm/article/view/1061 <p><strong>Abstract</strong>: The market value of global influencer marketing has more than doubled since 2019 (Statista, 2021). The emergence of the so-called virtual influencers (VIs) has redefined the boundaries of possibilities in this “industry” attracting the interest of many brands and raising several questions about their development, ethics, purpose in marketing and perspective. These ‘new’ social media celebrities have also attracted the attention of the scientific community but research has yet to explore how VIs are likely to reshape the practice of marketing.</p> <p>This study aims to better understand the attitudes and reactions of Generations Y and Z (the most attractive target group for influencers) towards VIs—in particular, to find out how VIs are perceived by younger customers and whether VIs can effectively persuade them to buy certain products.</p> <p>Two focus groups were conducted to facilitate an initial response to a relatively new phenomenon, and to gain a social, contextual view of the issue. Our results showed that human influencers still outperform the virtual ones for a number of reasons, ranging from the impossibility of identifying with digital creatures, the inability of the latter to demonstrate the efficacy of the products on themselves and the impossibility, expressed by many respondents, of empathising with entities that appear soulless and largely manipulated by those who—anonymously, behind their backs—are only interested in selling products.</p> CARLA ROSSI Francesca Rivetti Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on Social Media https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2023-05-05 2023-05-05 10 1 231 240 10.34190/ecsm.10.1.1061 Literary communities in social media: the influence of motivations on engagement and purchase intention in women https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/ecsm/article/view/1110 <p>A decreasing trend in young people's recreational reading habits has been observed worldwide. On the other hand, young people's daily use of social media has increased dramatically in recent years. With this evolution, different literary communities and influencers also emerged on social media.</p> <p>It is necessary to understand the motivations that lead users to engage in social media to maintain an active and involved community. Researchers have already discussed a core set of motivations to participate in online communities. However, most studies focus on brand communities, and few analyze literary communities' specific cases.</p> <p>There are various motivations for participating in communities. However, we highlight the social motivations (meeting people, being part of the community, sharing information, listening to other opinions) and hedonic ones (because participating in them is a pleasant, fun, enjoyable activity).</p> <p>Engagement in social media can be measured through a passive attitude of lurkers who only see published content or an active attitude when users comment and publish content on social media, generating discussion and interaction in the community.</p> <p>On the other hand, some studies in other areas show that intention and propensity to purchase can be affected by many factors, such as social and hedonic motivations. Could also these motivations influence intention to purchase books?</p> <p>This study aims to study the influence of hedonic and social motivations to participate in literary communities on social media engagement and book purchase intention. A quantitative methodology was used, with a sample of N= 272 female participants in literary communities on social media. The data was analyzed through the modeling of structural equations by the AMOS software. Results show that social motivations are positively related to the level of engagement in literary communities on social media. Additionally, this study revealed that hedonic motivations influence book purchase intention.</p> Sara Santos Ana Fernandes Pedro Espírito Santo Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on Social Media https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2023-05-05 2023-05-05 10 1 241 249 10.34190/ecsm.10.1.1110 Criminalisation of Specific Forms of Online Communication: a South African Legal Perspective https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/ecsm/article/view/1023 <p style="font-weight: 400;">One of the key findings of the South African Social Media Landscape 2022 study is that the growth in Internet access has, in turn, spurred the use of social media, leading to an estimated 48.8% (28 million) of South Africans being active on social media platforms, such as Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, YouTube, LinkedIn and TikTok. The down side is that online communication may not only become “viral” but it may also be harmful.</p> <p style="font-weight: 400;">&nbsp;</p> <p style="font-weight: 400;">Initially Internet regulation focussed primarily on the criminalisation of unlawful online conduct, referred to as a cybercrime, which includes hacking, DDoS attacks, but now the focus has been extended to the criminalisation of specific forms of online communication, referred to as communication offences, which include postings on Facebook or WhatsApp.</p> <p style="font-weight: 400;">&nbsp;</p> <p style="font-weight: 400;">The discussion deals with the criminalisation of specific forms of online communication in South Africa, the enforcement of communication offences with reference to the investigative powers of the police, with assistance from service providers, and the manner in which a balance between free speech and security is ensured. It does not deal specifically with the protection of users against harmful content, although a possible consequence of the criminalisation of communication is protection against these forms of communication.</p> <p style="font-weight: 400;">&nbsp;</p> Murdoch Watney Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on Social Media https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2023-05-05 2023-05-05 10 1 250 257 10.34190/ecsm.10.1.1023 Selfies as Practices of Care-Taking (and Giving) https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/ecsm/article/view/1238 <p>Research on selfies finds that negative feedback in comments and the currency of likes reinforce and police dominant feminine or masculine beauty ideals, including binary gender ideals. For example, Döring et al. (2016) analysed 500 Instagram selfies to explore if they conform to gender stereotypes as identified in Erving Goffman’s 1976 Gender Advertisements. The study revealed that gender stereotypical behaviours found in adverts are repeated in selfies, and that some of the behaviours feature in selfies more frequently than in magazine adverts. The prevalence of dominant beauty ideals in selfies is demonstrated in #bodypositivity and #curvyfit posts that tend to depict slender female and muscular male bodies (Webb et al, 2017). However, selfies are an important mode of self-presentation. Research on queer and fat activist selfies has highlighted their role in enhancing visibility, raising awareness of oppression and challenging stereotypes. In research with trans and gender-fluid Tumblr users, Vivienne (2017) found positive comments on selfies helped promote body acceptance and that users viewed trans and gender-fluid selfies as defying industries that promote binary beauty ideals and capitalise on consumer’s insecurities. In my book Consuming the Body: Capitalism, Social Media and Commodification I argue that fat activist selfies challenge dominant modes of self-presentation and looking. This paper will draw on my research into selfie taking practices, and also a participatory research project around queering the gender binary (Bois of Isolation co-produced with Dr AC Davidson) to identify methods of producing creative selfies that evade commoditisation and discipline (#EmpoweringPresence, new project), and consider selfie taking and sharing as practices of care.</p> Dawn Woolley Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on Social Media https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2023-05-05 2023-05-05 10 1 258 266 10.34190/ecsm.10.1.1238 Factors Influencing Information Adoption From Social Media About COVID-19 by Saudi Citizens. https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/ecsm/article/view/1058 <p>Social networking sites comprise an open world where anyone can share different types of information. During the Covid-19 pandemic, people's social isolation made social media particularly important, and it has emerged as an important platform for sharing health information. The credibility of the information, however, is questionable. Therefore, this study aims to understand attitudes towards using social media as an information source among social media users in Saudi Arabia. Specifically, it seeks to examine the propensity of individuals towards using health information from social media platforms and whether individuals demographic factors (such as gender) impact information adoption. Based on using an online questionnaire incorporating a novel vignette design to measure participants’ perceptions of information sources on social media platforms. The findings revealed that there is a high use of social media platforms among the Saudi population and that verified accounts on social media platforms, same gender and nationality positively affect the propensity towards adopting information.</p> <p> </p> SUAAD ALMALKI Victoria Uren Matthew Hall Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on Social Media https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2023-05-05 2023-05-05 10 1 268 275 10.34190/ecsm.10.1.1058 Resale HDB Price Prediction Considering Covid-19 through Sentiment Analysis https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/ecsm/article/view/1020 <p>Twitter sentiment has been used as a predictor to predict price values or trends in both the stock market and housing market. The pioneering works in this stream of research drew upon works in behavioural economics to show that sentiment or emotions impact economic decisions. Latest works in this stream focus on the algorithm used as opposed to the data used. A literature review of works in this stream through the lens of data used shows that there is a paucity of work that considers the impact of sentiments caused due to an external factor on either the stock or the housing market. This is despite an abundance of works in behavioural economics that show that sentiment or emotions caused due to an external factor impact economic decisions. To address this gap, this research studies the impact of Twitter sentiment pertaining to the Covid-19 pandemic on resale Housing Development Board (HDB) apartment prices in Singapore. It leverages SNSCRAPE to collect tweets pertaining to Covid-19 for sentiment analysis, lexicon-based tool, VADER, is used for sentiment analysis, Granger Causality is used to examine the relationship between Covid-19 cases and the sentiment score, and neural networks are leveraged as prediction models. Twitter sentiment pertaining to Covid-19 as a predictor of HDB price in Singapore is studied in comparison with the traditional predictors of housing prices i.e., the structural and neighbourhood characteristics. The results indicate that using Twitter sentiment pertaining to Covid-19 leads to better prediction than using only the traditional predictors and performs better as a predictor compared to two of the traditional predictors. Hence, Twitter sentiment pertaining to an external factor should be considered as important as traditional predictors. In a micro sense, this paper demonstrates the use of sentiment analysis of Twitter data in urban economics. In a macro sense, the paper demonstrates the extent to which social media is able to capture the behavioral economic cues of a population.</p> Srinaath Anbu Durai Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on Social Media https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2023-05-05 2023-05-05 10 1 276 285 10.34190/ecsm.10.1.1020 Factors Influencing eWOM Review Adoption, Empirical Evidence from Vietnam Tourism Website. https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/ecsm/article/view/1123 <p>Based on the cognition-affection-behaviour model, this study investigates the effects of tie strength, homophily, source trustworthiness, and source expertise on e-WOM credibility (EWC), which in turn affects the attitude toward the product (ATP), the attitude toward the website (ATW), and the adoption of eWOM review (ERA). The study sample includes 527 travellers who purchased a full trip via the Viet travel website. This study used Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) to assess the suggested model, demonstrating a good fit. The findings show that tie strength, homophily, source trustworthiness, and source knowledge all have a substantial and favourable influence on EWC. Furthermore, homophily has a considerable and favourable influence on the source's strength and trustworthiness. The findings also show that EWC has a substantial and favourable influence on ATP, ATW, and ERA. This research adds to the literature by including several viewpoints and aspects from informational and interpersonal drivers. Furthermore, this research argues that these variables influence ERA via EWC and dual mind-sets (ATP and ATW).</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Sinh Hoang Anh Dao Kim Phi Hung Truong Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on Social Media https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2023-05-05 2023-05-05 10 1 286 293 10.34190/ecsm.10.1.1123 The social media value framework: development and validation of a conceptual framework for value creation https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/ecsm/article/view/1122 <p>As social media sites continue to dominate attention, consumers are overwhelmed with content, campaigns and information in today’s virtual world. How do brands and marketers stand out and ensure that their social media communications result in value creation? While multiple studies have looked at behavioural and user acceptance theories to gauge social media use, the purpose of this study is to determine whether these factors are still relevant post COVID-19 and provide a holistic view across multiple behavioural theories. The study posits that perceived benefit and cost factors can be identified that statistically influence social media engagement with resultant creation of value to consumers. The methodology follows a deductive quantitative approach. Data was obtained using an online survey with closed-ended questions for demographic responses and a seven-point Likert scale as the measurement scale for the identified constructs. A total of 493 surveys were collected with 411 usable surveys from a global audience. Various statistical techniques were used for the analysis, including factor analysis and structural equation modelling. The preliminary findings of the study reveal that two of the benefit factors have influence on the intention to be satisfied when engaging with brands’ social media platforms: Perceived usefulness and perceived enjoyment had a positive influence and were seen as perceived benefits to engagement. Five benefit and cost factors, including perceived usefulness, perceived enjoyment, reciprocal communication, privacy concern and social media fatigue had a significant influence on trust and loyalty. The intention to be satisfied is highly significant when driving loyalty and trust and plays a moderating role. This study brings together multiple behavioural models and extends current knowledge on social media engagement and value creation. The study’s findings will assist marketers and industry specialists to develop effective social media strategies to enhance engagement and result in increased trust and loyalty in the post COVID era.</p> Kerry Littlewood Geoff Bick Neale Penman Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on Social Media https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2023-05-05 2023-05-05 10 1 294 302 10.34190/ecsm.10.1.1122 Unethical practices and online business: perspectives of DSMM users https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/ecsm/article/view/1098 <p>The purpose of this paper was to review literature related to unethical practices and online business. The aim is to understand the perspectives of digital social media and mobile (DSMM) users. In order to do so, this paper was guided by five key objectives: to investigate the nature and types of unethical practices that are unique in online business, to determine the causes of unethical online business practices, to determine how users of DSMM are affected by the unethical practices/behaviors, to identify how the unethical practices/behaviors in online businesses can be minimized/ameliorated in order to protect online users, and to identify gaps that exist with regard to unethical practices and online business. The findings of this research paper indicate that there exists various types of unethical practices in online business which include; online insecurity, mistrust, unreliability of delivery of products and services and deception. The causes of unethical practices in online business are greed, poor compliance with the legal requirements for doing business, aggressive competition and insufficient legislative. The DSMM users tend to be affected by these unethical practices in a number of ways that include; loss of customer loyalty, unsatisfied customers and loss of business reputation. Finally, this research found that the unethical practices could be ameliorated by raising awareness about the ideals of ethical behavior in various forums and providing appropriate punishment for unethical behaviors, being truthful, honest, and prompt in all disclosures and external reporting. Based on these findings, this research work concludes that many online businesses, similar to other businesses have a weak ethical culture, and little progress has been achieved to reduce misconduct. Also, the study concluded that the consumer protection laws such as Consumer Protection Act in Kenya have far-reaching impact on (online) businesses; that businesses have significant roles to play in consumer protection and in the ethical transformation of business sector and that law do play significant roles in putting pressure on businesses to act in ethically responsible manner.</p> Yawo Edem Saba Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on Social Media https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2023-05-05 2023-05-05 10 1 303 309 10.34190/ecsm.10.1.1098 The Influence of TikTok on Young Generation in Vietnam https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/ecsm/article/view/1151 <p>The Internet and its growth throughout these near decades have been unbelievable. Especially social media platforms such as Twitter, Facebook, Snapchat, or in this case, TikTok has outgrown some of the mainstream media like television, radio, or newspaper. TikTok is a multinational social media platform that mainly focuses on short clips and videos, which is open for anyone to post on the platform, somewhat like YouTube. TikTok videos vary from entertainment, sport, informational, fashion or even cooking videos. The platform allows their videos to spread to all continents, leading to the spreading quickly of any “viral” video. At the first sign, the platform seems to be an entertainment platform with no age restriction, due to the claim of the content restriction policy of TikTok. However, there are some downsides to this social media platform that people are slowly coming to realize, and these downsides are affecting the younger generation who use this platform almost every day. This research examines both positive and negative aspects of this social platform and the effects which it has on the younger generation in Vietnam. The research uses both qualitative and quantitative methods, which contain a list of questionnaires and open-ended questions. The purpose of the research is to make clear the influence of TikTok on the youth of Vietnam, which helps to form an opinion on whether the application is suitable for this generation.</p> Phi Hung Truong Anh Dao Kim Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on Social Media https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2023-05-05 2023-05-05 10 1 310 317 10.34190/ecsm.10.1.1151 #VoyYVuelvo: Performances of Chilean identity and cultural memory on Instagram after Nicanor Parra's death https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/ecsm/article/view/1088 <p>This paper examines an analysis carried out of the mediations and remediations of Nicanor Parra’s image and poetry online, focusing on how digital methods can be used for qualitative analysis, their relevance for current research, as well as some ethical considerations. Nicanor Parra was a revolutionary Chilean poet, a national icon whose death in 2018 represented a significant memory site where contemporary understandings of Chilean identity can be studied. Through digital qualitative methods, I traced the use of the hashtag #nicanorparra after his death. The data was analysed using discourse analysis, both textual and visual, to properly weigh the mix of images and captions that Instagram posts offer and interpret how these ‘media of memory’ articulate discourses around Chilean identity and memory today. The posts constructed a figure of Parra akin to a modern prophet, whose message of “anti-ness” called on users to act on issues such as economic inequality and the impact of industrial development on the country's environment. Through Parra's poetry, digitally expressed through vernacular creativity, a collective mnemonic imagination sketches expectations for Chile, which are particularly crucial after the massive protests demanding profound political and economic change of 2019.</p> María Victoria Guzmán Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on Social Media https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2023-05-05 2023-05-05 10 1 319 325 10.34190/ecsm.10.1.1088 All You Need is Love? An analysis of the election campaign of the Green Party in 2021 on Facebook. https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/ecsm/article/view/1191 <p>The 2021 federal election in Germany was very different from previous elections. For the first time, the environmental party, The Greens, ran a candidate for chancellor. In addition, the election campaign was increasingly digital due to the Corona pandemic. Citizens increasingly turned to the internet for information. In this context, Facebook was the most used social network for reading, sharing, and discussing political news. This paper examines the Green Party's use of Facebook during the election campaign to identify characteristics of their communication behaviour and user reactions. The empirical investigation is carried out by means of a qualitative content analysis according to Mayring. In the period from 01/04 to 26/09/2021 a total of 251 posts of the Green Party were analysed. The tool Fanpage Karma was used for this purpose. Based on the number of posts, relevant topics of the online election campaign were identified. We also looked at how often and with which reactions users responded to the party's posts. The results of the study show that the 2021 chancellor candidate Annalena Baerbock plays a prominent role. She is mentioned in 30.68% of all posts. In addition, environmental policy, the party's core issue, takes up a comparatively large amount of space with a total of 111 posts (44.22%). Of these, 39.84% deal with climate-related issues. The results of the analysis also show that the party has a broader range of topics. Social issues are mentioned in 38.65% of the posts and the image of being a ‘single-issue party’ is being shed to some extent. It can also be seen that The Greens, who are among the winners of the 2021 election, publish a comparatively low number of posts. At the same time, they receive the second-most ‘Love’ reactions, and the most ‘Loves’ per post. The study shows Facebook's status in the online election campaign of the German environmental party in the 2021 federal election. It provides information about the scope of use and topic setting on the social platform. At the same time, the results show to what extent and with what reactions the posts have been addressed.</p> Tobias Knopf Karolina Keller Daniel Michelis Copyright (c) 2023 European Conference on Social Media https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2023-05-05 2023-05-05 10 1 326 334 10.34190/ecsm.10.1.1191