European Conference on Social Media https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/ecsm <p>The European Conference on Social Media has been run on an annual basis since 2014. Conference Proceedings have been published each year and authors have been encouraged to upload their papers to university repositories. In addition the proceedings are indexed by a number of indexing bodies.</p> <p>From 2022 the publishers have decided to make all conference proceedings fully open access. Individual papers and full proceedings can be accessed via this system.</p> en-US papers@academic-conferences.org (Louise Remenyi) sue@academic-conferences.org (Sue Nugus) Thu, 28 Apr 2022 12:19:55 +0000 OJS 3.3.0.13 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Editorial, Biographies and Review Committee https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/ecsm/article/view/559 <p>edited by Dr Iwona Lupa-Wójcik</p> Dr Iwona Lupa-Wójcik Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Social Media https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/ecsm/article/view/559 Wed, 22 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Virtual Communities of Practice for Research Postgraduate Students: Determining Needs and Reducing Isolation https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/ecsm/article/view/278 <p>Postgraduate research is considered a lonely endeavour with students frequently experiencing social and intellectual isolation. Research offices in many higher education institutions have developed programmes to support supervisors and students undertaking research studies and supervision. These programmes include instruction on research techniques and methodologies but are often lacking in community-based approaches such as creating support and peer groups where students can share information and ideas directly. This study explores the use of online communities of practice as a support tool for postgraduate researchers in a university in Ireland. The research questions seek to determine the antecedents for successful implementation, the dominant problems associated with using online communities, and the motivators for, and barriers to, participation in communities of practice in this context. The study facilitates student collaboration by implementing a community of practice on an enterprise social network (ESN) platform. These platforms are increasingly used in industry to facilitate online community groups that collaborate professionally and socially. Professionally, ESN can be used as a platform to host virtual communities of practice (vCoP), where members can engage in sharing knowledge of their practice domains and experiences. The promotion of ESN and vCoP for this study is a joint initiative of the Research Support Office, the Students' Union, and the Postgraduate Society, who advocate for a strong peer to peer support system for postgraduate students. The study adopts an Action Research design and a mixed-methods approach, and data collection includes system use metrics, surveys, focus groups and interviews. The practical objective of the project is to manage the implementation of the virtual community as a peer-to-peer support environment, and success is determined primarily from usage statistics. This may lead to developing a framework for implementation that is generalisable to other higher education institutions.</p> Jenna Barry, Dr Niall Corcoran Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Social Media https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/ecsm/article/view/278 Thu, 28 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Flagging Controversies: The effect of flagging mechanisms on Zhihu platform https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/ecsm/article/view/222 <p>This empirical study explores the formation and configuration of public opinions on Zhihu, a major knowledge-sharing social media platform in contemporary China. Though recent studies examined the impact of flags on citizen journalism, how users make meaning of flagged content and how flags affect public opinions largely lack contextualized explanation and investigation. Thus, this research takes the flagging mechanisms of Zhihu as a vantage point to analyze how public opinions are configurated in a flagged controversy. This study focuses on a posted question on Zhihu: “<em>How to understand Greta Thunberg’s advice for Chinese to stop using chopsticks for the environment’s sake?</em>” This study probes the interplay between users, platforms, and public discourses in the ad hoc controversy. The finding suggested the frontpage and backstage of the flagging activity structure an unequal relationship among Zhihu users. Significantly, the flagging mechanisms broaden the circulation of controversy rather than intervening in spreading rumors. Besides, this study found a frame of newsworthiness employed by Zhihu users. In addition to the framing, there is a pattern of prioritizing information sources in public discussions.</p> Chen Li Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Social Media https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/ecsm/article/view/222 Thu, 28 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Political discourse in the knowledge economy: edutainment as a genre https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/ecsm/article/view/106 <p>In the socio-political context of a strategic transformation of public diplomacy in China, non-governmental discourses such as intellectual discourses have been showing increasing visibility both online and offline, at home and abroad. Through a digital ethnographic approach, this study investigates the meaning-making of the political discourse that uses edutainment as a genre by foregrounding the media activities of a commercial media company branded by <em>Guan Media</em> and the media discourse of an involved intellectual. Social media are changing the normality of knowledge production and distribution and the traditional media communication logic. Whether it is market-based filter bubble and echo chamber, politically controlled censorship, or spontaneous grassroots engagement, what is important is why and how mainstream discourses are constructed because of these factors through social media as a new form of political communication. To show the complexity of media communication of political messages in China, micro-level close observation on highly visible forms of news production and distribution by non-government actors is necessary.&nbsp; There are two levels of analysis in this study: self-branding of researchers in the knowledge economy, and edutainment as a genre of political discourse. Multimodal discourse analysis is adopted to discover the specific discursive and media strategies through the theoretical lenses of knowledge-power structure and semiotics. The cooperation of commercial media companies and intellectuals from higher education is found to be promoting a new form of political communication, in which edutainment works as a genre for better media presentation. In the context of the knowledge economy, edutainment content adjusts to the ideological dynamics of the socio-political reality in China in the tide of globalization and digitalization. This study contributes to understanding the participation of non-governmental actors in political communication and public sentiment on politics when political communication has become more dynamic and better organized by adjusting to the new media age.</p> Xuefei Tang Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Social Media https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/ecsm/article/view/106 Thu, 28 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Police_hu as a best practice: Online reputation management of the Hungarian Police on Instagram https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/ecsm/article/view/109 <p>The findings of studies carried out by Google show that 22 percent of the organisations and companies searched for themselves online in 2001. The figure was 56% in 2013, so it can be assumed that this proportion will be even higher in 2021. In the digital age a new concept, an essential professional and social skill is emerging – <em>online reputation management</em>. It is not indifferent what type of digital footprint has been left behind in online space, and it is not only true for citizens, but also for companies and organisations, and for the police as well, nowadays. The aim of reputation management is to make the overall picture of the organisation well-known and influence it positively.&nbsp; The use of policing social networking sites is applied between the police as a service provider organisation and the members of the community, and there is a chance for sharing and getting real time information.&nbsp; As a result, policing social networking sites bear utmost importance for citizens, journalists and press officers as well. Police officers not only seek to share information but persuade the citizens to cooperate. The limited importance of textual content can be seen and in parallel, the visual content has become more important. It can be stated that the members of community do not expect a quantitative, but a qualitative presence. Thus, it is the number and quality of comments that reveal how deeply users have been involved in the topic and its imagery content. This study deals with the Instagram profile of the Hungarian Police (police_hu) between July 3, 2019 and July 3, 2020. Applying the method of discourse analysis, the research characterises the most popular and most commented entries during the one-year period. As a result, it can be said that the process taking place on the Instagram of the Hungarian Police implements a kind of brand building, which can be considered a positive example of police communication, while the characteristics of <em>policing digilect</em> can be well observed and analysed.</p> Erna Uricska Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Social Media https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/ecsm/article/view/109 Thu, 28 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0000 YouTube as a source of educational content in teenagers’ learning practices https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/ecsm/article/view/267 <p>YouTube is one of the most popular online social spaces nowadays combining features of both a huge repository of information and a social networking service. Millions of people use this video-sharing platform daily. Entertainment (sports, comedy, music, movie trailers), information seeking (missed news, product reviews, research on a specific topic), and educational purposes (how-to videos, learning math, or tactics for video games) were discussed as main motivational aspects for watching YouTube videos (Lagger et al. 2017). Usage of YouTube for educational purposes became particularly relevant for teenagers as a support for their home-schooling. Our goal is to find out what strategies teenagers use to find relevant educational content on the service and how important this content was for their everyday learning practices before and during the COVID pandemic. We analyzed online behavior of 34, 14 to 15-year old teenagers (47% male) who took part in a long-term adventure trip with digital media left aside. We gathered quantitative data seven months before the trip (March 2019), just before the trip (October 2019), on the last day of the trip (April 2020), and five months after the trip (September 2020). We also conducted in-depth interviews with nine teenagers, who named YouTube as their favourite online service. Our intention is now to conduct nine additional interviews with the same teenagers to see whether their everyday learning practices changed within the last year. Implications drawn from this study, further research perspectives, and limitations will be presented and discussed.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Zinaida Adelhardt, Thomas Eberle Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Social Media https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/ecsm/article/view/267 Thu, 28 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Youth Participation and Social Media https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/ecsm/article/view/140 <p>This work-in-progress-paper presents the multi-layered research design of the Austrian team in the U-YouPa project. First, we give a brief overview of Social Media use in Austria. After a short description of our research design at a glance, we focus on our methodological considerations for four case studies. Our research approach can be used to explore youth in its diversity and to prevent limited perspectives.</p> Susanne Sackl-Sharif, Eva Goldgruber, Lea Dvoršak, Sonja Radkohl Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Social Media https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/ecsm/article/view/140 Thu, 28 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Contextual Factors behind Audience Engagement Behaviours of YouTube Vloggers: A Case Study https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/ecsm/article/view/105 <p>YouTube as a social media site for online videos has become a major platform for the distribution and consumption of video blogs (vlogs). Famous YouTube video bloggers (vloggers) can obtain large audiences and become important for product marketing. The success of vloggers can be related to the achievement of audience engagement, manifested by viewers’ participation and consumption on YouTube. Existing studies have explored vloggers’ audience engagement behaviours (AEBs) in their videos. This work-in-process research shifts focus from content to the vlogging “context” - situational factors involved during the production of vlogs. Context has been studied in subjects including human-computer interactions (HCI), television and language use, but rarely in vlogging. Previous research unveiled that context could affect bloggers’ written content. Research in marketing suggests the effect of context on brands’ engagement strategies towards consumers. However, the relationships between vlogging context and vloggers’ AEBs in videos have rarely been explored. &nbsp;This study explores the question “How can vlogging context affect vloggers’ audience engagement behaviours in videos?” &nbsp;This study implemented a qualitative analysis of videos from two famous UK YouTube vloggers. &nbsp;The analysis currently focuses on exploring how three key types of context (vlogger, audience and environmental context ) may affect the two AEBs – interaction and self-disclosure. The results propose that the three contexts affect vloggers’ AEBs through multiple contextual factors within each context. This highlights the importance of the vlogging context regarding its impact on vloggers’ implementation of AEBs. The study contributes to establishing a further understanding of AEBs of vloggers by taking context into account in addition to content. It provides another angle to evaluate vloggers and social media producers’ practices for building audiences.</p> Hantian Zhang Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Social Media https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/ecsm/article/view/105 Thu, 28 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0000 The Dissemination of fake news on social media: A demographic analysis of audience involvement https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/ecsm/article/view/166 <p>Social media users continue to threaten privacy with the spread of fake news thus impacting people negatively. This study seeks not just to reveal the predominant demography of Nigerians who spread false information, but also to access how the decision to verify and share such information is made. The cluster and systematic sampling method were used to select respondents from selected geopolitical zones in Nigeria. The study revealed that adults between ages 21-35 and 36 – 50 spread misinformation on social media platforms, and those in the latter age range would not verify before sharing on <em>Whatsapp</em> and <em>Facebook</em>. It recommends that the public needs to be educated on information verification, and the government and concerned organisations need to enforce laws necessary to discourage the spread of misinformation.</p> Tolulope Kayode-Adedeji, Dr Nwakerendu Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Social Media https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/ecsm/article/view/166 Thu, 28 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Ecological products and the role of influencers and greenfluencers in their promotion https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/ecsm/article/view/450 <p>Ecological themes are becoming a new phenomenon of the 21st century. More and more people are aware of social responsibility and the impact of their behavior on the environment. The aim of this paper is to analyze green energy in the offer of electricity providers. The analysis deals with the involvement of influencers and greenfluencers in the campaigns of electricity providers. It is the influencers and greenfluencers that can reach the right target group that has an ecological mindset. The question is whether the involvement of influencers and greenfluencers in green energy campaigns is effective. The aim of the paper is to find out how effective are green energy campaigns in Slovakia on the basis of an analysis. To do that, the paper used the social media measurement and reporting tool Zoomsphere.</p> Matej Martovič, Martin Klementis Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Social Media https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/ecsm/article/view/450 Wed, 22 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Netnography of Social Media Addresses on COVID-19 https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/ecsm/article/view/299 <p>Healthcare professionals’ harness social media to encourage responsible behaviour during the COVID-19 pandemic. As internet users often struggle assessing the veracity of the information in these addresses, acoustic characteristics of the presenters’ speech may play a significant role in their persuasiveness impact. Using a netnographic approach, we studied YouTubers’ reactions to explore the persuasiveness attributes of COVID-19 related speeches included in YouTube videos within a South Africa context. The persuasiveness index was computed from the view count, likes and dislikes of 314 speech segments from YouTube interviews related to COVID-19. Standard acoustic features – Mel frequency cepstral coefficients - of the interviewees’ voice were extracted through speech processing. Recurrent neural networks were optimized and evaluated the strength of these acoustic features to classify and predict the persuasiveness index. The cepstral feature set yielded a balanced accuracy of 86.8% and F1 score of 85.0%. These preliminary results exhibit the potential of the vocal cepstrum as predictor of persuasiveness in healthcare addresses on responsible behaviour during the COVID-19 pandemic. The results imply that quantitative acoustic analysis of a presenter’s voice, independent from text, can explain the impact of social media addresses.</p> Vered Aharonson, Christos Karpasitis, Taliya Weinstein, Gershon Koral Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Social Media https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/ecsm/article/view/299 Thu, 28 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0000 If you are late, you are Beyond help: Disinformation and Authorities in Social Media https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/ecsm/article/view/168 <p>Fast paced, seemingly vast and ever-growing social media is a challenging environment for public authorities to communicate optimally. One challenge is malicious disinformation, which is intentionally disseminated to deceive and cause harm to citizens and authorities. It is known that exceptional circumstances create opportunities for malicious actors to negatively influence democratic societies. Disinformation is often designed to cause uncertainty towards information that public authorities offer and to decrease the overall trust in public authorities. The aim of disinformation is often to cause polarisation in society and to weaken national security. Furthermore, in a crisis, it is essential that authorities are able to deliver official information quickly, clearly and accurately to citizens. Communication between authorities and citizens in time-sensitive situations is typically online. One challenge to public authorities is how they can mitigate and repair the effects of disinformation and information influencing in complex and time-sensitive circumstances. In this article, our aim is to describe the challenges that public authorities face when communicating in social media spaces where disinformation is present. The empirical data, including 16 government official interviews, was collected in September 2021. The main theme of the interviews was related to how situational awareness about disinformation is formed in their organisations. Our research questions focus on how public authorities detect and counter disinformation in social media and what kind of problems and pressures they have when communicating in such environments. This study follows a qualitative design and the data was analysed using inductive content analysis. This study is part of larger project related to counterforces and the detection of disinformation.&nbsp; The results will provide a broader understanding of how different types of public authorities, from health to security organisations, and from agencies to ministries, communicate in complex environments such as social media.&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Milla Alaraatikka, Pekka Koistinen, Miina Kaarkoski, Aki Huhtinen, Teija Sederholm Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Social Media https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/ecsm/article/view/168 Thu, 28 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0000 “Smart” Psychological Operations in Social Media: Security Challenges in China and Germany https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/ecsm/article/view/174 <p>Artificial intelligence (AI) is actively being incorporated into the communication process, as AI rapidly spreads and becomes cheaper for companies and other actors to use. AI has traditionally been used to run social media. It is used in the various platforms’ algorithms, bots and deepfake technology, as well as for the purpose of monitoring content and targeting instruments. However, a variety of actors are now increasingly using AI technology, at times with malicious intent. For example, terrorist organizations use bots on social networks to spread their propaganda and recruit new fighters. The rise of crimes involving AI is growing at a rapid pace. The impact of this type of crime is extremely negative – mass protests which demand the restriction of the use of technology, the involvement of manipulated persons in criminal groups, the destruction of the reputation of victims of “smart” slander (sometimes leading to threats to their life and health), etc. Combating these phenomena is a task which falls to security agencies, but also civil society institutions, the academic community, legislators, politicians, and the business community, since the complex nature of the threat requires complex solutions involving the participation of all interested parties. This paper aims to find answers to the following research questions: 1) what are the current threats to the psychological security of society caused by the malicious use of AI on social networks? 2) how do malicious (primarily non-state) actors carry out psychological operations through AI on social networks? 3) what impacts (behavioral, political, etc.) do such operations have on society? 4) how can the psychological security of society be protected using existing approaches as well as innovative ones? The answer to this last question is inextricably linked to the possibilities offered by international cooperation. This paper examines the experiences of Germany and China, two leaders in the field of AI which happen to have different socio-political systems and approaches to a number of international issues. The paper concludes that by increasing international cooperation, it is possible to counter psychological operations through AI more effectively and thereby protect society’s interests.</p> Darya Bazarkina, Darya Matyashova Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Social Media https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/ecsm/article/view/174 Thu, 28 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Using Social Media for government communications: A closer look at this popular communication outlet and it’s use in the local government sector. https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/ecsm/article/view/117 <p>Social media can be a marketer’s dream with the ability to engage, collect research and communicate information quickly and to a large number of people. This is likely why so many businesses have jumped on board enjoying this communication outlet after seeing its popularity from a socializing aspect.&nbsp; In recent years, we have found this mode of communication to begin gaining popularity in the government sector. Many politicians are using this platform to communicate, gain popularity and even gauge consumer response.&nbsp; This paper takes an in-depth look at government communications and political use of social media focusing on a local government level. This paper explores some of the apprehensions with utilizing this platform and strategies to mitigate problems. Finally, this paper also looks at how to implement a social media policy for local governments that don’t currently employ a strategy.</p> Samantha Bietsch Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Social Media https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/ecsm/article/view/117 Thu, 28 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0000 A Taxonomy for Higher Education Institutions To Tell Micro-Stories With Content Marketing https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/ecsm/article/view/135 <p>The study explored a relatively new area, namely telling micro-stories with content marketing in the context of higher education institutions (HEIs). Although long-form content remains popular, the concept of creating concise content for social media while focusing on what matters to the target audience has gained traction. The study focused on HEIs because they operate in a multifaceted environment where they must maintain a high level of authenticity with current and prospective students. Additionally, many HEIs face increased competition from education service providers operating in various sectors and a reduction in public funding. Although HEIs have embraced digital marketing, effective marketing on social media requires some careful planning. HEIs need to connect and communicate with them emotionally to resonate with the target audience, using micro-stories.</p> <p>To date, no study has examined which micro-stories HEIs can tell as part of their social media content marketing efforts to capture the attention of their target audience in a cluttered online environment. To take a fresh look at this phenomenon, the social media posts of five HEIs involved in content marketing were analysed and triangulated across four social media networking sites, following a grounded theory approach. The findings indicate that to connect with current and prospective students, HEIs tell micro-stories in an online brand community that are authentic, depicted as a visual experience and meet the long-term needs of the target audience. The proposed taxonomy can stimulate further academic debate and future studies.</p> Charmaine Du Plessis Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Social Media https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/ecsm/article/view/135 Thu, 28 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0000 How Non-profit Art Spaces in Hanoi, Vietnam, used Facebook to Communicate, Exhibit and Promote Art and Culture During the Closure of Physical Spaces https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/ecsm/article/view/172 <p>The Covid-19 Pandemic has changed the nature and importance of arts communication, exhibition and promotion via social media. However, moving fully online has highlighted global inequalities in digital inclusion and access, with inherent biases towards content from the West and larger cultural institutions with sufficient technical, human and financial resources in order to survive through the Covid-19 Pandemic. This paper investigates how non-profit art spaces in Hanoi, Vietnam, developed their use of Facebook for effective communication, exhibition and promotion of Vietnamese art and culture during the first closure of physical premises. With the shift of all work online due to Covid-19 Pandemic social distancing measures, Facebook provided non-profit art spaces with a viable digital solution at a time of increased pressure to connect with the audience. Facebook provided a way to overcome challenges faced by non-profit art spaces with lack of financial, human and technical resources, by providing a free and widely accessible social media platform. The current study draws upon a digital ethnography of Facebook posts over 2 months and 50 semi-structured interviews with cultural professionals in Hanoi. The findings highlight changes in the use of Facebook, the digital strategies that were created for working fully online, and how art spaces maintained connection with the audience during the closure of physical premises between March and April 2020. This study identifies changes in social media usage patterns in three main ways: 1) the introduction of using Facebook for digital exhibition and holding live events, 2) changes in type of promotional content, and 3) changes in communication style with the introduction of an effective rhetoric of care. Together, the findings highlight changes in the nature and importance of arts communication, exhibition and promotion via social media in the cultural sector due the Covid-19 Pandemic. Developments over this time could help provide a sustainable solution to overcome challenges faced in the cultural sector in Vietnam and overcome global inequalities in access and inclusion online.</p> Emma Duester Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Social Media https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/ecsm/article/view/172 Thu, 28 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Applying social media for studying challenges of COVID-19 for students https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/ecsm/article/view/262 <p>This conference paper contributes to understanding opportunities to use social media for identifying the priorities and challenges of students from different countries in online and face-to-face learning and networking activities during the COVID-19 pandemic. The COVID-19 crisis has resulted in more intensive online learning and hybrid learning applications in higher education. When there is a shift from a teacher-controlled class environment to a more learner-controlled social media, the role of the educator becomes more of a facilitator. The main research question in this paper is: How social media activities facilitated by instructors can support international learner-driven online networking and knowledge sharing during the COVID-19 pandemic? Our action research aim was to reveal learning preferences and networking challenges that students do not usually share in a class environment. Despite critics of Facebook and the increasing popularity of alternative social media among young people, Facebook groups offer tools for discourse between different age cohorts and conduct polls to assess alternative educational tools and COVID-19 administrative restrictions that influence student mobility and socialisation. To study the challenges of COVID-19 for students in online learning and in physical interaction, we applied netnography methods in combination with interventions by educators to study students’ preferences in the Facebook group Challenges in online learning – COVID-19. Among the most popular Facebook polls for students were questions about group work and exam arrangements during the pandemic and <em>work from anywhere</em> practice implications, cross-border mobility regulations during the COVID-19 pandemic and reasons why some students do not participate in web conferences using their computer cameras. Students shared the view that flexible online <em>work from anywhere</em> solutions will be for many organisations among trends that will remain after the COVID-19 crisis is over. Some students, both from Europe and developing countries, believed that this trend would improve job opportunities for the workforce living in low-cost countries. Facebook group enabled international knowledge sharing, where both students and educators could share their views on many issues that influence the rapidly changing online learning and networking environment.</p> Tiit Elenurm Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Social Media https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/ecsm/article/view/262 Thu, 28 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Online Hate Speech: User Perception and Experience Between Law and Ethics https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/ecsm/article/view/103 <p>‘Governance’ of online hate speech (OHS) has become a buzzword in social media research and practice. Inputs from a plethora of stakeholders, international organisations, platforms, governments, and NGOs are discussed by academics, (social) media executives and lawmakers around the globe. In these discussions, the opinions of users remain underexplored, and data on their experiences and perceptions is scarce. The present paper focuses on five case studies of model OHS postings in the context of the Austrian OHS governance system. For these case studies, 157 respondents assessed in an online survey whether a posting should be deleted according to their own ethical standards, whether they believed that this posting was currently punishable under Austrian criminal law, and whether it should be punishable. Furthermore, respondents indicated how they deal with OHS in their daily lives when confronted with it on digital platforms. Using social sciences, human rights, and criminal law approaches, we found that OHS-awareness among our respondent group was high and that there is a preference for state regulation, i.e., punishability under national criminal law, and for the deletion of OHS postings. Simultaneously, readiness for counter-speech and reporting of postings for deletion remains relatively low. Thus, OHS postings are hardly ever answered directly or forwarded to specialised organisations and/or the police. If OHS postings are reported, it is mostly done via the channels of the respective platform.</p> Gregor Fischer-Lessiak, Susanne Sackl-Sharif, Clara Millner Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Social Media https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/ecsm/article/view/103 Thu, 28 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0000 The contribution of SNS to social capital in times of restricted physical contact https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/ecsm/article/view/227 <p>Social capital is the collection of social assets and resources that provide value to an individual and on which they can rely in times of need. Social networking sites (SNS) have contributed significantly to the development of social capital. A common classification of social capital is into bridging, bonding and maintained social capital. Often social capital is built and maintained in the online and offline environments together but each environment can foster social capital separately. With the constraints on physical contact and interactivity brought about by Covid-19-related restrictions, the assumption is that there would be greater reliance on SNS to develop and maintain social capital.</p> <p>This research examined whether, in an environment of ongoing restricted physical social contact, the use of SNS contributes positively to the establishment and development of social capital; and whether the use of different SNS exert different influences on the establishment and development of social capital. SNS use was assessed in terms of frequency and intensity of use; and social capital was assessed in terms of bridging, bonding and maintained social capital. Three SNS (Facebook, Instagram and WhatsApp) were studied. A cross-sectional survey of 282 New Zealand residents was used to gather the data, and regression analyses were conducted to analyse the data.</p> <p>Findings indicated that frequency and intensity of use were key contributors to social capital, contributing mostly towards bridging social capital and the least towards bonding social capital. Additionally, intense and frequent use of Instagram contributed most towards bridging and maintained social capital, whereas intense and frequent use of WhatsApp contributed most towards bonding social capital.</p> <p>The research contributes to the theoretical understanding of the role of SNS, particularly with regard to the building and maintenance of social capital but also against a background of restricted physical social contact. It is furthermore of benefit to managers who have - and can - embraced the use of SNS to build and maintain team cultures, especially in terms of Covid-19-related contact restrictions.</p> Val Hooper, Tayla Duffy-Bregmen Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Social Media https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/ecsm/article/view/227 Thu, 28 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Beauty Influencers on Short Video Platform Kwai: The Postfeminist Media Culture in Rural China https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/ecsm/article/view/146 <p>This study explores the postfeminist media culture in rural China. Existing studies mainly focus on subjects of young and single female professionals who work and live in metropolitan areas in China. The cultural symbols and the socioeconomic structure pertaining to urban localities hence become a context for Chinese postfeminism. Responding to a call for opening the postfeminism concept for intersectional and transnational interrogation, this study draws attention to how social media platforms and the state-supported E-commerce industry are complicating the gendered live experiences in rural China. As China’s second-generation social media, the short video platform Kwai (TikTok-like platform) attracts an initial user base from smaller cities and rural areas. Many housewives become beauty influencers on this platform where they film makeup transformation videos and sell beauty products. This digital ethnographic study examines the multimodal discursive features of these videos and explores the influencers’ business model. The findings reveal that the influencer culture manifests postfeminist sensibilities featured with a discourse of duality. Self-fashioning and economic independence are expressed as a remedy for and vigilance towards the failed patriarchal marriage. Rural women are suggested to both adhere to traditional family values and maintain autonomy. The influencers’ business model provides a seeming solution to such a double requirement. Followers are encouraged to join the influencers’ entrepreneur project, however, the multi-level marketing model behind this project only benefits the already established influencers.</p> Mingyi Hou Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Social Media https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/ecsm/article/view/146 Thu, 28 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Community Management on Facebook: How to Solve Problems with Negative Reactions and Comments from Groundswell? https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/ecsm/article/view/332 <p>Social networks, by their very nature, have not only given people from around the world the opportunity to connect but also have allowed for a collective and global exchange of views and thoughts among all users. Such an exchange of views has a significant impact even on commercial players - on brands, for which presence and communication on social networks have become second nature. Through the functionality of individual social networking sites, users are given a wide range of opportunities to express their views on brands quickly and flexibly. Such a groundswell impact may be both positive and negative, but a negative effect poses a real and serious threat. Today the space of social networks is undoubtedly fuller of negative emotions than ever before. In communication, users blur the boundaries of what is acceptable, they prefer criticism in communication, and some thrive on creating and spreading hatred. This kind of behavior and user communication threatens brands on social networks. One negative remark leveled at the brand, and a negative post not resolved with its author, could trigger an avalanche of criticism, and have a devastating impact on the brand. Criticism that indirectly affected the brand may soon spread to all social network users in the country and around the world. The topic can also go beyond social networking websites and reach other mass media. For this reason, it is crucial that brands not only know how to communicate proactively in a social network environment but also know how to respond reactively to negative comments, criticism, and hate. The purpose of this article is to develop easy-to-use and generalized communicative approaches and rules, that are useful not only on Facebook and should make it easy for the brands to manage negative reactions of the audience and communication crisis. Brands that acquire a suitable and quick way to respond to such situations can thus be skillfully able to maintain a good reputation, build a brand and equally important, increase their competitiveness in the market.</p> Igor, Vladimíra Jurišová Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Social Media https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/ecsm/article/view/332 Thu, 28 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Communicating Eco-Friendly Products on the Social Network Facebook and Groundswell Management https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/ecsm/article/view/312 <p>The paper deals with the marketing communication of eco-friendly products on the social network Facebook. It provides an overview of the specifics of marketing communication of eco-friendly products and also tackles the need to raise awareness of eco-innovation. Based on the literature and analyses review the paper provides an overview of the current state of this issue emphasizing the importance of social networks in promoting and communicating eco-friendly products. The paper focuses on key aspects of marketing communication of eco-innovations and eco-friendly products, as well as the use of social networks in marketing communication. The paper also addresses the phenomenon of the groundswell – a social trend widespread on social media which affects marketing communication. Moreover, the paper presents the views of various authors on this phenomenon and also outlines research on the topic emphasizing its individual aspects, in particular the impact the groundswell has on the eco-friendly products marketing communication and its fundamental attributes.</p> Peter Krajčovič Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Social Media https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/ecsm/article/view/312 Thu, 28 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Is TikTok a public sphere for democracy in China? A Political Economy Approach https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/ecsm/article/view/139 <p>This study aims to investigate whether TikTok can be regarded as a new public sphere for democracy in the Chinese media context. Previous studies focused on the investigation of Weibo (a Chinese counterpart of Twitter) as a public sphere. However, Jia and Han (2020) argue that Weibo is not an online space for public discussion anymore but a platform for marketing and advertising. With the commercialization of social media, plenty of researchers paid attention to TikTok’s commodification and its commercial implications, while research on the role of TikTok as a public sphere is still limited. By adopting theoretical frameworks from “public sphere” and “political economy”, this study questions: 1) why users participate in public issues on TikTok? 2) how do citizens use TikTok to participate online? 3) does TikTok contribute to the creation of a public sphere? The empirical method, 20 semi-structured interviews around China, is utilized to understand citizens’ views and participation behavior. This study argues that the reason why users participate in public issues on TikTok is entertainment. Users are attracted by the platform which offers creative and humorous videos to disseminate public information. Getting interested in its entertainment feature, users utilize TikTok to<em> view</em> pubic-related videos. According to respondents of the interview, 18 out of 20 users indicate they seldom use the “search button” or “create button” on TikTok, rather, they merely browse videos there. In this sense, TikTok is not a public sphere because of lacking critical interactions. In contrast to Habermas’s claim that social media is a “pseudo-public sphere” (Habermas, 1989), this study describes TikTok as a “limited public sphere” which do, to some extent, generate public discussions and debates about socio-political issues directly or indirectly. Nevertheless, the social impact of this sphere is restricted, that is, online public engagement is confined to liking, sharing, and short commenting lacking in critical discussions, and is ineffective in transferring online political engagement to offline participation (Kim and Ellison, 2021). Thus, TikTok facilitates citizens’ political engagement superficially and it is harder for that engagement to have any subversive impact on democracy.</p> Hui Lin Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Social Media https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/ecsm/article/view/139 Thu, 28 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Social Networks Clothes Shopping and the Influence of Brand Image and Perceived Benefits on Purchase Intention https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/ecsm/article/view/333 <p>The research around social networks have become increasingly important in recent years because they are a powerful means of communication between different generations, especially the younger ones. Social networks are occupying a privileged place in the marketing and communication of brands, which has been reflected in the increase in sales in various sectors of activity. The present investigation aims to analyze how the relationship between Brand Image and Clothing Purchase Intention is mediated by the Consumers Perception benefits that this purchase provides them. The study used a quantitative methodology with questionnaire survey which had the participation of 947 subjects p in the study, aged between 18 and 55 years (M = 28.69, SD = 9.16), who during the period of confinement, caused by the pandemic situation, bought clothing through social networks. The results revealed that Brand Image has a significantly positive impact on Purchase Intention, but when Perceived Benefits enter in the model, the effect diminishes, although it remains positive and significant. It is verified that there is a partial mediation of the Perceived Benefits, which indicates that it has an indirect effect on consumers Purchase Intention. This research is important for marketing professionals to deepen their knowledge about Brand Image importance and the Perception of its Benefits has on consumers Purchase Intention, in order to develop Marketing and Advertising effective strategies to reach the target audience.</p> Paula Lopes, Rosa Rodrigues, Miguel Varela Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Social Media https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/ecsm/article/view/333 Thu, 28 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0000 The impact of music on the effectiveness of Facebook ads https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/ecsm/article/view/302 <p>Facebook is the most popular social media platform in Poland. As a result, it is often used in advertising campaigns by various types of organizations. The effectiveness of these campaigns depends on many factors, including advertising creation. Video ads are dynamic and may contain music. Music in advertising can be aimed at audience attention, persuasion, user interest and sales. Music influences the emotions of the audience, and these are an important factor in making a purchase decision. It can also increase the rememberability of an ad. Its beat is important, as well as content matching. On the other hand, social media audiences may not play music in ads, which often happens when quickly browsing applications such as Facebook, especially on mobile devices. The lack of background music in the video can therefore also make a difference. The aim of the article is to determine the impact of music on the effectiveness of Facebook ads. As a research method the test of four advertising campaigns was used. The video ads differed only in the background music (the remaining settings and the creation of the ads were identical): the first had no musical background, the second had rock music timed with the video beat, the third - the same rock music not timed with the video beat, and the fourth one had a calm music as background music, less suited to the content (the video required rather dynamic music). It has been hypothesized that music or the lack of it in the video ad, its type and timing (or not) with the beat of the ad’s video have an impact on the effectiveness of the Facebook ads. It affects, among others on the reach metric, impressions, post engagement, number of clicks on the ad, cost of clicks, click rate, video plays and video plays costs.</p> Iwona Lupa-Wójcik Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Social Media https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/ecsm/article/view/302 Thu, 28 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Who wants to grow old in Welfare Sweden? https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/ecsm/article/view/335 <p>The research presented in this paper focuses on social media usage, specifically Facebook, in times of the Covid-19 crisis when some Swedish citizens lost trust in their official institutions. Once Sweden decided not to comply with WHO recommendations, the great majority of the Swedish population rallied around the flag in support of that move. For those who questioned this approach not much support was available, so they turned to social media. We ran a survey of 371 Facebook users gathered around the “Dr Whistleblower oxygen for all” group. Combining quantitative and qualitative analysis, in this study we analyse the role of social media in situations when people lose trust in public institutions and are left out. The most interesting and surprising result of this study is the discovery of fear for Dr Whistleblower’s future, and fear for participants’ own lives. We argue that in times of grave crisis, when we need reliable information the most, we turn to social media not only due to its immediacy but also due to its ability to connect us with a much wider circle of people than our close circle of friends can do. Then, more than ever, we look for trustworthy information, we express our fears and look for help online, thus seriously disrupting the traditional news landscape.</p> Jasmina Maric Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Social Media https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/ecsm/article/view/335 Thu, 28 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Creating Sentiment Dictionaries: Process Model and Quantitative Study for Credit Risk https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/ecsm/article/view/167 <p>Since textual user generated content from social media platforms contains valuable information for decision support and especially corporate credit risk analysis, automated approaches for text classification such as the application of sentiment dictionaries and machine learning algorithms have received great attention in recent user generated content based research endeavors. While machine learning algorithms require individual training data sets for varying sources, sentiment dictionaries can be applied to texts immediately, whereby domain specific dictionaries attain better results than domain independent word lists. We evaluate by means of a literature review how sentiment dictionaries can be constructed for specific domains and languages. Then, we construct nine versions of German sentiment dictionaries relying on a process model which we developed based on the literature review. We apply the dictionaries to a manually classified German language data set from Twitter in which hints for financial (in)stability of companies have been proven. Based on their classification accuracy, we rank the dictionaries and verify their ranking by utilizing Mc Nemar’s test for significance. Our results indicate, that the significantly best dictionary is based on the German language dictionary SentiWortschatz and an extension approach by use of the lexical-semantic database GermaNet. It achieves a classification accuracy of 59,19 % in the underlying three-case-scenario, in which the Tweets are labelled as negative, neutral or positive. A random classification would attain an accuracy of 33,3 % in the same scenario and hence, automated coding by use of the sentiment dictionaries can lead to a reduction of manual efforts. Our process model can be adopted by other researchers when constructing sentiment dictionaries for various domains and languages. Furthermore, our established dictionaries can be used by practitioners especially in the domain of corporate credit risk analysis for automated text classification which has been conducted manually to a great extent up to today.</p> Aaron Mengelkamp, Kevin Koch, Matthias Schumann Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Social Media https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/ecsm/article/view/167 Thu, 28 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0000 A Different type of Influencer? Examining Senior Instagram Influencers Communication https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/ecsm/article/view/337 <p>The aging of the population, the advance of ICT, and the opening of social networks have allowed the reception of massive phenomena led by the so-called digital immigrants. Indeed, despite the digital divide and a lesser predisposition of older people to deal with technology, it turns out that the market for senior digital influencers begins, gradually, to be marked by its growth, revealing specificities, and differentiating elements. This means that in addition to the traditional role of content receivers, older people are now active content creators, occupying a space that for a long time was restricted to younger generations, contributing to the building up of a vast audience and a wide range of interested, engaged and interactive followers. Using an exploratory approach, this research aims to study the Instagram profile of the top ten most popular elderly influencers and compare the posts of the top two digital influencers (man and women, each). For this purpose, a qualitative methodology was carried out, we examined and compared the posts of @Baddie Winkle, @Iris Apfel, @ George Takei and @dinneranddance, using several dimensions of analysis such as the topics covered, the tone of communication, and the audiovisual and multimedia resources used to create interaction and engagement with followers. The results show that fashion is one of the central themes, punctuated by a communication full of humor, fun, and eccentricity, challenging the paradigm and negative stereotype related to aging and breaking with the traditional image of decline, frailty, and disability associated with old age.</p> Sandra Miranda, Ana Cristina Antunes, Ana Gama Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Social Media https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/ecsm/article/view/337 Thu, 28 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0000 I love to hate!: the racist hate speech in social media https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/ecsm/article/view/311 <p>It is undeniable that, nowadays, hate speeches have flourished, they have become every day, banal and available to everyone. The interaction allowed by the use of devices, the potential of ICT and Social Media, formed a new participatory culture and contributed to rethinking social dynamics. The supposed illusion of anonymity and the rapid dissemination of narratives and images opened space for the proliferation of p hateful discourses against minority groups, such as those of a racist nature. This research intends to study, from the Digital Social Networks (DSN), the communicational flows of racist hate speeches in Portugal. Specifically, we propose to diagnose racist hate speech in the DSN; understand and characterize the narratives that support the spread of racist hate speech in DSN; and analyze which content and hate narratives generate more engagement in DSN; In this study, a mixed convergent methodology will be adopted. The quantitative approach will combine the use of digital methods with the analysis of social networks and graph theories. There will be 2 panels of 2 social networks (Facebook and Instagram), totaling 24 months of data collection. The qualitative approach will resort to the content analysis of the comments. In terms of results, we intend to strengthen scientific production in the area and develop a barometer on racist hate speech in Portugal.</p> Sandra Miranda, Fábio Malini, Branco Di Fátima, Jorge Cruz Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Social Media https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/ecsm/article/view/311 Thu, 28 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Activation of the groundswell in the segment of bicycle manufacturers https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/ecsm/article/view/183 <p>In addition to the massive home office, the COVID-19 pandemic has brought an enormous increase in the popularity of outdoor activities. This was also reflected in the very high demand for bicycles and accessories for cyclists, which led to the groundswell effect and an increase in fan interaction and engagement within the social media profiles of bicycle manufacturers. The research design in the present paper contains a consistent and synergistically balanced share of qualitative and quantitative methods. Within the theoretical background, methods of analysis of sources from leading authors are used, especially from articles based on leading scientific journals and proceedings. The practical part uses quantitative methods in the form of data collection through the tools Zoomsphere and Socialblade. The selection of assessed business entities consisted of a ranking of profitability and evaluation according to the leading portal designed for the segment of cyclists. The findings point to the content structure of profiles on social media in the segment of bicycle manufacturers. They also point to the content structure of the best contributions on these social media and to the recommendations in the form of categories for the bicycle manufacturers segment. The authors also define the best types of posts for future content in that segment. Domestic and global businesses in this segment require knowledge of the laws on social media in the form of user behavior and the groundswell effect. The limits of the findings are in the selection of business entities, which were selected on the basis of profitability and evaluation according to the leading cycling portal, also within the limits of social media analysis and management tools. Despite the above facts, the added value exceeds the limits within the author's contribution. The originality of the paper is based mainly on the fact that the selected segment from the point of view of the groundswell effect is unexplored. It is important to examine this segment, especially due to the high demand for products in this segment and the relentless interest in the form of user interactions.</p> Peter Murar, Michal Kubovics Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Social Media https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/ecsm/article/view/183 Thu, 28 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0000 The Level of Social Media Addiction of Y and Z Generation in North Cyprus https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/ecsm/article/view/165 <p>As technology has advanced, daily interpersonal communication has also altered and shifted to a different level. With the widespread use of the internet and personal technological gadgets hitting the market, social web and social media settings became the essential field of communication for humankind. Now, mostly people use internet-based social communication webs to communicate instead of having face-to-face interaction. This study will focus on the subject of social media addiction in North Cyprus. Our main focal point is the purposes of social media usage, the habits of social media usage and addiction of social media, ranging from the vast majority of the current population, who have experienced technology from a young age, Y generation, and those born into technological innovations, Z generation. During the research it has been used Aylin Tutgun-Ünal’s “Social Media Addiction Scale” (SMAS) in order to analyze the social media addiction of Y and Z generations. SMAS consisted of 41 articles and was approved as constituting validity and authenticity in 2015. Besides Facebook, SMAS measured other addictive social media applications in use.&nbsp; It has attempted to find answers for our research questions by comparing and analyzing Y and G generations scores. By the end of this research, results enabled to determine that the Y and Z generations were on a low-scale addictiveness to social media. In any case, it has been noticed how the socially addictive scale was low with occupation, mood adjustment and differentiation on the levels of repetition and conflict. According to the research findings, participants' social media engagement was on a medium level of addictiveness; women spend more time on social media than men, receiving emotional support; social media is mostly used for interpersonal communication; and Y generation has passing more time on social media compared with the Z generation.</p> Nuran Öze, Sonuç Zorali Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Social Media https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/ecsm/article/view/165 Thu, 28 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Terminology Management for Social Media Communication During Covid 19 Pandemic: A Case Study with a Portuguese Higher Education Institution https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/ecsm/article/view/147 <p>The process of attracting new students is a constant challenge for Portuguese Higher Education Institutions (HEIs). It is challenging because it implies the definition of a communication strategy that uses both traditional and digital tactics to promote the institution and its educational offer. Considering the constraints resulting from the COVID-19 pandemic, HEIs had to change their strategies and, in a short period, create digital communication mechanisms to facilitate new students' access to relevant information about the institution.</p> <p>This paper intends thus to determine and evaluate which are the predominant factors in seeking information about a degree in business sciences, specifically regarding the Porto Accounting and Business School in Portugal. To do that, we will consider the various factors that tend to influence the decision-making process of choosing a higher education degree, namely: the institutional website, social networks (Instagram, Facebook, Twitter and YouTube), other contact mechanisms (live chat, e-mail, text messages, ZOOM videoconference) and alumni testimonials. This study will also consider the role of terminology and positive language to obtain a successful communication strategy for social media.</p> <p>The analysis of these factors, combined with research developed with a focus group of high school students' graduates to assess their online preferences, will allow the presentation of a digital communication proposal whose purpose is to attract and retain new students. This proposal will consider the role of a strategic terminology management approach to capture students' attention when responding to their social media preferences.</p> <p>This paper results from the perception that being aware of the students' online preferences and communication skills and needs is essential to enhance the quality of the digital communication that HEIs promote in social media channels, especially in a time frame as specific and multifaceted as the one that we are currently experiencing.</p> Susana Pinto, Célia Tavares, Manuel Moreira da Silva Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Social Media https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/ecsm/article/view/147 Thu, 28 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Roma Cultural Influencers: Social Media for Identity Formation https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/ecsm/article/view/338 <p>In the ‘Societies and Lifestyles’ project, 2006-2009, 10 post-communist countries analysed values of so-called fringers: small ethnic groups living on the fringes of society. One of them, the Hungarian Roma appeared to have a rich cultural heritage that had been exploited without its integration into an authentic and empowering cultural presence. (Forray &amp; Beck, 2008). Roma heritage, representing about 10 % of Hungarian population, is not exhibited permanently, rarely appear in social media and isn’t recognised even by the socially challenged Roma community. Stakeholder meetings indicate that educational poverty is more threatening for youth than financial needs: it is cultural immersion is needed to build healthy identity. As part of the HORIZON2020 AMASS - Acting on the margins – Arts as social sculpture research project, we developed a training and mentoring program for aspiring Roma cultural influencers. We assumed that social media can be an agent to fight educational poverty and can be used as an arts-based intervention to promote the development of socially challenged youth. Influencers of the Roma community, predominantly male, focus on celebrities and scandals or raise their voice against negative prejudices. Their attitudes do not encourage majority youth to read their messages. Our young Roma girl influencers show cultural values of Roma heritage in witty, youthful voice that is convincing and popular. This paper presents their emergence and shows their unique voices. After two semesters of training in Roma culture, media skills, legal regulations, and online journalism, nineteen girls have successfully established themselves in social media. When disadvantaged minorities try to raise their voices, the response is often characterised as hostile and biased (Glucksman, 2017). We identified psychological traits needed for successful cultural media presence through pre- and post-course measurement. Our training program enhanced skills in all areas with digital competence showing the greatest improvement. The process-folios (documentation of growth during training, cf. Gardner, 1999) showed increased self-assurance and commitment to Roma roots. Those who opted out of the course were threatened by the aggressive tone of social media and / or found regular presence irreconcilable with daily duties (Kárpáti and Somogyi-Rohonczy, 2021). We analysed the social media iconography (Drainville, 2018) of the Roma on Instagram and TikTok in Hungary and on the international scene and identified the scarcity of authentic cultural content. Through cultural immersion, they appropriated ancient motives and symbols that often-assumed new meaning. Not hiding gloomy reality, their intention was to show beauty in their environment and highlight cultural achievements and personal growth against all the odds. The Hungarian Roma Cultural Influencers are not only content providers – they are role models also for their communities.</p> Márton Rétvári, Lajos Kovács, Andrea Kárpáti Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Social Media https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/ecsm/article/view/338 Thu, 28 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Social Media about Grandparents as Childcare Providers: Evidence from Russian Region https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/ecsm/article/view/145 <p><span lang="EN-GB">Social media and the internet are proving more and more popular, even among older people. While still providing </span>child care, grandparents become active users of social media. This research aims to estimate whether publications mentioning grandparents explore the topic of raising grandchildren and whether the increasing activity of older people on social media results in more proactive grandparental labour. The paper analyses socio-political communities—including the mass media ones—of the largest social media in Russia—Facebook, VK, Instagram, Telegram, and Odnoklassniki. The location of the publications analysed is the Sverdlovsk Region. The sample included posts mentioning grandmothers and grandfathers. The analysis identified main topics which the publications mentioning grandparents are associated with and tried to find a correlation between their activity on social media and contribution to childcare. The research shows that the publications analysed are mostly related to the topics of safety and accidents. Education and childcare rank third in terms of the frequency of posts mentioning grandparents. The publications mention grandmothers more than three times more often than grandfathers. On the one hand, social media facilitate a better understanding between the younger and the older generations. On the other hand, social media may replace face-to-face communication with grandchildren. Grandparents are becoming less involved in raising grandchildren because of the increasing retirement age and state programmes that support social activity of the older generation, which is proved by their activity on social media and results of this study. However, in the Russian Federation, the state and information support for grandparental labour (i.e., grandparents’ activity while raising, educating, and taking care of grandchildren) may become one of the tools to promote fertility. The paper suggests several possible mechanisms to integrate grandparental labour in the economic subsystem of the society.</p> Daria Saitova Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Social Media https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/ecsm/article/view/145 Thu, 28 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Racialised Digital Dating Experiences of Mobile Dating Application Users https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/ecsm/article/view/142 <p>With the emergence of mobile dating applications like Tinder, people have changed how they pursue romantic relationships. However, real-world issues pertaining to race and ethnicity that often emerge as people interact are still being experienced in the virtual world. Given the increased popularity of mobile dating applications, there is a pressing need to explore how racialised digital dating are manifested online. The study therefore explored the racialised digital dating experiences of users of the mobile dating application Tinder as well as the influence of Tinder’s affordances on these experiences. Through a qualitative study based on 25 semi-structured interviews, the study identified three categories of racialised digital dating experiences,: Matching Experiences, Communication &amp; Interaction as well as Fetichism &amp; Stereotypes. The study also revealed how Tinder affordances of Locatability, Multimediality, and Visual Dominance could be actualised by users to achieve their preferred racialised digital dating experiences.</p> Maureen Tanner Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Social Media https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/ecsm/article/view/142 Thu, 28 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Regulation of social media intermediary liability for illegal and harmful content https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/ecsm/article/view/104 <p>The discussion focuses primarily on the manner in which the distribution of social media content needs to be governed in ensuring illegal and harmful content is limited (e.g. not accessible to children) whilst ensuring freedom of expression and speech. Closely linked to intermediary liability is the manner in which social media platforms self-regulate harmful content on their platforms. In September 2021 criticism was leveled at Facebook that it was not doing enough to prevent harmful content targeting children. It appears that self-regulation of social media content by companies are not effective. In some instances, it is alleged that profit outweigh safety and security concerns. Zuckerberg, CEO of Facebook, indicated in March 2021 in testimony to the United States Congress that he was of the opinion that social media companies should be regulated. Governments are now in the process of implementing regulations pertaining to social media content. Such regulation will have a ripple effect across the world and other countries will most probably follow. In this regard, the European Commission is considering the implementation of the Digital Services Act.</p> <p>Since governments are implementing or considering implementing social media regulations, consideration should be given to the following issues: • How and what should a government regulate pertaining to social media content? • The issue of social media intermediary liability for harmful content is contentious. A social media platform cannot escape liability where it is used, for example, for sex trafficking, but how is liability determined? In March 2021 Zuckerberg made the following statement “platforms should be required to demonstrate that they have systems in place for identifying unlawful content and removing it. Platforms should not be held liable if a particular piece of content evades its detection—that would be impractical for platforms with billions of posts per day—but they should be required to have adequate systems in place to address unlawful content.” Zuckerberg submission to the US Congress is tied to the common law standard of duty of care. In the US businesses have a common law duty to take reasonable steps to not cause harm to their customers, as well as to take reasonable steps to prevent harm to their customers. It is important to establish which human rights’ safeguards government regulation pertaining to content should have in place. Government regulations must provide a safe and secure place for free speech while addressing harmful speech, but the regulations should not silence all speech. Many governments are now concluding that seIf-regulation of harmful content by social media companies are for many reasons not effective. The Internet is borderless and therefore government regulations of social media content must comply with uniform guidelines to ensure free speech protection for the global communication environment</p> Murdoch Watney Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Social Media https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/ecsm/article/view/104 Thu, 28 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0000 E-MINT: A Gamified App for Empowering Parents in Their Role as STEM Gatekeepers https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/ecsm/article/view/271 <p>When it comes to initiatives engaging children - especially girls - in STEM education or careers, parents are often a neglected group, despite being regarded as the most important gatekeepers in this field because they can have an impact very early on. They frequently feel under-informed and, as a result, lack the self-confidence to take on this role. The E-MINT project starts here and aims to motivate parents and equip them with the skills to serve as role models and mentors to their children.</p> <p>The Science Capital approach, a proven successful framework for creating awareness, fostering motivation and imparting knowledge in the context of science education, serves as the structural basis of the E-MINT app. This especially applies to the content and functionalities of the app, which is divided into four areas:</p> <p>“What you know”. In this section, parents are encouraged to explore their own knowledge of STEM professions, gender stereotypes, career choices, educational pathways and future technologies.</p> <p>“How you think”. In this part of the app, career aspirations, behaviour in different situations or thoughts about the future are told in short picture stories.</p> <p>“What you do”. The app provides free access to virtual E-MINT Makerspaces. Parents can use the app to complete projects on 3D printing, environmental technology and upcycling at home.</p> <p>“Who you know”. In this section of the app, parents are encouraged to use their own personal social network to improve their skills as STEM gatekeepers for their children. They are guided step by step through a social network analysis with the aim of visualising their personal STEM networks and finding ways to expand it.</p> <p>The pre-survey showed parents to be well informed. Parents were most likely to lack information about new technologies and STEM education. In the post-survey, the usability of the app was rated as very good. The comparative survey on parents' STEM knowledge showed slight changes. Parents in the post-survey knew more about training opportunities for STEM professions, about the disproportion of men and women in technical professions and the importance of gender stereotypes for career decisions. Parents' views also changed slightly in the post-survey. Specifically, their attitudes towards computer games, which they now see as having more potential to increase children's digital curiosity, and they see computer games more as a gateway into technical professions.</p> Thomas Wernbacher, Sabine Zauchner, Natalie Denk, Alexander Pfeiffer, Simon Wimmer, Martin Hollinetz, Jörg Hofstätter, Margit Ehardt-Schmiederer Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Social Media https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/ecsm/article/view/271 Thu, 28 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Linguistic Characteristics of Social Media Messages Spreading across Geographic and Linguistic Boundaries https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/ecsm/article/view/151 <p>Social media enable messages to be exchanged beyond geographic constraints. Some of the messages could be shared and forwarded by people with different cultural backgrounds across different geographical regions. Studying the content of messages that can reach diverse populations is important for practices such as movement propagation and global marketing. Existing studies mainly investigated the characteristics of messages that are popular, i.e., shared or forwarded by more users. As the diffusion of information is prone to be echoed inside certain geographical and linguistic boundaries, popular messages are not always to be shared and spread across geographical and linguistic boundaries. We investigated the linguistic characteristics of social media messages that can reach and be disseminated by people across nations, and across geographic and linguistic boundaries in the MeToo movement. Specifically, we analyze the diffusion paths of messages according to the geolocation of tweets and conducted statistical analysis to compare the linguistic characteristic of tweets that spread across geographical or linguistic boundaries with those that do not. We focus on the linguistic characteristics from three aspects: ‘emotions’, ‘social relations’, and ‘economics, politics, and religion’. Our findings reveal that popular messages tend to contain more negative emotions, however, messages with negative emotions are unlikely to be disseminated across geographical or linguistic boundaries. On the other hand, messages on economic topics or non-adults’ issues are more probable to be disseminated universally. The findings provide insights on the content that is more probable to be shared and disseminated by people with different cultural backgrounds across geographical regions.</p> Xinchen Yu, Jeremy Boy, Rene Clausen Nielsen, Lingzi Hong Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Social Media https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/ecsm/article/view/151 Thu, 28 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Communication of Slovak eco-innovation companies with social media users https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/ecsm/article/view/191 <p>Social media is widespread worldwide and firmly defined in today's communication. Available resources point to dynamic changes in consumer behavior, to which even ecologically oriented business entities must respond. Therefore, it is appropriate and necessary to look for innovative solutions that will contribute to improving the communication of eco-innovative businesses with their followers on social communication platforms. The aim of the paper is to map and describe the current state of communication of the responded Slovak eco-innovation companies with social media users. The communities that are emerging on social media are the driving force behind today's market environment. Communities can be talked about in connection with the pressure they exert on eco-innovation businesses, entities and other business areas. At the core, the authors focus on the interpretation of partial results from their own pilot survey, which serves as an input survey for mapping the current communication and will be a key basis for subsequent research. The interpreted findings from the survey come from a quantitative survey using a standardized questionnaire, which was answered by a total of 142 respondents, who represent representatives of Slovak eco-innovation business entities. From the author's research, we can define which digital platforms use subjects to communicate with their followers, how often they communicate with them, through what type of contributions and with what frequency they publish contributions. The results indicate reserves in the given issue. For this reason, further research and education of subjects is important. The limits of the investigation are in a smaller number of business entities and in the possibility that business entities did not provide true information. The authors of the article did not come to the conclusion that someone would carry out a similar survey within the Slovak eco-innovation entities, and therefore they point to the results of their own pilot survey. Eco-innovation entities do not currently have information on the communication process with their followers on social media. The authors consider the interpreted results from the pilot survey to be original and necessary due to the absence of marketing statistics, which would subsequently help businesses to set up the right online marketing strategy.</p> Michal Kubovics, Anna Zaušková, Simona Ščepková Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Social Media https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/ecsm/article/view/191 Thu, 28 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Social Media Analysis and Strategic Recommendations for a Non-Profit Organization in Germany https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/ecsm/article/view/178 <p>Nowadays it is impossible to imagine life without social media - Facebook, Instagram and Co. have become important platforms for public discourse, political communication and opinion-forming.</p> <p>Not only for companies, but also for nonprofit organizations (NPO), networking via social media creates potential. On the one hand, they offer a cost-effective dialog opportunity to address many interested parties and new target groups. On the other hand, the interaction of high-quality content and strategically planned social media posts not only gains reach, but also members and donations for the organization. At the same time, social media opens up space for hate speech, discrimination and racism, which is why a strategy to steadfastly counter negative reactions online is becoming increasingly important for nonprofit organizations as well.</p> <p>The purpose of this paper is to examine how the regional nonprofit organization in the welfare sector – German Red Cross district association in Leipzig and the surrounding region – is targeting social media communications to achieve its established goals of recruitment and fundraising.</p> <p>Unlike previous studies that focus on single social media platforms, this study examines the use of multiple social media platforms. This study included a qualitative analysis. We used qualitative content analysis (Mayring, 2015) to gain in-depth findings into the social media work of the NPO and its competitors.</p> <p>In the first step, competitors of the NPO were selected for the analysis based on their activities on the social media profiles on Facebook, Instagram, Twitter and YouTube. For the selection of the competitors, own selection measures were chosen in order to make a suitable sample selection. Content categorization was used to interpret information within the social media profiles. The focus was on the textual and visual design of the social media accounts and individual posts of the competitors. For this purpose, the period of data collection included the months of June and September 2020. In summary, posts from 17 social media profiles were considered in the analysis, and we analyzed 21 Facebook posts, 12 Instagram posts, 15 tweets, and 20 YouTube videos.</p> <p>Based on the results, a strategic approach for the social media work of the non-profit organization could be developed in the form of recommendations for action. In addition, more donation campaigns are to be included in social media. Emotional storytelling leads to more interactions, which can generate a higher willingness to donate.</p> Franziska Giersemehl, Daniel Michelis, Stefan Stumpp Copyright (c) 2022 European Conference on Social Media https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/ecsm/article/view/178 Thu, 28 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0000