Impact of Cyber Security Operations on Hardware Requirements for Stable and Workable Industrial Environments


  • Jussi Simola University of Jyväskylä
  • Arttu Takala University of Jyväskylä
  • Riku Lehkonen University of Jyväskylä
  • Tapio Frantti University of Jyväskylä
  • Reijo Savola University of Jyväskylä



Operational Technology, Security Operations, Cyber Resilience, Governance Model


Securing electricity distribution is one of the most important principles of the EU cyber security strategy. For example, European cyber security regulations, such as NIS2 (Network and Information Security Directive), CER (Critical Entities Resilience Directive), and Cyber Resilience Act (CRA) together aim to create a foundation and guidelines for international standards in various industries and the operation of critical infrastructure. Securing critical infrastructure is a common goal for Western operators. The new European Union (EU) directives bring new requirements to critical infrastructure administrators, device manufacturers and operators. Previously, member states have had responsibility for compliance with the directives, but they have been given freedom in the method by which they approach the requirements. Currently, member states' solutions are not always uniform, which has led to increased difficulties in coordination on a multi-national level. This, in turn, may lead to difficulties in coordination when responding to cybersecurity threats and attacks on critical infrastructure. The new regulation focuses on unifying the reporting between member states, reporting requirements of severe critical infrastructure events, and creating cybersecurity risk management procedures. In this study, we will provide a novel solution on how critical infrastructure administrators, device manufacturers, and operators may respond and become compliant with the new EU directives. To reach compliance and to enable the responsibilities that are required by the directive, the critical infrastructure devices and environment must have the capability to enable the responsible parties to identify, protect, detect, respond, and report. This sequence of actions is cyclical in nature since the identification of threats and vulnerabilities requires reports, which in turn requires data and detection. Our study focuses on the hardware requirements this causes on the manufacturing specifications, such as data collection and detection capabilities. The research belongs to the CSG project, and the purpose is to develop a governance model to minimize Operational Technology related risks and create a new standardized operating environment for the seamless utilization of energy solutions and industrial environment. The results of the study will be used in the analysis of requirements definitions in the OT environment.

Author Biographies

Jussi Simola, University of Jyväskylä

Dr. Jussi Simola is a postdoctoral researcher of cyber security programs at the University of Jyväskylä. He received a Ph.D. in cybersecurity from the University of Jyväskylä. His expertise includes decision-support technologies, situational awareness systems, information security, and continuity management. His current research focuses on the cybersecurity governance model of operational technology. He has been involved in developing a common early warning system for the European Union.

Tapio Frantti, University of Jyväskylä

Tapio Frantti holds degrees of MSc, LicTech and Dr. Tech. from the Department of Automation and Information Technology, University of Oulu. He is also an Adjunct Professor in the University of Oulu. He has worked at the Outokumpu Polarit Oy, University of Oulu, Nokia Telecommunications, and Nokia Mobile Phones as a researcher, senior researcher, chief engineer, and research manager. He has also worked in Technical Research Centre of Finland as a chief research scientist and Research Professor and as Visiting Professor in Tokyo Denki University. Lately he has worked in Renesas Mobile Europe and Broadcom Communications Finland as a distinguished researcher and research leader, in IoLiving Ltd. as a CTO and as a Co-Director of Security and Software Engineering Research Center. Currently he works as a cybersecurity professor in the University of Jyväskylä. He also works in FRE company doing security, communication and control engineering consultation. He has been on the field about 30 years and he has published +100 scientific and technical papers in journals, magazines, books and international conferences. He has also authored several patents. Tapio Frantti also acts as a regular reviewer in international conferences and 12 scientific top rated journals and he is a member of Technical Program Committees in tens of international conferences. His research interest are in the adaptive and intelligent control theory, networking technologies and cyber security.

Reijo Savola, University of Jyväskylä

Mr. Reijo Savola is currently working as a Project Manager, cybersecurity, at University
of Jyväskylä, Faculty of Information Technology, Finland. He has experience in cyber
security systems engineering, risk analysis and risk-driven methods, software
engineering, telecommunications, and digital signal processing. Earlier, he has worked as
Principal Scientist, cybersecurity at VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland. He
received the degree of M.Sc. in Electrical Engineering from the University of Oulu,
Finland, 1992, and the degree of Licentiate of Technology in Computer Science from the
Tampere University of Technology, Finland, 1995. In addition to research experience, he
has seven years of industrial experience in the telecommunications sector, having worked as
a software engineering and digital signal processing projects for Elektrobit Group Plc. in
Oulu, Finland and in Redmond, WA, United States. Mr. Savola acts as the Chairman of
the Finnish Mirror Group for ISO/IEC JTC1/SC27 standardization (Information security,
cybersecurity and privacy protection) and CEO of the Northern European Cybersecurity
Cluster (NECC).