Quantum-Secure Signalling Model for L1/L2 Next-Gen Interconnect and Roaming Networks Over IPX for NB-IoT Traffic: A Review


  • Themba Ngobeni Cape Peninsula University of Technology, Cape Town, South Africa https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2216-1943
  • Boniface Kabaso Cape Peninsula University of Technology, Cape Town, South Africa




Quantum teleportation, Quantum cryptography, Interconnect and roaming, NB-IoT, L1/L2 Signalling, Next-generation networks


Signalling security is critical for next-generation mobile (NGN) networks to ensure integrity, privacy, and confidentiality of communication protocols. However, recent research on existing 5G standards has uncovered vulnerabilities that could be exploited by emerging surveillance threats such as HiddenArt and Harvest Now Decrypt Later (HNDTL), as well as the prospect of quantum computing threatening to break classical cryptographic techniques. This systematic literature review (SLR) investigates quantum-based signalling solutions to mitigate these threats in interconnect and roaming 5G networks (IRN) over IP eXchange for Narrowband Internet of Things (NB-IoT) traffic. A database search was conducted, studies were selected and compared based on methods, approaches, techniques, and limitations. The SLR found that quantum key distribution (QKD) combined with quantum teleportation (QT) can protect and mitigate threats and attacks on signalling networks when protocols interact and interoperate in carrier networks. QKD techniques can be used for L1 protocols, while secure direct quantum communication can be used for L2 protocols. This study concludes that further studies are needed to integrate different techniques and protocols for L1/L2 signalling networks to create a robust quantum-secure signalling model for global interconnect and roaming NGN.