Emerging Cyber risk Challenges in Maritime Transportation


  • Jussi Simola University of Jyväskylä, Finland
  • Jouni Pöyhönen University of Jyväskylä, Finland




situational awareness, port systems, cybersecurity, risks, information sharing


Maritime security and surveillance have become one of the main areas in managing overall situational awareness.
For example, the growing importance of maritime traffic in cross-border trade has created new pressures to develop new
technologies for accident prevention, especially in the ports. Maritime safety is also a matter of concern for continuity
management. Automatic ship alarm systems, coastal radars and coastal cameras are not alone sufficient equipment to build
maritime awareness. The Universal Shipborne Automatic Identification System (AIS) is a ship transponder system that is a
globally used tracking system, but highly vulnerable to hacking. A major maritime traffic problem arises if transponders are
switched off. Hybrid threats need coordinated hybrid responses; therefore, a cyber situational picture is also needed. Cyber
situational awareness is an essential part of the management of maritime situational awareness. The lack of using real-time
data from the maritime actors affects the correct formation of the common situational picture—for example, from the site
of an accident. Cyber security is an essential factor in developing fairway navigation and all terminal (port-to-port) activities.
This research will be done as a part of the SMARTER (Smart Terminals) -project that belongs to the SEA4VALUE program. The
project aims to develop unique digitalized concepts that enhance safe transportation and reduce emissions in the port and
the terminal areas. By using the multiagent system with sensor technology, e.g., in the harbors, it is possible to gather and
share meaningful maritime security-related data. The study's primary purpose is to describe the operating environment and
make an initial analysis of system requirements for optimizing situational awareness in the area of western ports of Finland