The Cumulative Cyber Deterrence
Keywords:cyber deterrence, Russia, Israel, red lines
The cumulative cyber deterrence can be seen as a concept in which increasing the weight of different means and their use increases the deterrent effect on a common level or on selected adversaries. Cumulative cyber deterrence may include all traditional options of deterrence, and can be active or passive. Active deterrence can be characterized as targeting specific threats and actors, as a deterrent consisting of several different methods, while passive deterrence is a form of deterrence commonly targeted at all the potential adversaries. The cumulative cyber deterrence can be an independent type of deterrence or part of a state’s overall deterrence. This paper approaches the concept of cumulative cyber deterrence from a military perspective. The purpose is to determine what factors can be formed by cumulative cyber deterrence. It describes how cumulative deterrence will change and be affected and what problems can be associated with that concept. The aim is to find answers to these questions by looking at the way how Israel and Russia use cumulative cyber deterrence as part of their overall deterrence. In its theoretical context, this paper is based on the theory of the character of war. Through the theory of character of war and utilizing the concept of reflexive control, an attempt is made to explain the position of cumulative cyber deterrence as part of overall deterrence. Integrative literature analysis has been used as the research method. The key conclusion of the paper is that creating a credible cyber deterrent is an affect and cost-effective way to increase overall deterrence. However, this presupposes that the state also has offensive cyber methods at its disposal and is able to credibly communicate their existence and the will to use them if necessary. The concept of cumulative cyber deterrence depends on the other means of deterrence available to the state. Both Israel and Russia have all these qualities. A key difference in the deterrence strategies of these states is that Israel uses cumulative methods to make it clear where the red lines are, while Russia’s strategic goal is to blur them
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