Basic Elements of Cyber Security for a Smart Terminal Process


  • Jouni Pöyhönen University of Jyväskylä
  • Jussi Simola
  • Martti Lehto



maritime logistics, smart port, cyber security management, SMARTER


Global maritime transportation and logistics systems are essential parts of critical infrastructures in every society, and a crucial part of maritime logistics processes are seaports. Digitalization helps improve the efficiency of terminal systems in the processes of these ports. In Finland this development is going on and it is called SMARTER research program. In the best cases, digitalization can also promote the reduction of emissions by optimizing port operations and enhancing cargo and people flows while improving the experience for all stakeholders. The improvement of port processes relies on the development of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) and as well as on Industrial Control Systems (ICS) or Operation Technologies (OT). At the same time, the cyber security aspects of maritime logistics also need to be addressed. In Finland, the SMARTER research program has been established to create port services by using, among other tools, Industry 4.0 solutions. As critical systems become more complicated in terms of users, processes and technology, the entire port infrastructure becomes a complex system of systems environment characterized by a conglomeration of interconnected networks and dependencies. ICT systems are significant parts of the operations and core processes, and are related to the administration and management of information in the network. The components of process levels include ICS/OT systems as well.This paper presents findings related to the SMARTER research goal on cyber security, which is a comprehensive cyber security architecture for port services at the system level. The paper emphasizes the importance of system description and recognizing basic system elements and their description in the first phase of the research process. The descriptions of these elements are needed to answer the following question at the beginning of the research: “What are the basic elements of cyber security for a smart terminal process?” The main elements identified in this paper are activities, the recognition of every stakeholder and the relationships between them, security dimensions, security capabilities, and system views of organizational criteria for cyber security in the SMARTER system. The solution can be called the Smart Port Cyber Security Management System (PortCSMS).

Key words: maritime logistics, smart port, cyber security management, SMARTER