Inequalities for Women in Science, Technology and Innovation


  • Sarina Gursch Graz University of Technology
  • Katja Urak
  • Michael Herold
  • Stefan Kutschera
  • Silvia de los Rios Perez
  • Rebeca Garcia-Betances
  • Maria Cabrera-Umpierrez
  • Yolanda Ursa
  • Wolfgang Slany
  • Vesna Krnjic



gender, women in STI, higher education, profession, STI


There is still a tangible inequality between men and women in many areas of daily life around the world, including professional fields and educational careers. The objective of this study was to analyze the different inequalities in Europe and third countries in America, Asia and Africa regarding the involvement of women and men in education and employment. This study focused on the areas related to Science, Technology and Innovation (STI), three of the most relevant and important areas for the future development of society. The study presented in this paper started with the initial question: "Are there inequalities between women and men in the fields of Science, Technology and Innovation?" This question was followed by an in-depth examination of datasets and studies on women and men who are learning, working, or hold leadership positions in the STI fields. Data and numbers were collected on the workforce, students in higher education, and professional fields. These served to determine and verify the state of the art for women in the fields of STI. Based on the results, presented in the paper, statements can be made regarding inequalities for women in the field of STI. Several efforts are being made in order to promote gender equality in STI. In fact, this has become a strategic issue in Europe, since the Council of the European Union, in its conclusions, invited the Commission and the Member States to consider including the gender perspective within the policy dialogues in bilateral and multilateral agreements with third countries in the STI area.  Moreover, several initiatives have been implemented in recent years as part of the strategy for the European Research Area to promote gender equality in research and innovation. One of these initiatives is the Gender STI project, a European research-funded project that aims to integrate gender perspectives in STI into dialogues between Europe and third countries. As part of the initial activities of the project, this study aims to build a deep understanding on the current status of gender equality in STI in these regions and how the gender perspective is currently addressed in policy dialogues.