Awareness of Women's Inclusion in STEM: Twitter Data in Italy




Twitter, STEM, women, awareness


This paper focuses on assessing public awareness of women in STEM disciplines. The underrepresentation of women in STEM has garnered recent attention, and this study is grounded in Social Cognitive Career Theory, which examines how individual, contextual, and experiential factors impact interests and goals in STEM. Individual factors, such as self-efficacy beliefs and outcome expectations, play a crucial role in shaping career choices. Contextual factors influence women's leadership roles, particularly in male-dominated environments, and may differ in female-majority settings. Additionally, social modelling, where individuals learn from observing others, contributes to self-efficacy. Our study focuses on contextual factors that influence awareness of women in STEM. We employ a panel-type econometric model spanning 2014-2022 and analyse 29,985 tweets to explore the influence of socioeconomic factors on public opinions in various Italian regions. Italy's significant regional disparities make it an ideal setting for this research, considering factors like human capital, industry, and government. The managerial implications underscore the importance of understanding public opinion to inform decisions that promote women's inclusion in STEM fields for policymakers and corporate management. This study's unique use of geolocated data on Twitter adds a novel dimension to the intersection of STEM and women.

Author Biographies

Chiara Leggerini, University of Brescia

Chiara Leggerini is a PhD student at the University of Brescia, in the course of Energy Transition.

Her research topics concern Corporate Social Responsibility. She is passionate about the issues of sustainability, gender equality and diversity management. She has gained experience in the field through various activities, such as consulting and training.

Mariasole Bannò, University of Brescia

Mariasole Bannò is Associate Professor at University of Brescia, Italy, where she teaches economics and management. She holds a PhD in Economics and Management of Technology at University of Bergamo, Italy. She is President of gender Commission at University of Brescia and Equity manager for the Cost Action CA20101 PRIORITY.