Pedagogical Strategies for Female Students in IT Disciplines to Promote Gender Equality: The Case of Five European Universities


  • Elisabeth T. Pereira GOVCOPP & University of Aveiro
  • Ana Vukičević Department of Applied Sciences Šibenik University of Applied Sciences, Šibenik, (Croatia)
  • Frane Urem Department of Applied Sciences Šibenik University of Applied Sciences, Šibenik, (Croatia)
  • Diogo Gomes University of Aveiro



Female Students, HEIs, IT, STEM, Gender Equality, Strategies, CodeIn.


Once Female students in Informatics and Technology (IT) and Computer Science degrees at European higher education institutions, in the 21st century, represent a smaller percentage compared with male students, this paper investigates the main reasons that may explain this fact, as well as presents new pedagogical strategies for female students in IT courses. These strategies derive from understanding stereotypes, perceptions, cultural implications, and propositions for inclusive IT education; and are relevant for supporting IT students’ equality and success. Further, good lecturing in general together with positive reinforcement with students lays a crucial foundation for supporting all students in IT. The present research was developed in five European universities: Croatia, Italy, Slovakia, Poland, and Portugal. Starting from a literature review on the topic was developed a questionnaire that was applied to a sample of IT students in these five universities. The results were analyzed to define some new pedagogical strategies. These allowed us to conclude about the main reasons for the decision of female students to choose to study IT programs and higher education institutions develop pedagogical strategies more adequate and more attractive to female students, as well as to contribute to increased employability and successful integration in the labor market.


Author Biographies

Elisabeth T. Pereira, GOVCOPP & University of Aveiro

Elisabeth T. Pereira is Associate Professor of Economics at the Department of Economics, Management, Industrial Engineering and Tourism (DEGEIT) - University of Aveiro (Portugal), Vice-Diretor of the Doctoral Programme in Business and Economic Sciences.. She is a full senior researcher at the GOVCOPP research unit. She holds an MSc in Economics (University of Coimbra) and a PhD in Business and Economics Competitiveness (University of Aveiro).

Ana Vukičević , Department of Applied Sciences Šibenik University of Applied Sciences, Šibenik, (Croatia)

Ana Vukičević has been a professor, since 2008, at the University of Applied Science in Šibenik, Croatia. In 2014, she received her doctorate at the Faculty of Economics in Osijek.  In her previous work, she has published, independently or in co-authorship, a large number of scientific and professional works. She is the author of two reviewed textbooks.

Frane Urem, Department of Applied Sciences Šibenik University of Applied Sciences, Šibenik, (Croatia)

Frane Urem, Ph.D., is a Vice Dean and Erasmus+ Coordinator at the Polytechnic of Šibenik. He is a Professor at both the Polytechnic of Šibenik and the University of Zadar, with expertise in computer science education, object-oriented programming, system design, and business information systems. He is also a recognized expert in electrical engineering, computing, telecommunications, and informatics, serving as a Permanent Court Expert. He has numerous scientific publications and significant projects in his field, demonstrating a commitment to lifelong learning and innovation.

Diogo Gomes, University of Aveiro

Diogo Gomes is a Professor at the University of Aveiro and Researcher at Instituto de Telecomunicações, Portugal. His research area is Telecommunications/Computer Networks with 140+ publications. His current research interests are on 5G/6G  Services and Applications using AI. He is a strong Open Source Advocate, with direct contributions to projects.