International Conference on Gender Research https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/icgr <p>The International Conference on Gender Research has been run on an annual basis since 2017. Conference Proceedings have been published each year and authors have been encouraged to upload their papers to university repositories. In addition the proceedings are indexed by a number of indexing bodies.</p> <p>From 2022 the publishers have decided to make all conference proceedings fully open access. Individual papers and full proceedings can be accessed via this system.</p> en-US papers@academic-conferences.org (Louise Remenyi) sue@academic-conferences.org (Sue Nugus) Wed, 13 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 3.3.0.13 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Editorial, Biographies and Review Committee https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/icgr/article/view/305 <p><strong>Professor Elisabeth T. Pereira,&nbsp;Professor Carlos Costa and</strong> <strong>Professor Zélia Breda</strong></p> Professor Elisabeth T. Pereira Copyright (c) 2022 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/icgr/article/view/305 Wed, 13 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0000 When Gender Equality in Academia Takes a Toll on Agency and Well-being https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/icgr/article/view/219 <p>The present paper aims to investigate the limits surrounding the implementation of gender equality in academia and the correlation between gender measures and the consequences on personal well-being. Despite the efforts to build more inclusive and equal environments, fatigue seems to affect all the university’s components, especially regarding the uncertainties of an academic career, seen as stressful, delusional, impossible to conciliate with motherhood. Even appropriate measures cannot deal with the fatigue of what is considered a “double presence”: they only allow complying with those standards. Moreover, emotional issues are deriving from choices seen as gender deviant, like not being the major caregiver in the family, and the personal agency is often diminished. The purpose of this study is to show how gender measures in universities are not as neutral and unambiguous as they may seem, but rather fall into one of four approaches to gender inequality itself. These four approaches can be identified as neoliberalism, gender mainstreaming, work-life balance, and the capabilities approach. Agency and well-being could be seen as pivotal aspects and the mix of those elements in each approach results in a different level of fatigue, which, along with stress and mental charge, could play a major role in diminishing the effectiveness of gender equality measures. The significance of this four-sided framework lies in the possibility to reclassify every single gender equality measure and the data collected to support it into one of the four approaches, alongside the opportunity to acknowledge fatigue and evaluate university politics like gender-responsive budgets and gender equality plans.</p> Giulia Arena Copyright (c) 2022 International Conference on Gender Research https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/icgr/article/view/219 Wed, 13 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Success Factor Negotiation: The Covid-19 Pandemic as an Opportunity Structure https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/icgr/article/view/84 <p>This work-in-progress paper provides insight into the conception and the empirical procedure within the project "Success Factor Negotiation − The Covid-19 pandemic as an Opportunity Structure for (Re)Shaping the Negotiation Culture in Couple Relationships." The project analyses couple relationships in Germany with regard to techniques of negotiation established during the pandemic and their impact on participation and career opportunities for women. The crisis in the field of (institutional) childcare that accompanied the pandemic has created a special situation in which everyday practices, routines, and rituals that often prevailed in everyday life had to be radically changed or redesigned. This in turn created an "opportunity structure" for negotiation in the private sphere of couple relationships. The negotiation skills developed and negotiation strategies and techniques practiced during this period of upheaval can become a decisive lever for the "post-Corona period" in order to question existing role models and the social orders associated with them. Studies dealing with conflict of compatibility in the Covid-19 pandemic to date have been primarily based on quantitative methods and paint a contradictory picture of how couples have dealt with the tension between family work and employment. This is where the project comes in, using a qualitative approach to investigate the role that negotiations played in dealing with the changed conditions in the wake of the Covid-19 pandemic. In doing so, we add a new dimension to previous studies by not only examining the results of conflict of compatibility and role distribution, but also shedding light on how these conflicts have been resolved. Thereby, we identify negotiation patterns that influence the extent of egalitarian distribution of family work on the one hand and the assertion of career ambitions on the other hand.</p> Veronika Kneip, Andrea Ruppert, Martina Voigt Copyright (c) 2022 International Conference on Gender Research https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/icgr/article/view/84 Wed, 13 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Gender stereotype and Influencers’ role in genderless fashion https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/icgr/article/view/83 <p>This paper aims to investigate the role of gender segmentation in the fashion industry through the generations, particularly among the Millenials and Z Generation. Although, in fact, it has been stated that the perception of gender roles and gender stereotypes are less strong for these generations, contributions regarding the fashion sector are still few. For this purpose, focus groups were conducted with young Italian fashion consumers who contributed to a discussion on gender stereotype in fashion, genderless fashion, and the role of Instagram influencers in the genderless fashion. Research is currently ongoing, but results are expected in line with Laughlin (2016) who affirmed that these generations are less sensitive to gender segmentation and with De Veirman (De Veirman et al., 2017) to the extent that influencers can raise awareness much more than other forms of persuasion. This study provides a guidance for scholars about consumer perception of genderless fashion and current findings provide brand managers and advertising practitioners with empirical data about the role of social media influencers in genderless fashion and Instagram marketing.</p> BARBARA KULAGA, Elena Cedrola Copyright (c) 2022 International Conference on Gender Research https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/icgr/article/view/83 Wed, 13 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0000 The Connection Between Gender Budgeting and Academic Housekeeping in RPOs https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/icgr/article/view/297 <p>Gender Budgeting is a tool to apply the gender mainstreaming perspective to the accountability process in order to give evidence of the unequal distribution of public resources between women and men. Academic Housekeeping is any task “low-status, time-consuming, largely invisible, and that nevertheless needs to be done” (Kalm, 2019) in the academic daily business. It is a source of gender inequality since it is largely ascribed to women. Money and time are two sides of the same coin of Gender Inequality in Academia and therefore need to be identified and managed with an holistic approach that recognizes the interconnections between them. The results chain of the Performance-Oriented budgeting approach is therefore used to describe the transformation of the budget for salaries into the value of researchers’ work through time, activities, products and results. In this process, Academic Housekeeping emerges as a matter of Gender Budgeting, too. Literature describes Academic Housekeeping as an inequality regime echoing the domestic sphere and bringing its biases and limitations to the scientific race of competitiveness. The Housekeeping tasks are assigned largely arbitrarily and with unintentional side-effects. Its negative gender impact on women’s career is also clearly recognized by four main studies, in every field and with further intersectional spill overs. Gender Budgeting reports in Academia therefore do need to embed a Gender impact assessment of Academic Housekeeping in every step of the main methodologies adopted: Identity, Context Analysis, Planning Analysis, Budget Reclassification, Implementation and Performance Audit. The conceptual framework that emerges from the paper confirms the benefits that might arise from further researches on this field. The paper stems from the LeTSGEPs European Horizon Project (Leading Towards Sustainable Gender Equality Plans RPOs)</p> Tindara Addabbo, Giovanna Badalassi, Corinna Pusch Copyright (c) 2022 International Conference on Gender Research https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/icgr/article/view/297 Wed, 13 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0000 A Holistic and Integrated Framework to Examine Formal Women Business Networks (FWBNs) https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/icgr/article/view/92 <p>Research about women entrepreneurs is not new. In addition to the body of work on women entrepreneurship, networks and businesses, several resources, assistance, and support have been provided through various channels to assist women in their business and entrepreneurial pursuits. Although, research in these areas is popular, there is an aspect that has not gained as much attention – formal women business networks (FWBNs). FWBNs are networks that run like organisations and provide a way for women to network and pursue shared interests while gaining business benefits. These networks provide benefits such as funding, trainings, access to business resource, and are funded by various organisations as well as patronized by several women seeking the benefits they provide. Hence, there is a high expectation on these networks to not only deliver on the very much needed support for women entrepreneurs, but also, to deliver on the ROI to groups, organizations, bodies, and women that give to these networks. Furthermore, recent environmental/external influences like a pandemic have impacted the way entrepreneurs do business and increased the need for support and networks. Thus, it is important that FWBNs that serve to help women businesses be examined more closely and holistically. While literature provides some evidence of the importance of FWBNs, there is limited research about these FWBNs. This could be due to the limited number of frameworks, models or theories that holistically examines all the various possible elements in these networks, as well as the relationships between them. Therefore, a holistic and integrated framework that draws from existing frameworks and provides a lens to measure and explore all possible elements that impact a FWBN, can help provide better insights and understanding in several aspects. This paper is an attempt to provide a holistic and integrated framework that draws from different theories and literature concepts to examine the nature of FWBNs and how they contribute to the success of women entrepreneurs</p> Deborah Ajumobi, Michael Kyobe Copyright (c) 2022 International Conference on Gender Research https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/icgr/article/view/92 Wed, 13 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Reflections on Racism Against Women of Color Faculty in Academia https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/icgr/article/view/185 <p>In this article, we utilize autoethnographic methods and a literature review to report on themes regarding female social work faculty members who identify as women of Color (WOC) and their experiences with racism and White supremacy within predominantly White institutions in the United States. These experiences are not unique to any particular institution or university, but rather reflect systemic racism and the upholding of White supremacy in higher education throughout the United States. We highlight the differential vulnerability faced by WOC women in academia, which are often unaddressed in the pursuit of what is seen to be an egalitarian or colorblind merit review. Utilizing autoethnographic techniques and bearing in mind our own positionalities, we share personal narratives regarding our own marginalization within White spaces and the emotional labor that we are often asked to carry for the institutions within which we work. Themes include experiences of tokenization or assumed intellectual inferiority. Given the current sociopolitical moment and the heightened awareness of diversity, equity and inclusion efforts within universities, institutions of higher education must move beyond simply hiring more people of color or conducting diversity trainings to ensuring that WOC are more fully included in their roles within universities as faculty, administrators, staff and students.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Sameena Azhar, Kendra P. DeLoach McCutcheon Copyright (c) 2022 International Conference on Gender Research https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/icgr/article/view/185 Wed, 13 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Gender Board Composition and Performance in Italian Start-ups https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/icgr/article/view/223 <p>Literature on start-ups has mainly involved functional and education diversity of top teams; gender has been neglected, most likely because of the low presence of women in technological firms. Also, extant research has overlooked the role of female representation in start-ups’ boards, despite boards represent a key piece in the puzzle that enables the functioning and survival of new firms. Building on this gap, we aim to investigate the following research question: <em>are gender-related variables in the board of innovative start-ups correlated with better performance</em>? We employ a novel dataset of 3,257 Italian innovative start-ups founded between 2012 and 2018, and we run eight OLS regressions to estimate performance as a function of measures of female representation. Our results provide evidence of a positive relation of gender-related variables with performance. Specifically, we find that gender diversity is related to an efficient use of assets (ROA), while the shares and the number of females are related to an efficient use of capital (ROE). We also detect a non-linear exponential relation between the number of females in the board and ROE: as more women serve in the board, returns on equity grow more than proportionally. Our paper contributes to the literature on board composition and start-up performance by providing new evidence on the role of female representation.</p> Sofia Bacchin, Francesca Capo, Lorena Maria D'Agostino Copyright (c) 2022 International Conference on Gender Research https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/icgr/article/view/223 Wed, 13 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0000 How does the institutional context affect the risk of substitution faced by women and men? https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/icgr/article/view/138 <p>This paper aims to investigate how the institutional context considered in light of the level of gender equality explains the difference in the risk of substitution faced by men and women. To this end, the probability of automation of European occupation is estimated and it is analysed how it is influenced by the gender of the worker. We found that in contexts where gender equality is higher, female workers face a lower risk compared to contexts with a lower gender equality. However, the protection enjoyed by female workers is reduced in less egalitarian contexts because, due to barriers regarding the participation in formal and non-formal education and training, women are not able to acquire the necessary skills to protect themselves from the risk of substitution.</p> Mariasole Bannò, EMILIA FILIPPI, Sandro Trento Copyright (c) 2022 International Conference on Gender Research https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/icgr/article/view/138 Wed, 13 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Project_Gender Action Plans in Academia https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/icgr/article/view/148 <p><strong>Abstract</strong>: Research on the implementation of positive actions and gender mainstreaming in academia reveals a fragmented patchwork in adopting strategies and policies. Even when national policies guarantee uniformity in adopting Gender Equality Plans (GEPs), this does not always lead to substantial changes in research and innovation teams and management structures.</p> <p>Our study was inspired by the EU's requirement that research and innovation projects submitted to calls for proposal in the Sixth Framework Program (2002-2006) include a Gender Action Plan (GAP), covering all measures and activities promoting gender equality within each project and explaining gender issues associated with the project's subject matter. Although the requirement has been discontinued in the following Framework Programmes, the idea of a GAP at the project level raised interest in the scientific community.</p> <p>Our article reports on the roadmap and the construction phases to implement a Gender Action Plan at the project level (P-GAP). A new European project funded under the Erasmus+ European Universities initiative has been identified as a case study for its characteristic of involving different institutional areas: teaching, research and third mission. The P-GAP addresses all project activities, thus escaping the boundaries set by the siloed work package structure.</p> <p>By focusing on micro-actions at the project level, the P-GAP mirrors macro-actions at the organisational level. The purpose of the initiative was to understand whether activities inspired by GEPs but implemented at the project level encounter obstacles and resistance similar to those challenging the implementation of GEPs at the institutional level. By stimulating faculty, research, management, and administrative staff to promote gender equality and diversity, it can test challenges and difficulties, leading those involved in the micro-actions to become more assertive and proactive in transferring equality, diversity, and inclusion methods and strategies to institutional GEPs and academia at large.</p> <p>Partners' attitudes toward building the P-GAP were positive: they showed interest in the idea, contributed actively to plan several micro-actions and saw the potential to influence existing or new institutional GEPs indirectly.</p> Rita Bencivenga, Anna Siri, Cinzia Leone Copyright (c) 2022 International Conference on Gender Research https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/icgr/article/view/148 Wed, 13 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Parental and Grandparental Labour in Russia: Gender Perspective https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/icgr/article/view/95 <p>Similar to most of the advanced economies, Russia has seen a rapid change of social values, proactive engagement of women in the labour activity, the transition from the authoritarian to egalitarian model of family relationships. In a number of Russian regions, men and women increasingly believe that they have to take an equal part in housekeeping and childcare. We study parental responsibilities associated with raising, developing children and taking care of them as a particular type of labour—parental labour. Parents may delegate these functions to other actors—for example, to family members; therefore, we can look into not only parental, but also grandparental labour. The paper aims to analyse gender aspects of the parental and grandparental labour in Russia. We used a series of qualitative and quantitative research methods. To examine gender aspects of parental labour, we conducted in-depth interviews with 7 mothers employed (residents of the Sverdlovsk Region). To examine the nature of grandparental labour in 2021, we surveyed 500 parents – the residents of the Sverdlovsk Region; filter questions were to control that the respondents have both under-age children and their currently living parents and/or those of the spouse (i.e., grandparents). For the analysis, we selected questions aimed to study the content, forms, and the scope of grandparental labour. We processed and analysed data using IBM SPSS Statistics 23.0. For the analysis, we also used descriptive statistics, frequency analysis, and non-parametric statistics (Mann–Whitney U-test). According to the in-depth interviews, women are overstressed about their burden of parental responsibilities. With that, they still stereotypically believe that raising children is predominantly a woman’s job. Parents argued that grandparental labour is also highly gendered; most often, it is exercised by grandmothers. In particular, maternal grandparents fulfil parental labour functions more frequently than paternal ones. Evaluations of help differ most prominently in those cases when parents estimated paternal grandparents’ help. Our results may be of use when designing new mechanisms for the family and demographic policies in Russia, which aim to ensure gender equality and the proactive involvement of men in parental and grandparental labour.</p> Natalia Blednova, Anna Bagirova Copyright (c) 2022 International Conference on Gender Research https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/icgr/article/view/95 Wed, 13 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Representations of Fatherhood and Pre-colonial Masculine Otherness in Flora Nwapa’s Idu (1970). https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/icgr/article/view/193 <p>Drawing on Nwapa’s representations of pre-colonial definitions of West African manhood, I will examine the interrelated ways of the male characters’ perception and yet distinctive ways of responding to pre-colonial hegemonic masculinity represented in <em>Idu</em>. Moreover, this chapter explores the narrative irony used by Nwapa to redefine notions of producing children, contest polygamy, and interrogate indigenous pre-colonial constructions of manhood in the novel. Her interrogation of indigenous masculinity constructions encourages us to recognize that representations of contemporary masculinities are constantly linked to pre-colonial patriarchal definitions of manhood, as will be shown throughout the following chapters. Using a qualitative research approach, my research paper argues that Nwapa, in <em>Idu</em>, exposes that the Nigerian pre-colonial association of hegemonic masculinity with ‘virility’ proves to be harmful, too powerful to be resisted, dehumanizing, and tragic. I contend that although a woman’s childlessness is presented to be equally painful, the novel sheds more light on the complexity of male infertility, and uses the ironic narrative as a mechanism to contest pre-colonial indigenous constructions of manhood in the Igbo society, redefining the Igbos’ attachment to producing children. <br><br></p> Fatiha Bouanani Copyright (c) 2022 International Conference on Gender Research https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/icgr/article/view/193 Wed, 13 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0000 How can Gender Smart Mobility become a More Intersectional form of Mobility Justice https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/icgr/article/view/236 <p>This paper discusses ethical issues relating to equity in smart mobility (SM) with a focus on the intersections of gender, race and class. The H2020 TInnGO (Transport and Innovation Gender Observatory) project, in which this work was undertaken, was built around the concept that Gender Smart Mobility (GSM) requires not just the development of smart mobility but the application of gender and diversity mainstreaming.</p> <p>The paper is set against a background of slow but steady progress towards gender equality in transport, where women in the EU now account for between 22-27% of the transport workforce, and their multimodal journeys are underserved by current transport provision. Gender and diversity mainstreaming recognises the importance of applying intersectionality in creating fair and equitable transport services which can reduce the vulnerability of certain groups to social-exclusion related transport poverty. Although championed by the EU as an objective of transport policy, Gender Mainstreaming (GM) has had limited uptake at national level and has been criticised for its oversimplification of gender, and prioritisation of gender over other factors.</p> <p>Incorporating intersectionality into transport policy can build on advances already made by GM However little work has been conducted in this area. Therefore, we have discussed how an intersectionality-based policy analysis framework used in health can be applied to this area.</p> <p>The paper argues for wider use of intersectionality (i.e., gender and diversity mainstreaming) in the SM sector and how it can be operationalised to create more equitable transport and societies. The discussion is timely given the disproportionate impact of COVID-19.</p> Katarzyna Gut, Jacquie Bridgman, Andree Woodcock Copyright (c) 2022 International Conference on Gender Research https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/icgr/article/view/236 Wed, 13 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Gender and Entrepreneurship: Exploring High Growth WomEntrepreneurs Socio-Economic myth and Gender stereo-types https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/icgr/article/view/270 <p>The rise of women entrepreneurship as an economic stimulator globally as seen recently is not only heard in social or economic debates, but also in gender related issues. Thus, this paper argues the need for WomEntrepreneurs contribution to the economy and society in general to be recognized and at the forefront. Women are one of the groups that are underrepresented and under-researched in entrepreneurship studies. They are classified and treated under the same umbrella of beings with no capability of managing and growing a business beyond profit making with employees than their male counter-parts. Even though, they have different backgrounds, are brought up differently, accessed opportunities (including their access to different market) and resources differently.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Research indicate, women are better educated, skilled and start businesses that have growth potential. That is, there are a select few High-Growth and Impact WomEntrepreneurs&nbsp; among the female population. These High Growth and Impact WomEntrepreneurs, even strive under great resource scarcity and high uncertainty. This is despite the challenges of stereo types that want women to constantly prove themselves. The word “WomEntrepreneur, High Growth and Impact WomEntrepreneur and WomEntrepreneurship” has been coined by the researcher to identify opportunity driven women entrepreneurs within the “high growth” women entrepreneurship space which adds as a contribution, and might also prove useful in entrepreneurship studies.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Gender plays a huge role in society, as&nbsp; men tend to have easy access to education, business, family and financial support and their businesses are growth driven and perform very well financially. While on the other hand, data indicate that, women find it difficult to secure financial resources. Hence, the aim of this paper is to discuss High-Growth and Impact WomEntrepreneurs, as a recognized gender of recent times in growing global economies and the individual factors (tested: confidence and risk-taker, reliability and determination) that drive this phenomenon. The paucity of studies addressing women theories and individual WomEntrepreneurs entrepreneurial attributes has led the call for incorporating the validated SIGMO Model, which considers the individual, the firm and the environment, as tested in South Africa which is considered as an economy that is still developing, using data collected from WomEntrepreneurs. WomEntrepreneurs are identified as highly educated than their male counter-parts.</p> <p>The paper addresses High Growth and Impact WomEntrepreneurship as a gender issue and also looks at the individual factors that influence and propel WomEntrepreneurs into High-Growth and Impact WomEntrepreneurs. Thus, in order to answer the research question of this study: How High-growth and Impact WomEntrepreneurs contribute to economic growth? The study undertook a quantitative research method, where online surveys were undertaken to access High Growth and Impact WomEntrepreneurs individual factors that positively contribute to High Growth Formation&nbsp; in firms managed by High Growth and Impact WomEntrepreneurs. Recommendations to policy makers have been drafted, which will encourage and support&nbsp; such an activity to sustain, grow and remove stereo types.</p> Musa Chauke Copyright (c) 2022 International Conference on Gender Research https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/icgr/article/view/270 Wed, 13 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Gender quota legislation has no spillover effect on hiring of female CEOs https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/icgr/article/view/85 <p>Iceland is a global leader in gender equality. Nevertheless, women face apparent exclusion from senior executive positions, and men hold 19 out of 20 CEO positions at listed companies. This study sheds light on the hiring process for CEOs of listed companies and on why the increased number of female board members has not led to an increased number of female CEOs. The research question is as follows: How do women on boards of listed companies experience the CEO hiring process with regard to equality of opportunity for male and female candidates? The study reports findings from interviews with 22 women who collectively sit on the boards of all of the listed companies in Iceland. Findings reveal a deep dissatisfaction with the prevailing CEO hiring practices, which they experience as a fast-paced and closed process, heavily reliant on board members’ networks and headhunters’ lists. The interviewees find that the outcomes exclude women, and they are conflicted about their own participation in the process. They voice the need for inclusion and call for disruptive tactics, more courage and gender quotas at the executive level. The main contribution of this research is that for the first time, female board members of all listed companies in one country have been interviewed to shed light on their experiences of the hiring process for senior management positions.</p> Asta Dis Oladottir, Thora H. Christiansen Copyright (c) 2022 International Conference on Gender Research https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/icgr/article/view/85 Wed, 13 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Inequalities for Women in Science, Technology and Innovation https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/icgr/article/view/157 <p>There is still a tangible inequality between men and women in many areas of daily life around the world, including professional fields and educational careers. The objective of this study was to analyze the different inequalities in Europe and third countries in America, Asia and Africa regarding the involvement of women and men in education and employment. This study focused on the areas related to Science, Technology and Innovation (STI), three of the most relevant and important areas for the future development of society.&nbsp;The study presented in this paper started with the initial question: "Are there inequalities between women and men in the fields of Science, Technology and Innovation?" This question was followed by an in-depth examination of datasets and studies on women and men who are learning, working, or hold leadership positions in the STI fields. Data and numbers were collected on the workforce, students in higher education, and professional fields. These served to determine and verify the state of the art for women in the fields of STI. Based on the results, presented in the paper, statements can be made regarding inequalities for women in the field of STI. Several efforts are being made in order to promote gender equality in STI. In fact, this has become a strategic issue in Europe, since the Council of the European Union, in its conclusions, invited the Commission and the Member States to consider including the gender perspective within the policy dialogues in bilateral and multilateral agreements with third countries in the STI area.&nbsp; Moreover, several initiatives have been implemented in recent years as part of the strategy for the European Research Area to promote gender equality in research and innovation. One of these initiatives is the Gender STI project, a European research-funded project that aims to integrate gender perspectives in STI into dialogues between Europe and third countries. As part of the initial activities of the project, this study aims to build a deep understanding on the current status of gender equality in STI in these regions and how the gender perspective is currently addressed in policy dialogues.</p> Sarina Gursch, Katja Urak, Michael Herold, Stefan Kutschera, Silvia de los Rios Perez, Rebeca Garcia-Betances, Maria Cabrera-Umpierrez, Yolanda Ursa, Wolfgang Slany, Vesna Krnjic Copyright (c) 2022 International Conference on Gender Research https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/icgr/article/view/157 Wed, 13 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0000 The functioning of gender, with special reference to the global south https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/icgr/article/view/98 <p>This paper proposes theorising gender through complementary sets of behavioural prescriptions or norms rather than by a focus on women (and men). It posits the idea that gender is integral to a disciplinary regime aimed at producing social order, with masculinity at its centre. What appear as advantages to men simultaneously pressure them into conforming to their cultural and socio-economic group’s notions of masculinity including exerting control over wives and offspring. Four complementary foundational norms for both sexes are identified. They evolved during the nineteenth-century in industrialised Europe and were spread to the global south first through Christianisation and colonialism and later through gender and development programmes and mass/social media. These norms are first economic support for sustaining material life versus social reproduction and caring; secondly, male disciplining of (submissive) wives and children; thirdly heterosexuality, marriage and the biological production of children; and fourthly men’s protection of vulnerable women and their ascriptive (ethnic/religious) group for the context, as also the state. These do not determine behaviour but oblige everyone to consider them in negotiating their own conduct, with the most insecure interpreting them most narrowly. The ideology of masculinism supports the regime at the macro level, while also influencing individual behaviour at grassroots. Drawing on cases from my work in Latin America and Sub-Saharan Africa, I show how this functions in practice in relation to how men treat each other and how it impinges on familial gender relations, with particular emphasis on Sub-Saharan Africa, and especially Kaduna, Nigeria. I also discuss how supporting men to delink their behaviour from the norms of masculinity (thus defying masculinism) can make a positive contribution to family life and I posit the importance of further research on the effects of the norms for both sexes to improve our understanding of the functioning of gender.</p> Colette Harris Copyright (c) 2022 International Conference on Gender Research https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/icgr/article/view/98 Wed, 13 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Formation of human capital in the digital era: gender specifics https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/icgr/article/view/184 <p>Under the influence of the Fourth Industrial Revolution, the skills need of current and future employees are also changing. In an environment where people work with machines and digital technologies, it is essential to develop the organization's new skills and competencies in order to remain competitive. Terms such as eskills, digital skills, or technological skills are often used in the context of human capital formation, and become an important part of it for organizations in the digital technology environment. The European Commission, which evaluates the DESI index every year, includes a human capital dimension, where according to the digital skills ranking, many European countries do not even reach 50 points out of 100. From the perspective of companies, jobs require a certain type of technical and digital skills. Gender research points to a significant gap between men and women in the field of IT, as well as in the current level of skills. However, the theory lacks more insight into gender specifics in a generation that will only come to the labour market in the coming period. In our original research, we decided to examine a selected generation Z, young people who are in their final years of high school and are considering the future direction of their education and potential career. This generation, unlike the previous ones, is specific in that it has grown up in many new technologies and encountered them in recent years. The aim of the research was therefore to examine gender differences in generation Z in terms of the perception of different types of skills as an important part of the human capital formation for future. And further take a deeper look at their behaviour in terms of education and career decision-making impulses. The research was conducted on 755 students in Slovakia and Czech Republic and pointed to a significant difference in the perception of the importance of technological and ICT skills between men and women, as well as their external influence on decision-making. The results of the unique research provide basis for the possibilities of setting up education and development of young women in the topic of digital skills, through which it would be possible to reduce this significant gap between men and women in the researched area.</p> Lucia Kohnová, Ján Papula Copyright (c) 2022 International Conference on Gender Research https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/icgr/article/view/184 Wed, 13 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Performativity in Politics: Understanding the Role of Affect in Political News Coverage https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/icgr/article/view/82 <p>The United States Democratic primaries for the 2020 election kicked off with an incredibly diverse pool of candidates with regards to gender, race, age, and socioeconomic status. However, as the primaries progressed and the pool of candidates narrowed, voters elected to nominate Joe Biden—a white man in his late seventies—to take on Donald Trump in November, 2020. Given the similarity between Elizabeth Warren’s platform and Bernie Sanders’, the purpose of this paper is to explore how news-media coverage contributes to the role of gender in campaigns for president in the United States. Grounded in a theoretical understanding of gender performativity in politics, this study uses a quantitative sentiment analysis of newspaper articles about both candidates to understand whether reporters expressed underlying sentiments differing based on the candidates’ gender. Articles were selected from The New York Times (NYT), The Washington Post (WaPo), National Public Radio (NPR), The Associated Press (AP), and the Wall Street Journal (WSJ) to represent the diversity of reputable, mainstream news outlets considered to have minimal partisan bias available to the American public. Though the sentiment analysis revealed no significant difference in reporting across the different sources by candidate, factors such as rules for news publications and the nuances in political orientation of the two candidates may have limited the role of sentiment in contributing to political gender bias in this case study. This research is of broad interest as it sheds light on the current gendered political landscape in the United States, where a female president has yet to be elected. Furthermore, this study explores the within-party gender dynamics in reporting, in contrast to the myriad studies published in the aftermath of the 2016 presidential election in which Hillary Clinton lost to Donald Trump.</p> Isabel Krakoff Copyright (c) 2022 International Conference on Gender Research https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/icgr/article/view/82 Wed, 13 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Improving Democracy: Gender Quotas and Diversity in Canada https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/icgr/article/view/298 <p>The adoption of quotas for the election of women is a worldwide trend that is changing the face of national politics in many countries. Research shows that such measures are successful. First, this text reviews international literature on the adoption of gender quotas for electing women and their impact on minority women. What are the processes leading to the adoption of gender quotas in different contexts? Who initiates the process? How do quota campaigns get started? In the second section, the text uses Canada as a case study to understand the starting point for gender and/or diversity quota campaigns. In Canada, the idea of quotas for women and for minorities is on the agenda of many political organizations, but although there seems to be a new symbolic opening for having gender quotas at some levels of Canadian political institutions, popular support is still low. What about quotas for other groups such as minorities? A survey conducted in 2016 found that a majority of Canadians are open to designating seats for the country’s Indigenous peoples to boost their representation in Parliament and on the Supreme Court. Another study conducted on existing affirmative action programs provides insight on how quotas are perceived. These programs, in operation since the 1980s, are aimed at redressing past inequities and promoting the hiring of five designated groups. The survey indicates that no one is in favour of discriminating against marginalized groups; nevertheless, a large majority of respondents supported meritocracy and resisted affirmative action. In the 2021 Canadian federal election, there were no gender quotas and the number of women elected at the Canadian Parliament was 30% percent, a 1% increase from the 2019 election. In Quebec, one of the thirteen provinces and territories of Canada, an informal campaign for gender quotas in the 2018 provincial election has led to the election of 41% of women. Gender quota campaigns create openings to introduce diversity into the conversation. More research is needed to explain why there is still resistance to certain types of quotas such as gender quotas in the specific context of Canada. Overall, bringing a more diversified body of representatives to parliaments contributes to the revitalization of electoral politics and can improve democracy.</p> Chantal Maillé Copyright (c) 2022 International Conference on Gender Research https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/icgr/article/view/298 Wed, 13 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Gender Differences in Burnout Syndrome and Perceptions of Gender Equality in Research Organisations https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/icgr/article/view/88 <p>We present the results of a survey which was distributed to six research performing organisations in Albania, France, Germany, Italy, Serbia, and Spain. We found that both academic and non-academic women perceive 1) a greater degree of work pressure than men; and, 2) a greater degree of gender inequality than men. These results are consistent across countries. The fact that women occupy a lower percentage of senior positions than men and do not share the same perception of inequality, may be critical to the resolution of the <em>leaky pipeline</em> phenomenon. These results have provided incentives to the six organisations to implement measures that address gender biases to ensure a balanced gender representation at decision-making levels, and that improve work-life balance to reduce burnout syndrome and positively affect career satisfaction.<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp;</span></p> Stefania Marcassa Copyright (c) 2022 International Conference on Gender Research https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/icgr/article/view/88 Wed, 13 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Examining the Effect of Gender Leadership and Workforce Equality on Thematic Mutual Funds Financial Performance https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/icgr/article/view/93 <p>This study examines the relationship between gender equality scores for leadership and workforce dimension and financial performance of 554 US thematic mutual funds and 2,140 US conventional mutual funds investing globally or in the United States stock markets from January 2015 to May 2021. To this end, we implement the new Fama and French six-factor model and the Student’s t-parametric tests for the independent samples. Our results indicate that, in general, gender equality for leadership and workforce does not affect the financial performance of mutual funds focused on one sector related to sustainable development goals that invest in the United States market. However, we find that infrastructure mutual funds with higher levels of gender leadership and workforce equality that invest in the global market perform better than their counterparts with lower levels of gender equality. On the contrary, healthcare, water, information technology and gold and precious metals mutual funds with higher levels of gender equality for leadership and workforce dimension that invest in the global market underperform their counterparts with lower levels of gender leadership and workforce equality. Similarly, we find a negative relationship between gender equality level for leadership and workforce dimension and the financial performance of mutual funds diversified across sectors such as conventional and ethical mutual funds investing globally or in the United States market.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Carmen-Pilar Martí-Ballester Copyright (c) 2022 International Conference on Gender Research https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/icgr/article/view/93 Wed, 13 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Fostering Participation in Gender Budgeting: A proposal for an online system to enhance citizens' engagement in gender-responsive budgeting https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/icgr/article/view/114 <p>A controversial issue in the public management literature is the role attributed to women. Analyzing the existing literature, few works have been written about how the presence of women is valued in the public sector. From this analysis, several discriminatory elements are still present, and gender equality seems to be far away. However, this objective must continue to be pursued, also considering the relevance given to the gender equality issue by the United Nations in the Sustainable Development Goals. To achieve this goal, it is necessary to implement political, economic and societal legislation, programs and policies to minimize the differences between men and women. In this perspective, Gender Budgeting (GB) could be an interesting field of research. It consists of a systematic review about how women benefit from public sector expenditures, an adjustment of budgets to ensure equality of access to public sector expenditures, enhancing productive capacity and meeting social needs. However, GB could be adopted differently and could produce several results. In particular, the implementation of GB as a participatory tool is still nowadays a challenge and could be fascinating to analyze, considering the various benefits that a participatory approach could imply. One of the main reasons for the lack of direct citizens involvement in GB is that it was initially developed from a macro-perspective at the national budget. On the other hand, other participatory tools, such as the participatory budget, originate at the local level. Therefore, examining the existing literature and focusing on two different processes, but with some overlapping characteristics elements, namely participatory budgeting and gender budgeting, the present research aims to create a participatory GB framework, investigating the insertion of a participatory perspective in the process, specifically women’s engagement, not neglecting the relevance of digitalization to this end.</p> Giorgia Mattei, Valentina Santolamazza, Beatrice Elia Copyright (c) 2022 International Conference on Gender Research https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/icgr/article/view/114 Wed, 13 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Innovation against gender inequalities in agri-food industry https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/icgr/article/view/113 <p>In recent years, industrialization and globalization have prompted small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) to implement a significant technological and managerial innovation process. In Italy, it leads to new entrepreneurial pathways, such as innovative start-ups. The new solutions' implementation becomes even more crucial for a company's sustainability during crises since it improves the organization's flexibility and encourages the development of new tools and techniques. Previous research recognized the intangible assets' relevance in the innovation's creation process, mainly referring to Intellectual Capital (IC) and its components. In particular, Relational Capital (RC) fosters reactive firms' resilience, whereas Structural Capital (SC) helps SMEs respond to challenges proactively. Focusing on the agri-food sector, it has recently reached considerable results in terms of innovation, but it still appears insufficient to stimulate female entrepreneurship. Recent data confirm a remarkable gender gap: for 107 innovative agri-food start-ups in Italy, only 14 are led by women.</p> <p>Given all this, the paper aims to answer the following Research Questions (RQ).</p> <p>RQ1: How could RC and SC promote women innovative start-ups in agri-food?</p> <p>RQ2: How did these factors foster proactive and reactive firms' resilience during the pandemic?</p> <p>The work uses an exploratory, descriptive qualitative analysis performed during the pandemic emergency and applies the CAOS model, an interpretative model widely used in SMEs' studies since it allows a deep analysis of relational capital. Moreover, the CAOS model can be helpful to observe the SC's innovation.</p> <p>From a theoretical point of view, the research contributes to gender studies, identifying critical, innovative elements that similar women start-ups could implement. From a managerial perspective, findings could increase the firms' competitiveness in the current crisis period and reduce gender inequality.</p> <p>The application of a single case study could represent a research's limit. Thus, in the future, the authors aim at replicating the analysis considering a more comprehensive sample.</p> Giuseppe Modaffari, Martina Manzo Copyright (c) 2022 International Conference on Gender Research https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/icgr/article/view/113 Wed, 13 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Invisible Barriers: Societal Norms Versus Female Workplace Progression https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/icgr/article/view/155 <p>Cultural and societal norms constantly assign different family and religious expectations to women as compared to men. Therefore, this research paper seeks to provide insight into the effects of prevalent cultural and societal norms on the progression of lower-level female managers. It examines the impact of these norms on the fulfilment of work-related duties and the resultant implications for the success of a female within their professional role. The research integrated qualitative and quantitative approaches and was carried out within the culturally diverse province of KwaZulu-Natal, in South Africa. Primary data was gathered using a quantitative questionnaire distributed to thirty-five lower-level female managers, typically fulfilling an entry-level supervisory role, within two separate private organisations. The research was independent of race and age. The findings of the study indicate that respondents face societal and cultural norms that adversely affect progression. These include assumptions of weaker and more emotional management styles, lack of support in meeting family and work obligations, and gender biases impacting access to opportunities for progression. The findings also include women from many cultures by virtue of the diverse cultures within the KwaZulu-Natal region. This paper will therefore be of value to female managers from diverse backgrounds in developed and developing countries. Specifically, female managers encountering invisible barriers to breaking through the glass ceiling and progressing to higher levels of management due to their own cultural and societal norms will benefit from insights delivered. The findings will also be of value to mentors of aspiring female managers, male senior managers with female subordinates, and human resources departments. The research paper will commence with a literature review that examines the relevance of cultural and societal norms in the progression of female managers. The research methods and results of the study will then be described, and findings discussed. The paper will conclude with final insights and recommendations for further research.</p> <p> </p> Dominique Nupen, Jayseema Copyright (c) 2022 International Conference on Gender Research https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/icgr/article/view/155 Wed, 13 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Social Network Dynamics in Transmission of HIV by Sexual Contact https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/icgr/article/view/81 <p>According to statistics published by the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS), by the end of 2019, 38 million people were living with HIV. Hornet is the most frequently-used gay-oriented social network worldwide, especially in France, Russia, Brazil, Turkey, and Taiwan. In this study, we focused on the correlation between the route of transmission for the HIV-1 virus and social media application usage in terms of sexual contact according to the generation category in Turkey. The study included 280 heterosexual, bisexual, and men who have sex with men (MSM) who were newly diagnosed and antiretroviral treatment-naive HIV-1 patients from cities located in the Marmara region in Turkey. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with each patient between 2015 and 2020. As key populations of the study, bisexuals and MSMs were counted together in the MSMs category because in both sexual preferences, MSM. HIV-1 subtypes and circulating recombinant forms (CRFs) were identified by phylogenetic analysis. Subtype B (80%, 224/280), non-subtype B (7.5%, 21/280), and CRFs (12.5%, 35/280) were identified as the most commonly occurring HIV-1 subtypes. HIV-1 acquisition route was found to be largely through MSM contact (67.9%, 190/280) compared to heterosexual contact (32.1%, 90/280). We have analysed the role of sex-oriented social media applications in HIV transmission among different sexual contacts. The study results showed that sex-oriented social media applications play a facilitator role in HIV transmission between key populations. This study may be useful for developing policies to prevent HIV transmission.</p> Nuran Öze, Murat Sayan Copyright (c) 2022 International Conference on Gender Research https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/icgr/article/view/81 Wed, 13 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0000 How Identity Informs the Bicultural Context of South African Indian Women Engineers https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/icgr/article/view/99 <p>This qualitative study articulated the voices of 25 South African Indian women engineers through the exploration of their identities in a bicultural context. Data extracted from their life stories provided elucidation of participants’ bicultural identity navigation. This applied firstly in a personal context, historically known for its culturally driven patriarchal undertones. Secondly, their professional context, in a career dominated by men and deeply rooted in gender partiality against women engineers. Findings of this research indicated the transformed application of Indian cultural norms evidenced by (a) growing family support of a career that would – under Indian culture – be deemed unsuitable for an Indian female, and (b) an unexpected finding: the rise of a paternal motivator that contributed to positive socialisation informing autonomous career decision-making by participants. The continued dominance of men in the profession presented as a strong negative indicator adversely impacting fluid navigation. This article contributed to the literature on identity and biculturalism by considering an insufficiently studied sample of women. The findings and recommendations of this article provided previously untapped information about the identity challenges faced by bicultural female engineers in a male-dominated profession.</p> Vanishree Nundagopaul Pillay, Jenika Gobind, Zanele Ndaba Copyright (c) 2022 International Conference on Gender Research https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/icgr/article/view/99 Wed, 13 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Advanced Strategic Platform for Inclusive Research Environments (ASPIRE): a tool for change https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/icgr/article/view/80 <p>In recent years, organisations have been striving to adopt a proactive approach towards reducing discrimination and enhancing inclusion. Research performing organisations, in particular, have made substantial investments and adopted a number of policies, programmes and interventions to combat gender inequality. Despite the progress achieved, gender equality in research and higher education institutions deems to be particularly difficult to attain, with the same challenges remaining prevalent for decades.</p> <p>Among the contributors to the perpetuation of gender inequality in academia, is the inability of gender equality initiatives to challenge gendered norms. Partly because the focus of such initiatives remains on normative constructions of gender, and their implementation is based on the assumption of culture change through instrumental drivers. Consequently, as long as success and impact of equality initiatives remains solely associated with the introduction of new policies, rather than the transformation of entrenched behavioural and culturally-prescribed norms, significant, continuous and integrated change is unlikely to occur. To address these issues, the Advanced Strategic Platform for Inclusive Research Environments (ASPIRE) offers an innovative and evidence-based framework aimed at accelerating meaningful change in attitude and behaviour towards diversity and facilitating inclusive research environments. ASPIRE encourages the focus of enquiry to expand from the (re)production of inequalities and adoption of solutions that centre on improving staff statistics and performance metrics, to long-term interactive processes of change that can generate structural and embedded impact on organisational culture. ASPIRE provides a dynamic web-based platform for implementation, adoption and sustained Equality, Diversity and Inclusion (EDI) practice. It goes beyond the current EDI approaches by taking a holistic and intersectional perspective, that does not only address issues of gender, but accounts for other personal characteristics that contribute to unique experiences of discrimination. It appropriately guides and measures the implementation of EDI initiatives across institutions, linking such measurement with indicators of change in attitudes and culture, and providing recommendations for future and further action.</p> Mariana Pinho, Belinda Colston, Alison Mitchell, Julie Bayley, Udeni Salmon Copyright (c) 2022 International Conference on Gender Research https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/icgr/article/view/80 Wed, 13 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Secondary End-Users’ Perspectives on Gender Differences in the Use of eHealth Applications in Older Adults https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/icgr/article/view/149 <p>In the digital age, people with low digital skills and low digital literacy face marginalization. Here, the area of healthcare and its rapid digitalization deserves special attention, as the risks of health disparities increase for people with a low eHealth literacy. Within the AAL-funded project ‘Got-IT: a toolkit for inclusive and understandable lifestyle data visualizations in eHealth solutions’ (AAL-2020-7-51-SCP), we therefore aim to create an online toolkit to assist the design of inclusive eHealth solutions. As there already exists a large body of literature regarding (e)Health literacy in older adults that focuses on them as end-users of tools, apps etc. this study specifically focuses on secondary end-users of health applications in the field of healthcare. In this context, we conducted three focus group discussions with secondary end-users such as nurses, physiotherapists, psychologists, neurologists as well as social workers.</p> <p>As a result, it was noted that gender turned out to be an issue in terms of the familiarity and use of eHealth applications. The secondary end-users reported that the focus - when trying to be as inclusive as possible in familiarizing users with low eHealth literacy with health applications - should be on gender-sensitive use of language and gender-sensitive display of medical information. The results of our qualitative study give insights to gender-specific use of eHealth applications for older adults with low eHealth literacy, as well as recommendations of secondary end-users on how to take a more gender-balanced approach when developing, and familiarizing users with eHealth applications.&nbsp;</p> Yvonne Prinzellner, Ali Simon Copyright (c) 2022 International Conference on Gender Research https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/icgr/article/view/149 Wed, 13 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Emotions as a lasting leadership learning in high-potential female students https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/icgr/article/view/100 <p>Women's underrepresentation in leadership positions is a well-known problem. The lack of self-confidence and training in leadership is highlighted in the literature as the two main barriers to women seeking managerial positions. Educational organizations have to provide leadership skills development and gain-oriented personal resources through women's leadership programs. Research demonstrates that emotions improve the learning process in educational activities. Nevertheless, to our knowledge, there has been little feminist research focused on how emotions modulate the learning process in educational leadership programs and how they promote students’ personal change, which needs to last in time. To fill this gap, the objective of this study is to present an evaluation of the impact of emotions on a leadership program for female undergraduates, using a multi-source program assessment based on triangulation. The study analyzes the students' emotions during and after the university Women's Leadership Program (WLP), exploring their learning processes in the acquisition of formal leadership skills, personal resources, and personal inner transformation as a fusion of their emotions. The Achievement Emotions Questionnaire (AEQ) scale was applied including 9 items (α= 0.72). Bivariate analyses were conducted using an analysis of variance (ANOVA) and exploratory factor analysis. Additionally, focus groups were carried out at the end of the course, two weeks after, to allow time for reflection by the participants. The analysis was carried out as a conventional content analysis (inductive). The results of an online survey and focus groups with the students and the perceptions of the lecturers suggest that emotions contributed to fostering the learning of leadership skills and triggering deep inner personal development. The findings indicate that i) positive and negative valence contributes to the appraisal process, helping them to be self-reflective about their personal leadership qualities, ii) reinforcing their own shortcomings and improving self-skills such as confidence, building leadership fluidly. In addition, the emotional state of the trainers who accompanied the students during the sessions of the program was highly significant, becoming emotional triggers. Furthermore, trainers also become role models. Practical implications for the future are provided for the educational institutions and business managers to improve women leadership programs</p> Mónica Segovia, Pilar Laguna-Sánchez, Ana M. Vargas-Pérez, Concepción de la Fuente-Cabrero Copyright (c) 2022 International Conference on Gender Research https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/icgr/article/view/100 Wed, 13 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Is it a WoMan’s World? Gender Stereotypes and Social Role Inequalities in Commercials https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/icgr/article/view/90 <p>Gender representation is a very complex system, which, according to a wide body of research, is never static, but rather ever-changing, due to the mediated visual artefacts channelled through advertisements. Research has shown that marketers most often prefer to show females as desirable creatures in decorative roles, while men are typically featured as authoritarian and independent (Reichert &amp; Carpenter, 2004). A growing interest in ‘non-stereotypical gender role representation’ placed gender under a different light (Chu et al., 2016). The intention of the present paper is to contribute to the enrichment of the identified gap by identifying the expected gender inequalities, the illusional visual portrayals, and the possible negative effects that can come into existence in society.</p> <p>Therefore, the present research aims to explore the changing frequency of male and female presence and the gender role representation with a special focus on the various trait descriptors, physical characteristics, and clothing styles, all of which either strengthen or break stereotypes. Focusing on the interval between 2015 and 2019, the aim is to contrast two main pillars: the first pillar represents six randomly selected commercial advertisements of different international product brands (Audi car, Ariel detergent, Johnson and Johnson’s Baby products, Activia yoghurt, Nike sports accessories and Advil painkiller medicine), while the second pillar is based on the five latest Epica Award-winning Grand Prix Films, juried by two hundred international journalists.&nbsp;</p> <p>The research hypothesis suggests that mass-targeted commercial advertisements are more likely to be stereotype-consistent, while jury-targeted commercials, which compete for a professional creative prize, are rather stereotype-inconsistent. The proper operationalization of the collected data required a descriptive method, which offered enough room for the characterization of actions, stylistic features and body language featured in the commercials. Therefore, the qualitative research is built on Charteris-Black’s (2019) visual rhetorical content analysis. Results indicate that while the award-winning commercials are more likely to be stereotype-inconsistent, those commercials that are presented for the mass are rather stereotype-consistent.</p> Kincső Szabó Copyright (c) 2022 International Conference on Gender Research https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/icgr/article/view/90 Wed, 13 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Saving lives with gender studies? Putting technofeminism into practice https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/icgr/article/view/210 <p>Although cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major cause of morbidity and death for all humans, measurable differences can be observed as a function of both sex (e.g. in risk factors and clinical presentation, based on biological factors such as hormone levels or tissue structure) and gender (e.g. diagnosis, treatment, and clinical outcomes based on sociocultural factors such as roles, norms, behaviour; Kentner &amp; Grace, 2017). Cardiovascular rehabilitation (CR) is known to significantly reduce CVD mortality and re-hospitalization rates, and increases quality of life for all genders. Nevertheless, women are less often referred to CR by physicians, which could be explained by multiple reasons, one of them unconscious sex and gender biases. Additionally, women face family responsibilities and lack of transportation options as greater hindering factors than men (ibid.). Those facts made CR a logical target for a medicine technology project, which developed (between 2018 and 2021) a multifunctional data patch for monitoring of vital signs and movements. These patches with printed ECG sensors can be worn on the skin for several weeks and thus can be used to support cardiovascular tele-rehabilitation. However, the use case of cardiovascular disease and the motivation to close the gender gap in its rehabilitation found its way into the technology design process only because the project received funding for implementing a gender perspective in an interdisciplinary team. The Austrian FEMtech research funding programme is an example of implementing a gender policy into practice by integrating gender as a cross-cutting issue in science and research as well as promoting gender equality in the research team itself. This paper analyses the application of a technofeminist approach (Wajcman 2004) in a project and outlines its implications. This started by raising awareness on the concept of “configuring the user as ‘everybody’ and the use of the ‘I-methodology‘” (Oudshoorn et al. 2004, p.30). It consequently followed a participatory technology design path, involving stakeholders from the very beginning. Thus, instead of only sticking to mandatory tasks of reflecting gender in meetings, the project team expanded their methodology and interdisciplinary setup into a transdisciplinary undertaking drawing on the RRI (responsible research and innovation) values of reflexivity, responsiveness, anticipation and deliberation (Stilgoe et al. 2013). In the long run, a gender-sensitive – technofeminist – research and design process should result in better and more comprehensive routines and products, thus, regarding medical and safety issues, potentially saving lives.</p> Anita Thaler Copyright (c) 2022 International Conference on Gender Research https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/icgr/article/view/210 Wed, 13 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Resisting, accepting and supporting gender equality in Portuguese Higher Education Institutions: Leadership Profiles https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/icgr/article/view/187 <p>In the European context, Portugal is the country with the lowest number of women (1.9% in 2016) at the top of the academic career and just 30% of women in the leadership of HEIs (<em>She Figures</em> <em>2018</em>; Elsevier, 2021; Cabrera, 2019; Carvalho and Diogo, 2018). Paradoxically, it is also one of the European countries where female academics have the highest publishing productivity (Elsevier, 2021) and make up most of the doctorates (55% in 2016). Only very recently, however, these inequalities began to receive attention. In 2019, for example, women's participation in academic decision-making and leadership became required by law (National Law 26/2019) in all Portuguese public higher education institutions. And levelling effects of this law are soon expected since human resources management in the public HE institutions in Portugal is a centralised system (OECD, 2021). In this context it also becomes interesting to understand what academic leaders think about the promotion of gender equality in HEIs. This paper seeks to address this question. As part of a larger research project exploring gender equality issues in HEIs in Portugal we dethatched qualitative interviews conducted with HEIs leaders throughout the country. The project also involved secondary analyses of national and international data on gender equality and four case studies in HEIs with an action research approach. The outcome of the analysis was an exploratory typology identifying three specific profiles among interviewees – <em>Resisting, Accepting, and Supporting</em> – conveying different ways of understanding and dealing with gender equality issues in HEIs. Overall, this qualitative analysis found a greater awareness about Gender Equality than what has been reported in previous research (e.g. Carvalho, White and Machado-Taylor 2013; Carvalho, Özkanli and Machado-Taylor, 2012; Carvalho and Machado-Taylor, 2010). The paper describes and illustrates each of these profiles and discusses implications of these findings for promoting gender equality in HEIs in Portugal and beyond.</p> Anália Torres, Paula Campos Pinto, Fátima Assunção, Sara Merlini, Diana Maciel, Bernardo Coelho, Filipa Godinho Copyright (c) 2022 International Conference on Gender Research https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/icgr/article/view/187 Wed, 13 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Understanding the Factors Influencing Women’s Career Trajectories in STEM Education in Kazakhstan. https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/icgr/article/view/186 <p>Although female researchers in Kazakhstan account for 53% of the total, those engaged in science, engineering, and technology fields (STEM) account for less than 45% of the STEM total. A similar pattern is experienced with respect to tertiary education students in Kazakhstan with the percentage of undergraduate women being 58% of the total, but only 32% of the undergraduate students in STEM. Thus, the phenomenon of "leakage" from the STEM educational pipeline starts early and persists, albeit ameliorated with advanced degrees. This study seeks to identify the barriers that deter Kazakhstani women from entering STEM disciplines, from persisting through their studies, and from pursuing successful academic careers. Specifically, the purpose of this study is to identify the extent to which various socioeconomic and institutional factors shape the perception of women towards STEM fields. The major methodological instrument employed is a set of qualitative interviews of female faculty in STEM, designed and calibrated for the local context. The interviewees were randomly selected from one of the largest local universities with a broad spectrum of STEM disciplines. The proportion of indigenous female faculty members in STEM disciplines in this university is less than 25%. The preliminary results reveal that the key barriers are disrupted work-life balance, cultural stereotypes, poor self-assessment, and gender-based discrimination on an institutional level. In addition, factors such as availability of research facilities, job autonomy, involvement in decision-making procedures, and encouragement from the institution emerge as critical facilitators for effective female careers in STEM. The conclusions of this study are expected to inform the development of appropriate questionnaire instruments towards a larger study across a section of tertiary education institutions in Kazakhstan. &nbsp;</p> Mariza Tsakalerou, Asma Perveen, Alibek Ayapbergenov, Aida Rysbekova, Askar Bakytzhanuly Copyright (c) 2022 International Conference on Gender Research https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/icgr/article/view/186 Wed, 13 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Womxn as agents of change to transform the post-apartheid city https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/icgr/article/view/189 <p>The built form of South Africa’s post-apartheid city perpetuates the perception that a heteronormative, protestant, white, masculine, binary norm is the societally preferred perspective. This perpetuation means that queerness, spirituality, womxnness – and all those included within this community, are pushed down by this perceived preferred type of person. This paper presents secondary data on the current social and cultural milieu that restricts womxn from being agents of change in transforming the post-apartheid city. Architecture is complicit in what drives the masculinity that manifests itself in built form. Consequently, existing and future architectural interventions within the post-apartheid city fall short in their attempts to transform the city. Anecdotally, this failure is due to the reluctance to include womxn in the architectural programme of these interventions. This lack of transformation results in the phenomenon that the subdued group at the bottom of the social hierarchy remains silent, as they are left without adequate room to act, be seen, or establish their voice. This paper theorises how this zeitgeist<a href="#_ftn1" name="_ftnref1">[1]</a> perpetuates post-colonial capitalist industrial linear economy thinking or the masculine approach. The approach vested in profiteering from natural resources and an oppressed labour force. As a result, there may be a connection between the successful implementation of this masculine thinking approach and the global ecological breakdown, proven to be due to the human-caused climate emergency. Finally, this paper argues for a newly established agenda that will inform architectural interventions for programmes that encourage a balanced (feminine and masculine) approach as a contributing solution.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><a href="#_ftnref1" name="_ftn1">[1]</a> Zeitgeist, or spirit of the time; the spirit characteristic of an age or generation.</p> Francine van Tonder, Luthando Copyright (c) 2022 International Conference on Gender Research https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/icgr/article/view/189 Wed, 13 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0000 A partnership approach: supporting and empowering vulnerable women within one UK city https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/icgr/article/view/112 <p>This paper draws upon a three-year longitudinal qualitative evaluation of a voluntary sector strategic partnership and delivery project involving eleven women-centred organisations. The consortium, funded by the Big Lottery (charity), worked together to support the most vulnerable women and girls across a city in the north of England 2017-2021. The partnership of eleven female led organisations delivered front-line services which aimed to enable women and girls to lead safer and healthier lives. Partners combined their expertise to support women with multiple needs including: mental health, domestic abuse, sexual violence and exploitation, experience of the criminal justice system, sex work, and substance misuse. The project aimed to achieve 3 outcomes: <em>Outcome 1</em>: Improved and extended access for vulnerable women and girls in Leeds to the services and support they want when they choose; <em>Outcome 2</em>: A holistic response to ensure that the needs of women and girls with multiple and complex issues are better supported; <em>Outcome 3</em>: Women and girls will be empowered to support their peers and influence service delivery, development and design across the city. Our evaluation placed the project staff, partners, stakeholders and service users at the centre of qualitative data collection, using a co-produced Theory of Change approach to data collection. Our sample of 34 service users, 35 professionals (19 interviewed twice) and monitoring data shows that the project successfully met its objectives and developed a model of practice that could be used in other contexts to support and empower vulnerable women.</p> Louise Warwick-Booth, Susan Coan Copyright (c) 2022 International Conference on Gender Research https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/icgr/article/view/112 Wed, 13 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0000 The Future of UK Work-family Rights: The Case for More Flexible Working https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/icgr/article/view/89 <p>The Covid-19 pandemic has highlighted both the significant impacts that the UK lockdown rules have had for working women with caring responsibilities, and the potential of flexible working practices to redefine the ways in which people work. This paper will first examine the current UK right to request flexible working and its limitations particularly: the requirement for 26 weeks continuity of employment; the wide discretion that employers have to refuse such requests; the lack of ability to challenge employer’s decisions; and the limited ability to make subsequent requests and/or to make temporary changes. The paper will then critically examine the UK Department for Business, Energy &amp; Industrial Strategy’s consultation ‘Making Flexible Work the Default’, which addresses the some of these concerns, namely, to change it to a day-one right to request. This examination will consider whether a greater shift to flexible working as the default position, and a redefining of working practices and the work-life paradigm, can have a positive impact for working persons, especially those with caring responsibilities and/or other work-life conflicts. In particular, the paper will critically analyse whether a societal shift to more flexible working can redress the impact of the pandemic for working women with caring responsibilities. In doing so, the paper will reflect on whether this shift represents a challenge to the traditional unburdened worker norm or whether it will continue to reinforce traditional gender roles. Further areas for reform and development will also be identified, including enhanced rights for working fathers and a recognition of new and emerging areas of work-life conflict, such as Menopause in the Workplace, as highlighted by the Women and Equalities Commission’s inquiry on this topic.</p> Michelle Weldon-Johns Copyright (c) 2022 International Conference on Gender Research https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/icgr/article/view/89 Wed, 13 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Increasing gender sensitivity with codesign https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/icgr/article/view/177 <p>The Horizon Europe 2020 TInnGO (Transport Innovation Gender Observatory) project1 aimed to facilitate and empower the inclusion of underrepresented and diverse groups in smart mobility. Women are still considered to be an underrepresented group across the transport sector, forming less than 30% of all employees in the sector. Significantly women’s travel needs are not met by current transport provision, despite widespread evidence that they make different types of journeys and have different mobility concerns. It may hypothesised that even less is known about other minority groups (such as those from the BAME (Black, Asian, Minority and Ethnic community and those with disabilities). The design of future transport services and products is further skewed by the predominance of male undergraduate transport designers and engineers. While there are many noteworthy attempts to attract young women into STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics) careers and provide support for them in the male dominated sector, the work conducted by TInnGO’s Coventry team focussed on developing gender and diversity sensitive smart mobility solutions to highlight everyday mobility issues for women. These have been termed ‘Design provocations,’ 50 such designs were produced over 18 months in conjunction with 4 undergraduate design interns and are available for comment on our Open Innovation Platform2. From this experience, the team have produced a series of design tools to facilitate undergraduate student’s empathy and awareness when designing gender and diversity sensitive smart mobility products.</p> <p> </p> <p><a href="#_ftnref1" name="_ftn1">[1]</a> https://www.tinngo.eu/</p> <p><a href="#_ftnref2" name="_ftn2">[2]</a> https://oip.transportgenderobservatory.eu/home</p> Andree Woodcock, jacquie bridgman, Kat Gut, Paul Magee, sinead ouillon, Janet saunders, nicola york Copyright (c) 2022 International Conference on Gender Research https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/icgr/article/view/177 Wed, 13 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Stereotyping and Gender Gap during COVID-19: Backlash or Gender Convergence? A Systematic Literature Review https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/icgr/article/view/94 <p>What have been the short- and medium-term net effects of the pandemic on working mothers, both in the early stages and over the course of the pandemic? The goal of this paper, positioned within the research field of stereotyping and gender discrimination, is to provide an updated view of academic studies investigating the dichotomy “backlash vs gender convergence” in the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic shock. The paper has been structured as a systematic literature review based on the PRISMA Statement approach. We found a complex but, to a certain extent, predictable picture, with COVID-19 unable to produce strong and consistent macrodynamic changes on gender gap. Ultimately, therefore, the existing research seems to conclude that there is no support for either the backlash or the gender convergence notions; rather, there seems to be an equilibrium characterised by stability in gender roles, especially medium-to-long term. Other major findings include i) There seems to have been a general increase in equal childcare responsibilities even though, on average, mothers still carry the heavier load; ii) Mothers in dual-career couples were more exposed to work-hour reductions or losing their job completely; iii) Temporary gender convergence shifts were largely motivated by female working arrangements and/or necessity; iv) A new gap in psychological distress emerged for working mothers compared to both men and childless women.</p> Yvonne Ziegler, Regine Graml, Vincenzo Uli Copyright (c) 2022 International Conference on Gender Research https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/icgr/article/view/94 Wed, 13 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0000 MILIEU H2020 Project ‘Women, Disability and Inclusion’: Introducing the Project https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/icgr/article/view/192 <p>The paper introduces the MILIEU H2020 Project ‘Women, disability and inclusion – scientific excellence in Bulgaria’ – a Coordination and Support Action (CSA) project funded under the Horizon 2020 Programme, ‘Spreading excellence and widening participation – Twinning’ Call. The project aims to unlock, foster and sustain high-quality research at the intersection of studies on women, disability and inclusion by promoting collaboration, networking and an intensive exchange of research between partners. As a project to widen participation, MILIEU is specifically focused on driving excellence and enhancing the research-related fundraising and management competencies of the scholars and staff of the coordinating partner from the target country – in this case, the Institute of Philosophy and Sociology at the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences.</p> <p>The paper introduces MILIEU’s goals, methods and expected impact and presents the principal tasks and activities in implementing a project related to fostering research in the areas of women, disabilities and inclusion. It also describes the risks and challenges faced by MILIEU and the consortium and how they were overcome and turned into success stories.</p> Lyuba Spasova, Cinzia Leone, Rita Bencivenga Copyright (c) 2022 International Conference on Gender Research https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/icgr/article/view/192 Wed, 13 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Rhetorical Space and the Virality of the Bring Back Our Girls Campaign https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/icgr/article/view/296 <p>On April 14th, 2014, at about 11:35pm, 276 girls were abducted by the insurgent group Boko Haram from their boarding house in Government Girls College, Chibok in Northeast Nigeria. Nigerians, joined by the rest of the world, began to demand that the Nigerian government rescue the abducted girls. This agitation birthed the tagline Bring Back Our Girls. What started as a simple hashtag on Twitter would later become a global campaign tagged Bring Back Our Girls. Rhetorical spaces—virtual, material, and agential— have contributed to the escalation, amplification, and sustenance of the Bring Back Our Girls campaign. In this paper, I argue that social campaigns connect disparate spaces, virtual, material, and agential to propel, amplify and sustain conversations about their causes. This paper looks at the different spaces that added and continue to add agency to the Bring Back Our Girls movement. I conceptualize rhetorical space by drawing upon divergent views from rhetorical scholars and social scientists. To answer the research question—how did rhetorical spaces lend credence to the virality and sustenance of the Bring Back Our Girls movement? — the paper looks at Twitter, the media, public personalities and groups, and offline demonstrations as virtual, material, and agential spaces. This paper concludes that the 'spaces' examined gave credence to the virality of the Bring Back Our Girls campaign by using platforms, positions, and features as social capital to influence the conversation about the campaign. Twitter has been the most fundamental agential and virtual space in the virality and sustenance of the campaign.</p> Folasewa Olatunde Copyright (c) 2022 International Conference on Gender Research https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/icgr/article/view/296 Wed, 13 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Micro-Level Factors that Affect Females’ Decisions Towards Leadership in Higher Education: a Literature Review https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/icgr/article/view/137 <p>This paper is based on an ongoing PhD research named “Understanding the Lack of Female Leadership in Higher Education of Kazakhstan”. The aim of this study is to identify empirical studies that explored micro-level factors affecting female leadership in higher education. Thus, a systematic literature review technique was used to synthesise research from a gender perspective of leadership in higher education. An initial screening process resulted in a final sample of 37 appropriate studies. The synthesis of these empirical studies revealed that there are different leadership domains in higher education: academic and professional. Therefore, the micro-level factors that affect these domains include the purpose of doctoral studies, the change of interests, identity and gender, self-awareness, self-management, self esteem, self efficacy and work-life balance. This study contributes to the development of female leadership in higher education.<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp;</span></p> Moldir Yelibay Copyright (c) 2022 International Conference on Gender Research https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://papers.academic-conferences.org/index.php/icgr/article/view/137 Wed, 13 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0000