International Conference on Gender Research <p>The International Conference on Gender Research has been run on an annual basis since 2017. Conference Proceedings have been published each year and authors have been encouraged to upload their papers to university repositories. In addition the proceedings are indexed by a number of indexing bodies.</p> <p>From 2022 the publishers have decided to make all conference proceedings fully open access. Individual papers and full proceedings can be accessed via this system.</p> <p><strong>PLEASE NOTE THAT IF YOU WISH TO SUBMIT A PAPER TO THIS CONFERENCE YOU SHOULD VISIT THE CONFERENCE WEBSITE AT<a href=""></a> THIS PORTAL IS FOR AUTHORS OF ACCEPTED PAPERS ONLY.</strong></p> en-US (Louise Remenyi) (Sue Nugus) Thu, 18 Apr 2024 13:46:24 +0000 OJS 60 Editorial, Biographies and Review Committee <p>Editorial, Biographies and Review Committee</p> Copyright (c) 2024 International Conference on Gender Research Fri, 03 May 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Women and STEM skills for innovation and technological entrepreneurship <p>The role of women in innovation and technological entrepreneurship is fundamental in all countries. However, there are two key factors that decision-makers and public policymakers must consider; the first factor is related to the presence of women in the university and professional fields in STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics) and the skills that derive from it. The second relevant factor is stereotypes. Female entrepreneurship Professional Field, Pension, equal pay for equal work, marriage rights, and region/country. Gender and generate more innovation and jobs. This research aims to analyze the STEM competencies and entrepreneurship carried out by women and highlight the most relevant factors to reduce the gap. The methodological strategy is based on the use of machine learning techniques for which three databases were used: two from the World Bank Women, Business and the Law, another on business and law from the World Bank, and another on education from UNESCO, with emphasis on STEM competencies. The results show that women's most significant focus on STEM careers is in the health sciences, and the one that offers the lowest degree is engineering. It is also evident that the critical factors for the incursion of women as entrepreneurs in technological sectors are professional field, pension, equal pay for equal work, marriage rights, and region/country, and in these, some stereotypes are present.</p> Antonia Terán-Bustamante, Antonieta Martínez-Velasco, Lorena de La Torre-Díaz Copyright (c) 2024 International Conference on Gender Research Fri, 03 May 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Wonder Woman on Screen: From Feminist Symbol to Stereotypical Figure <p>Wonder Woman, a founding female figure in superhero fiction, was initially celebrated as a symbol of women’s empowerment in the 1970s but faced criticism in the 2010s for embodying fetishized objectification. This article aims to explore the gender representation of the 1970s TV series Wonder Woman and the 2010s <em>Wonder Woman </em>movie through a feminist approach. The portrayal of Wonder Woman in the TV series challenged the traditional stereotypes of femininity and the subordinary roles of women under patriarchy at that time. The <em>Wonder Woman</em> movie, however, lacked diversity under an intersectional framework and signified the beauty myth for male pleasure, which undermined her validity as a feminist icon. Through close analysis, it is revealed that the white feminist privilege and fetish fashion of superheroines traditionally recognized as feminist icons are problematic, calling for more scholarly attention on discriminatory gender representation in contemporary popular culture.</p> Ruochen Zhang Copyright (c) 2024 International Conference on Gender Research Thu, 18 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Indigenous Women Perspectives on Gender Equality and Feminism: A Case Study of Jahai Women in Peninsular Malaysia <p>Most research on gender equality and feminism have been concentrated on non-indigenous women worldwide, with very few studies focusing specifically on Jahai tribe women. Indigenous women are important in advancing the ideas of feminism and gender equality within their societies. This paper is a case study focuses on the indigenous women which is the Jahai tribe women in Royal Belum State Park, Malaysia. In this case study, we explored Jahai women’s perspectives of gender equality and feminism aspects in this indigenous society. This case study employed a quantitative and a qualitative method for data collection. A total of 20 Jahai women were selected to complete a set of questionnaires and five of them were chosen for the in-depth interview. From the study, there were four main themes that emerged including socio- economic equality, equal treatment, gender responsibilities and egalitarian leadership and decision-making prospects. This research study was guided by the Transnational Feminism Theory and Theory of Gender Equality approach. The findings revealed that there was the similarities and distinctions perceptions in gender equality and feminism aspects among Jahai women. The study's conclusions shed new light on the gender equality and feminism interpretations and challenges those women in indigenous societies face. As a result, this study is important for future research since it adds to the body of knowledge about gender equality and concerns pertaining to indigenous women.</p> Rafidah Abd Karim, Ramlee Mustapha, Norwaliza Abdul Wahab, Mohd Hasrol Haffiz Aliasak, Nurul Farhani Che Ghani, Nurul Shatirah Zainol Copyright (c) 2024 International Conference on Gender Research Thu, 18 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Gender Differentials for Participation in Producer Organization Among Smallholder Farmers: Evidence from Nigeria <p>Linking smallholder farmers to formal markets through producer organizations is increasingly becoming a pathway toward agricultural inclusivity. This study investigated the disparities in participation between male and female groups in Nigeria. Data was collected from &nbsp;604 farmers and decomposition analysis for three gender categories was carried out using the Fairlie decomposition technique. The results showed a 24.2% higher actual mean probability of participation for males over females and a 20.1% actual mean probability higher for male-headed households compared to female-headed households. There was also a 27.59% actual mean probability higher for the <em>de facto</em> female-headed households over <em>de jure</em> female-headed households. Diverse factors were found to push the gender gap at various magnitudes. Interventions targeting gender equality should be entrenched in understanding the social and cultural practices and norms in Nigeria.</p> Oluwatosin Adewusi, Prof. V.O Okoruwa, Prof. K.K Salman, Dr O. Alawode, Oluwafemi Adewusi Copyright (c) 2024 International Conference on Gender Research Thu, 18 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Implementation Research with Expressive Arts Therapy (EAT) to Support the Newcomer Survivors of Gender-based Domestic Violence (GBDV) in Toronto <p><em>Context: </em>Canada hosts thousands of newcomers from disadvantaged economies. Because of cultural non-essentialism and stigma, newcomer women in Canada embrace multi-level barriers to express their everyday discrimination and trauma experienced at home. Language creates another level of challenge. To understand the under-expressed domestic violence and the level of their trauma, this study added an arts-based evidence-generation technique followed by healing strategies by expressive arts modalities for this implementation research. <em>Methodology: </em>This mixed-method implementation research adopted an outcome-harvesting approach. Peer researchers conducted a collaborative review of the literature to find the best arts practices for identifying violence (type, bases, frequency, and severity), sort out the best modalities of expressive arts therapy (EAT) for such a vulnerable population group, and efficient measures to evaluate the intervention findings. <em>Intervention: </em>After screening for eligible participants (not in a crisis state) and their preparedness, a series of twelve sessions of EAT were conducted by a registered therapist on a closed group of newcomer participants. In a pilot phase, therapies are completed with three linguistic newcomer women groups- Arabic, Farsi/Dari, and Bengali. Three more groups (women speaking Tigrinya, newcomer women living in a shelter, and members of the LGBTQ2S+ communities) are selected for the next therapy sessions. The three sequential modalities were movement and discussion, storytelling and cognitive, and visual art and journaling. The key procedures were psychoeducation, self-regulation, co-regulation, strength-based, cognitive/tactile, and collective painting. The peer researcher conducted a 1-to-1 telephone interview with every participant for wellness and vulnerability checks three months after the last session. A Focus Group Discussion (FGD) is done for every group six months after the last session to assess sustainability and emerging challenges. <em>Call into action</em>: After triangulation of quantitative, qualitative, and arts-based evaluation findings, the study team prepares a scalable culturally appropriate practice guideline, a resource navigation toolkit for the survivors, and a policy advocacy document for necessary legislative amendment.</p> Akm Alamgir, Christen Kong Copyright (c) 2024 International Conference on Gender Research Thu, 18 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Gender Diversity: An Empirical Study on 4.151 US Investment Funds <p style="font-weight: 400;">The aim of this paper is to explore the issue of gender diversity (GD) in relation to the world of investment funds. In recent times, in fact, savers’ choice does not only converge on the mere pursuit of profit. Investment funds, in this scenario, are increasingly judged according to their environmental and ethical actions, and not just by the promised rewards. Individual and institutional investors, on this wake, are aligning their behavior with their values by taking responsibility for the investments they select. It is central, therefore, to understand and observe how issues such as GD are evaluated, managed and converted into rating values by funds.&nbsp;This paper is supported by a mixed research methodology involving, on the one hand, an in-depth literature review on the aforementioned topic and, on the other hand, a statistical study developed with the “R-Studio” program. Through the statistical derivation, this study proposes an analysis of histograms and scatter plots on a sample of 4.151 investment funds and the GD-related rating judgments compared with their net assets and longevity.&nbsp;Based on our findings, funds with higher net assets achieve high rating classes but not excellence. In fact, larger funds reside in lower rating classes. Similarly, it is also valid for the amount of capital managed by the funds. From the empirical evidence we provide, it can also be seen that, there is no evidence between GD rating category and youngest funds longevity.&nbsp;Filling a gap that exists in the literature on GD-related rating assessment in investment funds, the originality of this paper concerns the descriptive statistics proposed. In fact, the paper contributes to the literature on GD by enriching the analysis of the factors surveyed for its measurement and rating judgment.&nbsp;This study may have both theoretical and practical implications. From a practical perspective, the statistical evidence in this paper could be a guideline for practitioners oriented toward ethical and profitable investment choices. From a theoretical point of view, instead, GD evaluation and monitoring could be a tool to reduce problems related to transparency and legitimacy theory, mitigating information asymmetry between parties and aligning them on potential risks.</p> Simona Arduini, TOMMASO BECK Copyright (c) 2024 International Conference on Gender Research Thu, 18 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Artificial Intelligence – Gender-Specific Differences in Perception, Understanding, and Training Interest <p>In light of the growing importance of Artificial Intelligence (AI) in science, business, and society, broad acceptance is crucial. However, recent studies indicate a significant underrepresentation of women in the emerging AI-driven professions of the future job market. This hampers the innovation potential of technologies due to the lack of diverse perspectives in development. Gender-specific differences also manifest in the perception of AI: Men tend to view AI applications more positively, rate their own AI competencies higher, and have more trust in the technology compared to women. However, both genders agree on the critical importance of the comprehensibility of AI decisions and are equally willing to pursue further education in the field of AI.</p> <p>This study aimed to investigate gender-relevant aspects in the perception and understanding of AI, as well as the need for further education and opportunities for communication and exchange on the topic of AI.</p> <p>To achieve this, focus groups with female students were conducted in May 2023. The analysis of the conversation data and materials used was carried out using an inductive coding method.</p> <p>Overall, women perceive knowledge as the key to generating more interest in AI. However, they also identify obstacles such as discrimination, gender stereotypes, and a lack of gender equality. Additionally, they desire more practical examples, improved communication regarding the advantages and disadvantages of AI, as well as more democratic and transparent decision-making processes.</p> <p>The paper emphasizes that an inclusive educational environment requires awareness and education for women, along with measures against discriminatory barriers and stereotypes. Furthermore, it suggests the early involvement of women in the development of AI applications and the establishment of clear rules to ensure gender equality in the workplace. These study findings provide valuable support to companies in the gender-specific planning of awareness and training processes for introducing AI.</p> Sascha Armutat, Malte Wattenberg, Nina Mauritz Copyright (c) 2024 International Conference on Gender Research Thu, 18 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0000 The Precarious Existence of Jane Austen’s Charlotte Lucas Across Time and Text <p>Rewritings of Jane Austen’s works are produced following particular literary conventions, philosophies, creative imaginations, and interpretations, which present new readers with fresh stories featuring distinct images. The journey of her works across centuries and continents, as well as their presence in such disparate cultures and historical periods, may well attest to the similarities as well as the important differences among various peoples across the world, despite the social, cultural, and ideological differences between countries. In the American author Seth Grahame-Smith’s <em>Pride and Prejudice</em> <em>and Zombies</em> (2009), a mash-up of nineteenth-century author Jane Austen’s still-popular novel, Charlotte Lucas is indisputably in a difficult situation, not only because of the socio-economic realities of her precarious existence in the novel but also because of the zombie bite she receives. Although Charlotte’s decision to marry Mr. Collins is justified, the mash-up version of the novel still turns her into a zombie, as if indicating a punishment for her marriage to Mr. Collins. However, in his movie adaptation, <em>Pride and Prejudice</em> <em>+ Zombies</em> (2016), the American director Burr Steers lets Charlotte survive and remain contentedly married to Mr. Collins, although she is still presented as a vulnerable figure without combat skills who needs the protection of both her husband and Lady Catherine de Bourgh. By following Linda Hutcheon’s adaptation theory, particularly the process of “appropriation and salvaging” (2006), this paper aims to explore the representation of Charlotte Lucas in <em>Pride and Prejudice</em> <em>and Zombies</em>&nbsp;and its film adaptation, <em>Pride and Prejudice + Zombies,</em> thereby contributing to the field of adaptation studies with a gender focus.</p> Olgahan Baksi Yalcin Copyright (c) 2024 International Conference on Gender Research Thu, 18 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0000 How Much Does Gender Affect the Behaviour of Using Renewable Energy Resources? <p>The transition to renewable energy resources is a challenge for Romania, as well as for the whole world. The goal of the European Commission is to accelerate the use of renewable resources to reduce net greenhouse gas emissions by at least 55% by 2030. Romania had in 2022, 40,171 prosumers with the forecast that they will reach 100,000 in 2023. The previous research carried out showed a positive attitude of the household population in Romania towards these energy resources, but also important barriers that considerably slow down the process, Romania being behind the target set by the European Commission. Through this research, we seek to identify how gender differences are reflected in the approach to renewable energy resources to facilitate this transition. The present research covers a gap in the specialized literature by investigating, differentiated by gender, the perception of Romanian residents regarding renewable energy resources. The case study was carried out in 2023 on residents of two cities out of the 266 in Romania, Oradea and Timișoara. The reasons for choosing the two cities are related to their similar economic development, positioning in the same part of the country, and, in particular, their performance in increasing the number of green energy prosumers. A questionnaire survey was carried out with a result of 1098 valid questionnaires with a gender structure that allows a differentiated analysis (42.53 men, 53.18 women, 4.28 unspecified). The internal consistency of the answers was carried out with αCronbach. The data processing methods used are Importance-Performance Analysis, RStudio202207.1+554, and qualitative processing with Atlas.ti22. A hypothesis we tested is whether women are more sensitive to environmental issues and the type of energy produced and consumed or the cost factor is the one that dictates. The results suggest gender-differentiated solutions for raising public awareness and encouraging action. Limits of the paper are found only in the two Romanian cities, the geographical extension of the sample being a possible future research direction.</p> Victoria Bogdan, Olimpia Iuliana Ban, Adrian Gheorghe Florea, Jozsef Gonczi Copyright (c) 2024 International Conference on Gender Research Thu, 18 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Feminism and Entrepreneurship in Prestigious Management Journals: A Critical Analysis <p style="font-weight: 400;">This study explores the intersection of feminism and entrepreneurship within prominent management studies, emphasizing the vital role women entrepreneurs play in economic growth. Despite feminism's societal impact, a significant gap exists in leading management studies, potentially reinforcing a male-centric perspective. To investigate this gap, we conducted a systematic literature review focusing on the top 50 journals in "Business Management and Accounting" and "Strategy and Management." Our review, utilizing the SPAR-4-SLR method, revealed only 11 documents on feminism and entrepreneurship, highlighting limited coverage in top academic journals. We propose addressing this gap through special journal issues and global data collection efforts to advance gender equality in entrepreneurship.</p> Chiara Leggerini, Mariasole Bannò, Camilla Federici Copyright (c) 2024 International Conference on Gender Research Thu, 18 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Participatory Strategies to Integrate Gender+ Into Teaching and Research <p>This article explores the use of participatory approaches to promote gender equality in academia, focusing on initiatives implemented in two universities. First, we look at the experience of the University of Deusto (Spain) in developing a handbook to integrate a gender perspective into teaching and research practises through an equality, diversity and inclusion lens (EDI). This initiative, carried out as part of the university’s Gender Equality Plan, featured active involvement from scholars representing the faculties of Law, Psychology, Social Sciences and Humanities, Engineering, Business, and Theology, as well as the university’s Social Responsibility Unit. It serves as a valuable example of how participatory strategies can effectively engage a wide array of institutional stakeholders in change-oriented actions. Promoting increased participation fosters a sense of ownership of the process and outcomes among stakeholders and strengthens institutional recognition. Second, we analyse the introduction of a "gender+-responsive curriculum" developed at the University of Genoa (Italy), as part of the university’s Gender Equality Plan. This initiative seeks to promote inclusion across all disciplinary subjects by incorporating current research that examines subject matters through the lens EDI, where relevant. The pilot implementation was undertaken in an undergraduate course focused on hydraulic engineering and hydrology, drawing guidance from various resources, including academic publications and EU-funded project reports. This initiative highlights the practical implications and challenges associated with interventions aiming to challenge conventional teaching and research norms from an EDI perspective, particularly in STEM fields. By exploring the experiences, obstacles and solutions associated with a gender+-responsive curriculum, we broaden our understanding of academia’s potential to advance gender equality, diversity, and inclusion. In examining the two experiences, we emphasise the theoretical underpinnings that underscore the importance of participatory approaches for promoting meaningful and enduring changes in academic institutions. Additionally, we highlight the ongoing challenges associated with implementing such changes and offer initial insights into potential strategies for overcoming these obstacles. Our goal is to ensure that gender and other intersecting diversity factors are not relegated to the edges of institutional priorities, but are instead mainstreamed into wider institutional practices.</p> Fernanda Campanini Vilhena, Rita Bencivenga, María López Belloso, Cinzia Leone, Angela Celeste Taramasso Copyright (c) 2024 International Conference on Gender Research Thu, 18 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Barriers to Women Professionals’ Career Growth during Covid-19 in India <p>The slow advancement of women in their workplaces remains a social concern for corporates and industry experts across the globe (International Labour Organisation Report, 2018). During the covid-19 pandemic, the advancement of women got significantly impacted owing to the increased burden of domestic responsibilities and other personal challenges. According to the Centre for Monitoring Indian Economy Report (2021), women in India were seven times more likely to lose their jobs during the pandemic and eleven times more likely to not return to work after the job loss. With the Covid-19 pandemic on the rise and spreading, companies were forced to redesign their work systems, initiate and adopt a remote-work setup option. While, a majority of companies continue with the hybrid model, some companies are slowly eliminating it and returning to the regular office norms as before. This change is likely to impact women, especially the working mothers, owing to the uneven distribution of child-care responsibilities, domestic work, etc. Additionally, conventional barriers such as discriminatory practices, mentoring, networking challenges and role conflicts are expected to persist or rather increase in the changed-working models – be it the hybrid, remote, or completely offline system. The present study focuses on identifying the constraints faced by the Indian women striving against the current for their career advancements, both during the Covid-19 pandemic disruption phase and post-pandemic scenario. The insights from the study will be helpful to gain a cumulative understanding about the challenges faced by women owing to the emerging work system and in addressing the future concerns more systematically.</p> <p> </p> Sushama Chaudhari, Shivani Inamdar Copyright (c) 2024 International Conference on Gender Research Thu, 18 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Situation Analysis of Female Academics' Career Advancement in Higher Education in Syria <p>This research examines factors which may be influencing female academics career advancement at Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) in Syria. The paper conducts situation analysis on academic environment at HEI in Syria, exploring factors which may be impacting female academics experience and career progression and lack of academic representation at senior management levels. The paper examines a private HEIs investigating the environment in Syria highlighting the situation after 2011. The methodology applied in diagnosing the situation, is based on data collected from a capacity building in higher education project (CBHE), funded by Erasmus+. The methodology employs the design of questionnaire survey administered at the research target group. A one-way translation from English to Arabic is performed by expert academics and verified by linguistic experts. The sample design employs nonprobability sampling techniques. The size of the sample is 47 observations for academics. The findings of the analysis are reported across individual, and institutional levels. The research results signify that interest in research is a strong motivator; while career satisfaction still reveals an area of future development. There is still little awareness on gender issues topics, as well as little research works being performed in the scope gender research issues. The concept of gender equality has a high potential for evolution and expansion on the intermediate and long term at the institutional and socio cultural contests in Syria. The future direction of this research emphasizes developing a conceptual framework on the factors which may be affecting female academics experience and career advancement in HEIs in Syria. Furthermore, future research recommends the development of institutional and national policies in the scope of gender equality, which could be reflected at human resources practices, environment of the workplace, infusion of gender at university mission and planning, curriculum, research, and university governance.</p> Serene Dalati, Rim Omar, Hala Alchach, Rewa Alkhatib Copyright (c) 2024 International Conference on Gender Research Thu, 18 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Filipino Hospitality Industry Gender Disparities: Hiring Practices, Salary Levels, and Promotional Opportunities <p>This research employs a qualitative approach, utilizing the snowball sampling technique to conduct in-depth interviews with women from various roles within the Filipino hospitality sector. The study employs narrative analysis to elucidate discriminatory practices in hiring, remuneration, and professional advancement opportunities. Findings reveal a pattern of gender disparities, with biased recruitment practices directing women into lower-paid service roles while men ascend to leadership positions. A significant pay gap persists, attributed to occupational segregation and undervaluation of female-dominated professions. The study identifies unconscious biases, lack of mentorship, and a corporate culture favoring stereotypically "male" leadership attributes as barriers to career progression. Recommendations include advocating for anti-discrimination legislation, transparent hiring protocols, and addressing pay differentials through audits and awareness initiatives. Employers are urged to implement unbiased recruitment and mentorship programs, while educational institutions and civil society organizations play roles in empowering women and advocating for policy reform. The study underscores the need for collective commitment to gender equality to transform the Filipino hospitality industry into a model of inclusivity and collaboration.</p> Jeanneth Darroca, Tadema Formarejo, Leizl Alfonso, Mary Cosette Corbo Copyright (c) 2024 International Conference on Gender Research Thu, 18 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Gaming Equity: Women, Videogame Companies, and Public Discourse <p style="font-weight: 400;">It is by now well documented and widely acknowledged that the videogame industry has since its inception been a bastion of hegemonic masculinity. Only more recently, however, with events like Gamergate, #metoo, and the public accusations of workplace toxicity and sexism brought against prominent AAA giants like Riot and Activision Blizzard King, have game companies initiated policies and processes for change—or at least what looks like change, based on company websites and interviews with female employees. Does this mean women are being heard, at last? These are turbulent times for the industry, with legal actions, policy shifts, personal callings-out and billion-dollar corporate mergers and restructurings. What has changed and what is changing for women in games? How, and by whom, is that change being made? This paper begins with a closer look at what women have said since these events, about their experiences, expectations and frustrations working in the industry. Has the public scrutiny turned upon the games industry, post-gamergate and beyond influenced what women have to say about their conditions and experiences working in games? Are they better supported in taking the risks and shouldering the costs of speaking up? What workplace changes in policy or practice may have resulted from women giving public voice to their experiences? Building upon an earlier study of public speech by women about their experiences in the videogames industry (de Castell &amp; Skardzius, 2019), this study both updates and extends its database, and deepens its analysis, by looking explicitly at a speech event’s context of elicitation: who elicits the “event” of public speech, on what topics, with what purpose? Through that dialogical lens we can make more visible and explicit how minority self-representation and marginalized identities and voices are deployed to bolster business as usual, even as they are still expected to lead the charges and fight the battles for a just and inclusive working life in games. </p> Jennifer Jenson, Suzanne de Castell, Olga Kanapelka, Karen Skardzius Copyright (c) 2024 International Conference on Gender Research Thu, 18 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Up-Cycling Barbie: “Bad Feminism” for Mixed-Up Times <p style="font-weight: 400;">This paper explores both the critical and the contradictory ways ‘gender’ is enacted in what has become a blockbuster at once wildly popular, and as well a site of controversy and censorship. Examining the reporting on and reviews of the film&nbsp;<em>Barbie,</em>&nbsp;providing some of the actual history of its design, as against its narrative re-presentation in the film, looking in particular at its ironic remediation of gendered games and play, the paper also identifies some of the cinematic techniques through which the movie reinvents Barbie as a filmic feminist, through a deconstructive and reconstructive upcycling of the iconic material Barbie&nbsp;<em>en plastique</em>. The director’s embrace of an explicitly feminist narrative re-frames a 60-year-old doll and upcycles Barbie for a new generation, reaching an unprecedented global audience with its diverse, inclusive casting, its satirizing of patriarchy and a passionately feminist speechifying moment that couldn’t happen nowadays across an increasingly litigation-sensitive academy, yet has gained astonishing traction in popular media, and enthusiastic re-citation in TikTok. Those commitments, however, sit uncomfortably with the Mattel Toy company’s embrace of a new market for a product at risk of obsolescence from a generation of mothers raised on one or another ‘wave’ of feminist thought, and the considerably different versions of feminism that the film avows, and those it enacts.</p> Suzanne de Castell, Jennifer Jenson Copyright (c) 2024 International Conference on Gender Research Thu, 18 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0000 From Norm and Theory to Practice: a Tailor-made GEP for the Institut de Ciències del Mar <p>The European Commission is fully committed to promoting gender equality in research and innovation. It is a priority for the <a href="">European Research Area (ERA)</a> and a cross-cutting principle under <a href="">Horizon Europe</a>. Gender equality plans (GEPs) have been established as the primary instrument for implementing institutional changes in Research Performing Organizations (RPOs) to address structural barriers to gender equality in research and innovation. Within this framework, specific objectives are defined, and thematic areas for intervention are recommended. In this regard, the formulation of a GEP for the Institut de Ciències del Mar (ICM), implied a broader challenge as it had to comply with diverse national regulatory frameworks. Nevertheless, the variety of reference frameworks, instruments and approaches did not condition the aspiration to design a GEP that fully responded to the specific context of the ICM. Thus, the GEP became the roadmap to generating an organisation cultural change that allows the effective integration of gender equality across all its areas and actions. Drawing from ICM’s experiences, we aim to share the path undertaken by ICM and shed light on the multifaceted challenges encountered during the GEP’s design and successful implementation. There is a pressing need to transition from mere adherence to the normative framework to achieving genuine gender equality in practice. Transforming normative principles into practice requires tailored and individualised strategies, feasible objectives with measurable results, appropriate measures to achieve them, and indicators to measure progress. This challenge involves effective institutional changes that remove obstacles to gender equality, both inherent in the research system and stemming from the institutional model of human resources management, funding, decision-making and research programs. The commitment to gender equality must transcend the field of research and research to encompass all staff and institutional practices. Successfully transitioning from theory to practice requires institutional commitment, data-driven decision-making, resource allocation, stakeholder engagement, internal collaboration, responsibility, leadership, and strong gender expertise. This paper stems from the European Horizon Project <em>Leading Towards Sustainable Gender Equality Plans in RPOs (LeTSGEPs).</em></p> Silvia Donoso Lopez, Esther Garcés, Elena Torrecilla Copyright (c) 2024 International Conference on Gender Research Thu, 18 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0000 The Territorial Planning Process of the Fez-Meknes Region from a Gender Perspective: An Exploratory Study <p>Since 2015, Morocco has become aware of the imperative to integrate the gender dimension into the territorial planning process. In this context, the region, as a key actor in territorial management, is called upon to take into account the gender approach during the elaboration of its Regional Development Programme (RDP) as a planning tool in accordance with Law 111-14 concerning regions in Morocco. This article aims to understand how the gender approach is integrated by stakeholders in the process of drawing up the RDP by analysing the specific interests and needs of women and men. Analysis of the various phases of the RDP elaboration process from a gender perspective, including preparation, diagnosis, strategic vision, action planning, budgeting, and finally, the implementation and monitoring-evaluation phase, led us to adopt a qualitative methodology. This approach was implemented through the mobilization of a single case study focusing on the RDP of the Fes-Meknes region for the period 2016-2021. Consequently, we conducted semi-structured interviews with a sample of 15 key informants directly involved in the elaboration of the RDP at its different stages. The results indicate that little account is taken of the specific needs of women at all stages of the process, from preparation to implementation and monitoring-evaluation. This is due to several factors, including the scarcity of sex-disaggregated data at the regional level, the ambiguity of the new legal text on the concept of gender and its integration into the RDP, the ineffectiveness of organizational mechanisms related to gender issues, the lack of knowledge and tools for gender-sensitive planning, as well as the weakness of the 'gender culture' among members of the regional council (RC).</p> Kaoutar El-Ouali, Amina Magdoud Copyright (c) 2024 International Conference on Gender Research Thu, 18 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0000 External Return-To-Work Programs Impact On Women Relauching Their Careers <p>Women have higher drop-out rates during their professional careers, mainly due to family, child, or elderly care; furthermore, they have more difficulty returning to the workforce even if they are highly qualified, making the future of gender equality in the workplace a continuing challenge. Thus, encouraging women to re-enter the workforce after a career break makes sense from a gender perspective and, at the same time, can also add value to the economy by providing qualified and diversified resources to companies (large ones or small-medium-sized enterprises, or SMEs). Additionally, this encouragement can have short- to medium-term positive effects on career-break women who would like to return to the workforce, as well as long-term effects due to lower or no pension contributions during their career break. The aim of this study is to identify the push and pull factors affecting women´s ability to return to the job market after a career break. Moreover, the purpose of this study is to understand what has been studied about the impact of return-to-work/returnship programs (RTW) and externally provided return-to-work programs (RTWE) in helping bring back women to the labor market. The research is qualitative and exploratory, based on a literature review. The findings of this research provide an overview of relevant factors related to women’s return to the market and allow for new research avenues on RTWE’s outcomes for both women and small and medium-sized enterprises. In terms of originality, the goal of this research is to encourage data-driven debates about the potential implications of women's return-to-work programs as a strategy to help women return to the workforce and whether this strategy can be adopted by different-sized companies.</p> Karen Ferrez Frisch, Sandra Costa, Florinda Matos Copyright (c) 2024 International Conference on Gender Research Thu, 18 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Transgender Men and Non-Binary Individuals’ Right to Pregnancy <p>Transgender men and non-binary individuals’ rights to conceive and bear children remain unimaginable through dominant gender constructs. Social reproduction and structural violence reinforce the gender binary and restrict transgender men and non-binary individuals from exercising their right to conceive, parent, and receive proper health support. This gender expectation is reified in Canadian historical, socio-economic, and legal contexts, creating significant barriers in relation to accessing trans-reproductive healthcare. This paper brings attention to the paucity of research to understand better the rights of transmen and non-binary individuals when wanting to conceive and raise a family. It highlights the underutilization of the social work profession and their critical role to support affirmative reproductive trans healthcare. &nbsp;</p> Sebastian Gaskarth, Sarah Reddington Copyright (c) 2024 International Conference on Gender Research Thu, 18 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0000 The Soccer-Playing Unicorn – Mitigating Gender Bias in AI-Created STEM Teaching Materials <p>Artificial Intelligence (AI) tools are increasingly being used in education for various purposes. In particular, AI chatbots such as ChatGPT, with their user-friendly interfaces are being explored in education to co-create teaching materials, provide advice and guidance to educators, simulate classroom scenarios, and offer personalized recommendations to students on how to study and approach subjects. With all the enthusiasm for these new opportunities, one should be aware of the risks due to potential biases in the generated content or the responses. These biases can be associated with factors such as gender, race, religion, or political orientation. As a consequence, educators who are using AI chatbots to (co-)create teaching materials need to have the knowledge and the strategies to mitigate such biases. This paper focuses on one particular type of bias, namely gender bias, and on specific disciplines, namely Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM). Gender bias in STEM education is particularly problematic because it may reinforce existing stereotypes about girls and women in STEM and contribute to their underrepresentation in STEM fields. To raise awareness of these risks of gender bias in AI-co-created STEM teaching materials, this paper identifies risks of gender bias by analysing potential usage patterns of AI chatbots by educators when creating teaching materials. An example of such a risk is if the AI chatbot generates educational materials that primarily portray men as STEM professionals and underrepresent women. This would exacerbate the lack of female role models in STEM. Therefore, strategies are developed that educators can apply to mitigate these risks. These strategies will be demonstrated using practical examples. This will allow them to break the vicious cycle of perpetuating stereotypes in STEM education. In addition, these examples demonstrate how AI chatbots can be used to make STEM education more inclusive, which may include co-creating educational materials tailored to individual interests and learning styles.</p> Claudia Hess, Sibylle Kunz Copyright (c) 2024 International Conference on Gender Research Thu, 18 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Gendered Perspectives on Sustainable Entrepreneurship: A Study of Finnish SMEs <p>The objective of this research is to understand how gender is related to opportunities of sustainable entrepreneurship. The data was gathered from Finnish SMEs, and it has responses from 202 SME owner-managers. Of the SME owner-managers, 28 % were women and 72 % male. Most of the SMEs were small sized and employed under 50 employees. First, we developed a taxonomy of green entrepreneurship by building an instrument with 10 items (7-point Likert scale) based on the definitions of green SMEs. For building the taxonomy, we performed an exploratory factor analysis, which produced three factors. The first factor was named as “green entrepreneurs”. This factor measures the behaviour related to seeking business opportunities from green transition and reducing the negative impact of SME’s operations. The second factor was named as “green missionaries”. This factor measures behaviour related to active promotion of green transition and the SME’s vision to improve the state of the environment. The third factor was named as “no concern for environmental issues”. SMEs with high values in this factor represent SMEs who think that environmental issues do not concern their business or industry. Based on these factors, scales were created with acceptable reliability (Cronbach’s alphas over 0,70). Secondly, we performed t-tests to test mean differences between men and women in these scales. Results show that women have higher mean values in the scale “green entrepreneurs” (4,9 vs. 4,3), and lower mean values in the scale “no concern for environmental issues” (2,8 vs. 3,2). No mean differences between men and women were found in the scale “green missionaries”. The results indicate that women approach the opportunities offered by sustainable entrepreneurship differently than men. They are more proactive in seeking new business opportunities and are more inclined than men to promote sustainability principles in their own business operations. This research sheds light on how women and men engage differently in green business initiatives, providing valuable insights for fostering gender-inclusive sustainability strategies.</p> Sanna Joensuu-Salo, Emilia Kangas, Laura Könönen, Annukka Koivuranta Copyright (c) 2024 International Conference on Gender Research Thu, 18 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Effectiveness of Gender Equality Policies in G20 Parliaments: A Fuzzy Logic Analysis <p>The institutional theory draws attention to the possibility of decoupling. Decoupling refers to complying with external pressures, organizations can maintain their internal practices without changing them. There is a relative increase in the number of women in parliament in almost all G20 countries on an annual basis. However even though the ratio of women's seats in the national parliament has increased relatively in some countries, our knowledge is limited whether gender equality policies are effectively implemented. Based on the observation about the relative increase in the women seats in the G20 national parliaments, the current study examines whether there is decoupling. The study adopts the quantitative data collection method and analyses the fuzzy logic method. The findings of the study reveal that decoupling may exist in G20 countries even where the human development index is high.</p> R. Arzu Kalemci, Ela Ozkan-Canbolat , Ipek Kalemci-Tuzun Copyright (c) 2024 International Conference on Gender Research Thu, 18 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Discover and Dream: Appreciating Women Entrepreneurs’ Innovation <p>The intersection of gender and innovation is increasingly explored in entrepreneurship research. However, the existing literature on women's entrepreneurship often focuses on challenges and gender disparities. Despite the growing participation of women entrepreneurs, barriers to their innovation persist. Previous studies highlight that gender operates as a limiting factor in innovation systems, and the overall construction of innovation carries masculine connotations. Our research seeks to delve into the personal meaning’s women entrepreneurs attribute to innovation. Specifically, we pose the question: How do women entrepreneurs conceptualise innovation? Employing Appreciative Inquiry (AI), we conducted interviews with 12 Finnish women entrepreneurs, emphasising strengths and positive aspects rather than problem-solving. The AI process included four stages: discovery, dream, design, and delivery. Each participant underwent two interview rounds, covering different stages. The analysis, conducted through discourse analysis, identified three discourses in women entrepreneurs' constructions of innovation: 1) Innovation is me, 2) Touch of something new, and 3) Vague concept. While prior research has often associated innovation with masculine traits, our results reveal a nuanced perspective. The positive approach of AI uncovered constructive views of innovation, such as the strong identity formation with innovation depicted in the discourse of "Innovation is me”. By providing rich qualitative insights, our research contributes to a deeper understanding of the lived experiences of women entrepreneurs engaged in innovation, challenging conventional notions and highlighting positive constructions of innovation.</p> Emilia Kangas, Anmari Viljamaa, Sanna Joensuu-Salo Copyright (c) 2024 International Conference on Gender Research Thu, 18 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Gender as a Moderator of the Double Bias of Mistakes – Knowledge Culture and Knowledge Sharing Effects <p>There is no learning without mistakes. The essence of the double bias of mistakes is the contradiction between an often-declared positive attitude towards learning from mistakes, and negative experiences when mistakes occur. Financial and personal consequences, shame, and blame force desperate employees to hide their mistakes. These adverse outcomes are doubled in organizations by the common belief that managers never make mistakes, which makes the contradiction even more harmful. Double bias affected leaders select only easy tasks to secure their positions, and those who want to be promoted hide their mistakes to maintain the image of a “perfect employee”. Avoiding the risk of failure is generally not wrong as long as doing so does not block organizational growth. It has been proven that the double bias of mistakes can present a serious hurdle for organizational learning and collective intelligence building. This study explores whether the double bias of mistakes is gender-related and how it affects tacit and explicit knowledge sharing. To do so, it is based on a sample of 183 Polish knowledge workers affected by the double bias of mistakes. The analysis method was ordinary least squares regression, which was conducted with SPSS PROCESS software. Results show that the double bias of mistakes generally causes more problems for female specialists than male specialists and more for male managers than female managers. Regarding managers, male managers probably tend to focus more on control at work. In contrast, women focus on supporting learning (they accept mistakes as a source of knowledge and share knowledge gained from them). Considering current challenges relating to collective intelligence building, women seem to have the potential to be better mentors and probably also better leaders than men. Such formulated conclusions are based on indirect inferences, so further research is necessary.</p> Wioleta Kucharska, Aleksandra Kopytko Copyright (c) 2024 International Conference on Gender Research Thu, 18 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Criticize my Code, not me: Using AI-generated Feedback in Computer Science Teaching <p>Large Language Models (LLMs) like ChatGPT can help teachers to tailor learning tasks for their students, combining learning objectives and storytelling to raise interest in the subject. AI-based learning task design can help to support competency-based learning, especially for girls in STEM courses like computer science, where otherwise the “Leaky STEM pipeline” (Speer 2023) leads to a constant loss of female students over school time. LLMs support many steps of the creation cycle of learning tasks. One important step is the feedback process between teachers and students during and after solving the tasks. Students need person-related as well as process-related feedback to make progress. Sometimes problems occur when teachers give feedback in a way that embarrasses or hurts the students. Especially female students often need more confirmation to make them aware of their progress, but studies show that boys demand and get more attention by teachers in this situation. This is one of the many reasons why girls lose motivation and interest in STEM courses over time. Since male and female teachers differ in expressing feedback without being aware of it, it is necessary to raise their consciousness. LLMs like ChatGPT can be used in two scenarios here. The first scenario is helping teachers to formulate objective feedback in a way that is adequate and understandable for the target group – e.g., young girls or boys - in a specific situation. The second scenario is training the teacher in a Socratic way, where the LLM simulates a student receiving the feedback and reacting to it according to established communication models like the Four Ears-model by Schulz von Thun (Schulz von Thun 1981) or Berne’s Transactional Analysis (Berne, 1964). This case study provides examples and prompting schemes for both scenarios and discusses the fragile balance between avoiding gender stereotypes in LLMs and giving more helpful and sustainable feedback for female students to foster self-esteem and competency-awareness.</p> Sibylle Kunz, Adrienne Steffen Copyright (c) 2024 International Conference on Gender Research Thu, 18 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0000 The Growing Importance of Women in Portuguese Football and in the Sports Press <p>This study aims to investigate the processes of change in valuing women's participation in the world of football, as well as their recognition by sports journalism. The initial research question was: "What difficulties do women encounter in gaining acceptance in the world of football and in sports journalism in Portugal?". The main objectives were:</p> <p>1) To analyse the role of women football players in Portugal;</p> <p>2) To understand the position of women's football in Portugal;</p> <p>3) To find out how Portuguese sports journalism treats women's football;</p> <p>4) To investigate the role of communication in publicising women's football in Portugal;</p> <p>5) To understand the perception of women's football in Portugal.</p> <p>In order to achieve these objectives, the methodology involves carrying out an exploratory empirical study based on analysing the content of the main Portuguese sports newspapers and applying a questionnaire survey to the Portuguese population in general. The main aim of analysing the sports newspapers is to find out how Portuguese sports journalism treats women's football and how regularly and relevantly women's football is covered in the news. In turn, the questionnaire survey seeks to understand the perception, acceptance and information that the Portuguese population has about women's football.</p> <p>The results obtained were very enlightening, showing that women's football in Portugal still needs a lot of development and acceptance and that the mass media is blamed for the lack of publicity and promotion of women's football in Portugal, which means that the majority of the population has no knowledge or information about what goes on in women's football. On the other hand, it was also possible to ascertain that there is still a certain stigma regarding women's football, denoting the existence of prejudice and unequal treatment, as reflected in its presence in sports journalism.</p> Marlene Loureiro, Joana Alves Copyright (c) 2024 International Conference on Gender Research Thu, 18 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Experiences and Perceptions of Menstrual Hygiene Management (MHM) Among Homeless Women in Cape Town <p>This study qualitatively explored the experiences and perceptions of period poverty among homeless women in Cape Town, South Africa, using the Capability Approach. The study was guided by a qualitative research design and non-probability sampling was used in recruiting participants. In-depth interviews were conducted with 16 homeless women who experienced period poverty. The individual interviews were done mainly in English and in IsiZulu and isiXhosa. The interviews lasted for a minimum of 45 minutes and were voice-recorded using a phone. A semi-structed interview schedule with 33 open-ended questions was used during the data collection process. The data analysis aspect of this study relied on the work of Creswell (2012) and Tesch (1990). The findings revealed that homeless women experience period poverty due to a lack of sanitary products and poor Menstrual Hygiene Management (MHM). Sen (1999) identified five ‘instrumental freedoms’ that, according to him, play a role in the general capability of a person to live more freely. Of the five instrumental freedoms, the third freedom,’ social opportunities,’ resonates deeply with this study. This freedom refers to facilities and arrangements available to uplift society. Examples of this would be access to quality education and healthcare. Homeless women lack access to quality healthcare and therefore experience obstacles to achieve effective MHM. The lack of sanitary products causes homeless women to resort to the unhygienic use of items such as rags, old socks, tissue paper, paper towels, torn pieces of clothing, or diapers, to satisfy their menstrual needs. Alternatively, they go about life without any menstrual protection and bleed through their undergarments and clothing. This results in them wearing blood-soaked items for days, or even weeks. Additionally, homeless women do not have access to safe water and sanitation facilities that are required to effectively manage their period. The paper serves as a means of highlighting how life, government policy, funding, etc. are still restricted to issues that relate to men. As a result, a multifaceted and holistic approach to addressing period poverty amongst homeless women is encouraged and provision should be made for the type of sanitary products and facilities that homeless women are most comfortable using.</p> Ayanda Mhlongo Copyright (c) 2024 International Conference on Gender Research Thu, 18 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Qualitative Assessment of Resilience: Lessons from Rural Women in South India <p>Resilience among women has garnered significant research attention, especially in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. The 2020 United Nations’ theme of "Building rural women’s resilience in the wake of COVID-19" aligned with that of the present study and sought to assess the applicability of the positive cognitive triad and psychological capital lenses in understanding the resilience characteristics of rural women in India. The study involved a diverse group of conveniently selected 31 rural women from the Idukki district, Kerala, South India, spanning an age range of 18 to 74 years. The deductive and inductive analyses of interview transcripts revealed convergence to the proposed positive cognitive triad -psychological capital framework and the emergence of new themes. Notably, gender emerged as a distinct theme that did not align with the operational definition of resilience, highlighting its significance in explaining resilience among Indian rural women. The study acknowledges limitations such as limited generalizability, social desirability bias, and a lack of quantitative data. In conclusion, this research contributes valuable insights to the literature on resilience among Indian rural women, emphasizing the importance of gender-centric and culturally sensitive resilience measures. The study recommends the implementation of such measures to enable a comprehensive assessment of resilience in this population, providing valuable resources for government and non-government agencies to design appropriate psychosocial interventions.</p> Ms. Radhika Mohan, Dr. Preetha Menon, Ms. Anjana J.S., Ms. Aswathy J Copyright (c) 2024 International Conference on Gender Research Thu, 18 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Resilience Amidst Adversity: Exploring Gender Disparities and Psychosocial Factors in Kerala <p>Despite notable progress in human development and gender equality indicators, mental health issues and gender disparities persist due to various socio-ecological factors in the southern state of Kerala, India. This study aims to identify the psychosocial factors of resilience that enabled rural and urban women to cope with during the challenging COVID-19 pandemic, while also comparing the experiences of resilience among women in rural and urban areas of Malappuram district. A demographic profiler and semi-structured interview questions were employed to assess resilience in a cohort of 44 women in rural and urban settings and within the age range of 21-60 years. Interview questions were specifically based on the definition of resilience, resilience factors specific to women, resilience-boosting elements, and obstacles during COVID-19. Qualitative analysis of the participants’ responses revealed five key psychosocial factors (psychological factors, support, life experience, external factors, and gender) influencing women's resilience. Similar factors (support, psychological, and external factors) are critical in strengthening women's resilience during the COVID-19 pandemic. The research also sheds light on subtle gender inequalities, underscoring the need for comprehensive initiatives to promote gender equity and improve men's attitudes towards women. The limitation of the study lies in the regional specificity, which affects its generalizability. The study highlights the importance of designing psychosocial interventions to promote resilience in women across diverse geographical contexts, presenting opportunities for empowering women through comprehensive strategies. These findings offer valuable insights for policymakers, practitioners, and researchers, enabling the development of effective measures to uplift women and create a more equitable and resilient society. Further research is recommended to bridge knowledge gaps and formulate comprehensive strategies to enhance women's empowerment.</p> Ms. Radhika Mohan, Dr. Preetha Menon, Ms.Neethu P. Rajan, Ms. Adithya M.S. Copyright (c) 2024 International Conference on Gender Research Thu, 18 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Malaysia’s Orang Asli Women Roles in Indigenous Community <p>Globally, there are still many occurring social issues that may be a hindrance towards the achievement of the overall development of a nation, and one of them is gender equality. Although it is a social issue that can affect the society, gender equality however affects women more than men as it can put women at a more disadvantaged situations such as limited access towards good health and education, lower financial status, lower employment opportunities, and more. Gender equality should be properly addressed to ensure that women can enjoy the opportunities and rights that they deserved as part of the members of the society. In this study, we investigated the Orang Asli women roles from a selected tribes in Malaysia. The purpose of this study is to explore how Orang Asli women contribute to the preservation of the indigenous community's culture, language, and beliefs. This study employed a qualitative case study research design. To obtain data, a semi-structured interviewing tool was used. We collected and analysed data from Orang Asli women as participants of the study. The study's findings demonstrated that the Orang Asli women had meaningful roles in their community. The study's conclusions are designed to provide insight into how indigenous women can carry out their responsibilities in promoting gender equality and sustainable development in the indigenous community.</p> Ramlee Mustapha, Rafidah Abd Karim, Mohd Hasrol Haffiz Aliasak, Norwaliza Abdul Wahab, Nurul Farhani Che Ghani, Nurul Shatirah Zainol Copyright (c) 2024 International Conference on Gender Research Thu, 18 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Empowering Women for Technology Entrepreneurship: Opportunities and Challenges <p>This paper aims to underline how the new emerging digital technologies could empower women entrepreneurship by supporting them in overcoming the constraints they face as well as in creating a more favorable network environment. We will do this by analyzing the state of the art of the research regarding entrepreneurship practices by women considering the literature that has focused on this theme up to now. Methodology - A structured literature review methodology is going to be applied to this paper. Through the use of specific keywords, we analyzed Scopus documents published up to now on the theme related to Women and technology entrepreneurship. Several steps have been followed to perform a systematic, transparent, and replicable study. We used the VOSviewer tool for bibliographic and cluster analysis. A final content analysis was performed to identify research areas. Findings - Specifically the contribution and the impact provided by the Digital Technologies is analyzed for women's entrepreneurship. A conceptual discussion on how the Digital Technologies opportunities in overcoming some of the constrains women tackle in their entrepreneurship process and which are the main research streams that emerge for future investigation on the theme, is provided. Practical implications – The major implication is to advance knowledge and practice in the area of gender in management and use of Digital Technologies by focusing upon empirical research, theoretical developments, practice and current issues. Benefits are related to a better understanding of the debate on “Gender and Management” themes by reconsidering networking activities with social media.</p> Valentina NDOU, Gioconda MELE, Eglantina HYSA, Egla MANSI Copyright (c) 2024 International Conference on Gender Research Thu, 18 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Adapting Organizational Inclusivity Through Empowering Gender-Diversity <p>With an increasingly diverse workforce, organizational efficiency needs to consider the measurement of sustainability through the empowerment of social identities. When organizational leaders intentionally foster a culture that values their gender-diverse stakeholders, organizational efficiency increases. This article reviews how organizational leaders are able to increase their productivity, efficiency and overall organizational sustainability through adapting to inclusive practices. Sharma (2019) notes that initiatives to enhance diversity, equity, and inclusion can significantly enhance a company's performance, resonating particularly with newer generations of employees who seek meaning and purpose in their work. The organization’s environment has the opportunity to facilitate a stronger stakeholder-focused culture which emphasizes inclusivity. Through the evaluation of Diversity, Equity and Inclusivity principles as well as analyzing the intersectionality of Gender-Diversity, this article highlights how organizational inclusivity must empower its stakeholders. Social Identity Theory presents how individuals are able to thrive through their authenticity. This leads to workplace leaders being presented with the organizational need of adapting to include equitable practices for inclusivity. As social identity is a prevalent part of employee’s psychological-safety, organizations need to measure their efficiency through efforts of inclusivity. Workplaces must value the psychological-safety of all of its stakeholders in order to thrive as an entire organization (Frazier et al.,2017). Current research demonstrates the need for organizations to practice alignment of stakeholders and collaboration for productivity (Zhenjing et al., 2022). However, the gap in current research presents that gender identity is not currently considered as a social identity that needs inclusivity efforts in the workplace. When organizations adapt their practices to enable all stakeholders to thrive through inclusive efforts, overall organizational efficiency increases. Stringer (1999) discusses how the facilitation and implementation of change as part of action research projects can help create systemic changes. This type of change to the systems of the workplace through equitable practices for gender-diversity would create change for future generations in the workplace.</p> Colton Nguyen Copyright (c) 2024 International Conference on Gender Research Thu, 18 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Gender Through Media: Images of Contemporary Masculinity in Two Pakistani Movies <p>Gender and its media representations inform us about a specific culture. This research paper is an in-depth qualitative study of the representations of contemporary masculinity and queerness in the Pakistani media and popular culture. The paper analyzes two Pakistani movies: Sarmad Khoosat’s Zindagi Tamasha (Circus of Life) (2019) and Saim Sadiq’s Joyland (2022). The aim of the study is to explore the concept of masculinity in the Pakistani society and its media representations in popular culture and cinema. Masculinity is interlinked with physical appearance, social norms and religious values in the Pakistani society, whereas queer behaviour is generally condemned because of cultural stereotypes and religious injunctions. The study analyzes the impact of social customs and stereotypes on the perception of masculinity in the male characters with special focus on the queer inclinations manifested in their behaviour. The analysis of the two movies is conducted through contemporary masculinity theories to identify current manifestations of masculinity in the Pakistani society through the media representations. The findings of the research indicate that contemporary masculinities in the Pakistani society and media depict a wide range of variation from hegemonic masculinity to hybrid masculinity, inclusive masculinity and queer masculinity.</p> Sara Noor, Shaheena Bhatt, Shazia Rose Kiran Nathaniel Copyright (c) 2024 International Conference on Gender Research Thu, 18 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Attitudes Toward Gender Quota Legislation on TMT-level Positions <p>In 2010, Iceland became the second country in the world after Norway to enact a minimum 40% gender quota for corporate boards. The legislation did not pass without resistance, and concerns were voiced that gender quotas undermined competitiveness and merit-based selection. The legislation had the effect of improving the gender imbalance on corporate boards. Nevertheless, the expected trickle-down effect on the top management team (TMT) level has not materialized; women face apparent exclusion from senior executive positions, and men hold 22 out of 26 CEO positions at listed companies. Women hold 31.6% of TMT-level positions in listed companies, and women business leaders in Iceland have started calling for a gender quota on TMT-level positions. This study aims to measure public attitudes toward interventions to close the gender gap and ensure equal opportunities for men and women to reach top management positions. The study focuses on attitudes toward gender quota legislation on TMT-level positions, with a requirement of at least 40/60% gender balance, identified in qualitative interview studies with board members representing all listed companies in Iceland. We find gender differences in the attitudes toward the TMT-level quota in conjunction with beliefs about equal opportunities for men and women to be hired as CEOs, beliefs about the effect of gender quota legislation on merit-based hiring, and beliefs about the rate of progress toward gender balance. The study contributes to the literature on closing the gender gap by exploring public attitudes toward a legislative intervention that has not been the focus of research so far.</p> Asta Dis Oladottir, Thora H Christiansen, Haukur Freyr Gylfason, Haukur C. Benediktsson Copyright (c) 2024 International Conference on Gender Research Thu, 18 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0000 The Future of Women in Technology : Challenges and Recommendations <p style="font-weight: 400;">When only women turn up to a panel on challenges for women in technology, how do we then reach out to industry, academia and government to encourage them to listen to the current challenges experienced by women in tech. Technology is rapidly changing and we are seeing women disadvantaged by less training opportunities, lack of role models, perceived penalties for taking time off to have children or discharge caring responsibilities as well as the risk that their jobs are subject to more automation. Multiple workshops at the Institute of Science and Technology highlighted significant challenges for women in tech, the data from our empirical study illustrates these challenges in detail. With the workplace still male dominated and the landscape changing rapidly, women have a significant role to play and we need to ensure that role is not only facilitated but the existing challenges are mitigated. This is a discussion paper with empirical data that illustrates challenges currently experienced by women in tech and how we can move forward to ensure not only equal opportunity but remove some of the challenges currently experienced. In this paper we have not considered the same impact on men who take career breaks for reasons of caring responsibilities.</p> Dr Marie Oldfield Copyright (c) 2024 International Conference on Gender Research Thu, 18 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Gender Equality in ASDC: Unravelling Societal Challenge in Educational Attainment and Economic Empowerment, Inheritance Access, and Workplace Dynamics in Malaysia. <p>This study investigates the nuanced intersectionality of gender equality within the context of Autism Spectrum Disorder Condition (ASDC) individuals. Contrary to Feminism, which advocates for gender equality and women's rights. While existing research has predominantly focused on the clinical aspects of ASDC, this study delves into the educational attainment and economic empowerment, inheritance access and workplace dynamics that impact individuals with ASDC, with a particular emphasis on gender-related disparities. The research encompasses ASDC in-depth analysis of access to resources, including property, inheritance, workplace, and sources of income, evaluating the extent to which individuals with ASDC, particularly women, face barriers in obtaining and managing. This study integrates a qualitative insight from ASDC, their families, teachers, and relevant stakeholders. 50 participants of ASDC individuals aged 14 to 57 years old contributed to the study and only 17 participants were selected for structural interview sessions. The study aims to contribute valuable perspectives to the existing literature on gender equality by unravelling the multifaceted challenges faced by women with ASDC in various societal domains. Finding underscore the critical need for targeted educational programs, innovative employment models, and curriculum adaptation within the Malaysian TVET program to enhance employability and independence for ASDC women. The study advocates for a comprehensive, multi-faceted approach to remove systemic barriers and promote gender equality, emphasizing the potential of women with ASDC as agents of change in their communities.</p> Othman, Norashiken, U.N.N Abdulah, Abdullah, Nazmin, G.K.Ganesan, Bakar, Roshidi Copyright (c) 2024 International Conference on Gender Research Thu, 18 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0000 The Education Impact on the Innovativeness of Female Entrepreneurship: A Systematic Literature Review <p>The women's education and its potential impact on entrepreneurship and innovation represent a growing interest in socioeconomic academic research (Paoloni and Manzo, 2023; Pereira, 2020; Bishu and Alkandry, 2017). The present paper makes a systematic literature review based on the topic of Gendered Education and Innovation in female entrepreneurship, considering the evolution over almost the last two decades and the current state of the art. The study is based on the Scopus database. It examines articles, books, and indexed conference proceedings that have focused on the influence of women's education on their entrepreneurial journey and innovative capabilities. The studies having in Abstract, Title, or Keywords "education " AND " innovation " AND " entrepreneur* " OR "enterprise*" AND "gender" are 257. Source types, year of publication, field of research, source title, keywords, country/territory, and language classify studies. After this, the most cited studies were analyzed to answer the RQs. The studies reviewed show a positive correlation between women's level of education and the likelihood of engaging in entrepreneurial activities. Education provides technical and managerial skills, boosts self-confidence and expands networking, facilitating access to resources and opportunities (de las Mercedes Barrachina Fernández et al., 2021; Gupta et al., 2009). From a theoretical point of view, the research contributes to gender studies about female entrepreneurship, focusing on the relationship between education and innovation. Analyzing how education influences women's entrepreneurship can help identify and address educational and socio-cultural barriers that limit women's access to entrepreneurship and active participation in innovation. From a managerial perspective, the results of such research can inform public policy, guiding government and organizational efforts in promoting specific educational programs that encourage women's entrepreneurship and innovativeness. Promoting women's innovativeness and entrepreneurship can contribute to overall economic development, as greater inclusion of women in the business landscape can lead to increased diversity, competitiveness and innovation (Minniti and Nardone, 2007; Morton et al., 2016; Pereira, 2019; Pereira and Salaris, 2019; ).</p> Elisabeth T. Pereira, Martina Manzo Copyright (c) 2024 International Conference on Gender Research Thu, 18 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Pedagogical Strategies for Female Students in IT Disciplines to Promote Gender Equality: The Case of Five European Universities <p>Once Female students in Informatics and Technology (IT) and Computer Science degrees at European higher education institutions, in the 21st century, represent a smaller percentage compared with male students, this paper investigates the main reasons that may explain this fact, as well as presents new pedagogical strategies for female students in IT courses. These strategies derive from understanding stereotypes, perceptions, cultural implications, and propositions for inclusive IT education; and are relevant for supporting IT students’ equality and success. Further, good lecturing in general together with positive reinforcement with students lays a crucial foundation for supporting all students in IT. The present research was developed in five European universities: Croatia, Italy, Slovakia, Poland, and Portugal. Starting from a literature review on the topic was developed a questionnaire that was applied to a sample of IT students in these five universities. The results were analyzed to define some new pedagogical strategies. These allowed us to conclude about the main reasons for the decision of female students to choose to study IT programs and higher education institutions develop pedagogical strategies more adequate and more attractive to female students, as well as to contribute to increased employability and successful integration in the labor market.</p> <p> </p> Elisabeth T. Pereira, Ana Vukičević , Frane Urem, Diogo Gomes Copyright (c) 2024 International Conference on Gender Research Thu, 18 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0000 My Perfect Partner: Using Creative Methods to Address Gender Based Violence <p>Young people aged 16-24 are most at risk of relationship abuse and intimate partner violence, The UK definition of domestic violence includes incidences of abuse between people aged 16 or over, but young people below the age of 16 are also at risk of relationship abuse. Relationship education became compulsory in schools in England and Wales in September 2020. There is increasing recognition of the need for whole school approaches to prevent gender-based violence from happening in the first place, and for equipping schools to teach relationship education and to feel more confident supporting young people affected by gender-based violence (GBV). Drawing on our experiences of delivering relationship education in both mainstream and special educational needs and disabilities (SEND) schools in England since 2012, this paper argues creative arts-based methods can be an effective tool in DA prevention and intervention. The paper explores young peoples views of healthy and unhealthy relationships, and ideals of the 'perfect partner', mediated through gender, body image and social media. We present material co-produced with young people in school, including art, drama, poetry and song. We discuss how creative methods are useful as both a research and prevention tool, and the social impact of research derived knowledge on both participants and the wider school community.<br><br></p> Janette Porter, Kay Standing Copyright (c) 2024 International Conference on Gender Research Thu, 18 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Exploring Gender Dynamics and Environmental Sustainability in Family Firms <p>In an ever-changing landscape, family businesses, characterized by their unique blend of tradition, familial bonds, and entrepreneurial spirit, stand as bastions of resilience and continuity, playing a pivotal role in economic growth and societal development. Indeed, family businesses account for 80 percent of all business enterprises worldwide, making them the prevalent form of conducting business. As these entities grapple with the imperative to remain economically viable while navigating the intricacies of the contemporary business landscape, the incorporation of sustainable practices into the organizational fabric takes centre stage. By actively seeking a harmonious and reciprocal relationship between financial objectives, social responsibility, and environmental accountability, family businesses can not only secure their own longevity but also contribute to a more equitable and sustainable global environment. This narrative becomes especially compelling at the intersection with gender. Exploring the intersection between gender and sustainability provides insights into how gender dynamics influence and are influenced by efforts to achieve sustainable development. Moreover, understanding and addressing this interplay is essential for devising holistic and effective strategies that promote social equity, economic prosperity, and environmental stewardship. It underscores the need for inclusive and gender-sensitive approaches in all aspects of sustainable development. Acknowledging the significance of this ongoing dialogue, this study delves into the intricate relationship between gender dynamics and the environmental dimension of sustainability within family businesses. Through a systematic literature review of empirical research, this work specifically aims to uncover the linkage between board gender diversity and corporate environmental performance. The findings indicate that gender-diverse boards improve environmental value creation, and women in leadership positions correlate positively with environmental disclosure in family-controlled businesses. Overall, a strong positive correlation emerges between the proportion of women directors on the board and the level of environmental sustainability. The findings of this study hold implications not only for family business practitioners but also for policymakers and academics interested in propelling gender equality and sustainability agendas, notably within the framework of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development.</p> Adelinda Ramos, Shital Jayantilal, Filipe Sardo Copyright (c) 2024 International Conference on Gender Research Thu, 18 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Essential Aspects of Gender-inclusive Computer Science Education <p>Computer science is a higher education domain that still show a significant male dominance. Many research studies have highlighted the importance of diversity and gender balance in computer science related areas such as software engineering and system development. However, there is still a well-identified problem that university programmes and courses on computer science fail to attract the female audience. The objective of this study is to investigate the concept of gender-inclusive computer science (CS) education with the aim of broadening participation in CS courses and programs. This is conducted through a literature study, initially focusing on keywords and research areas, and subsequently searching into existing research. The research question that guided the study was: "What concepts can be found in literature to make computer science education more gender-inclusive?". Data were analysed thematically in a two-step analysis process inspired by the grounded theory methods of Open coding and Axial coding. Findings suggest that there is significant room for learning in this field, particularly from Critical CS education studies. The Open coding analysis showed that the findings can be categorised into eight main themes. In the Axial coding the themes were merged, refined, renamed, and centred around the main axial theme of 'Epistemological pluralism'. Other essential themes that all are related to the axial main theme were: 'Design and creativity', 'Bias awareness and ethics', 'Collaboration and communication', 'Self-regulated learning', 'Real-world applications', and 'Role models and mentorship'. The result of this study is presented through a visual model that illustrates essential aspects of inclusive computer science education. The paper also proposes various directions for future research.</p> Lisa Sällvin, Lena-Maria Öberg, Peter Mozelius Copyright (c) 2024 International Conference on Gender Research Thu, 18 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Role of Education and Training to Make Agritourism A Success Story in India <p><strong>:</strong> The paper&nbsp; explores the &nbsp;role of entrepreneurship education and training amongst women entrepreneurs to promote agritourism sector of the Indian economy. This study employ qualitative and quantitative approaches to gather &nbsp;data &nbsp;questionnaires survey and in-depth face to face interviews, based on a semi-structured questionnaire. The research involved a matched sample of 10 registered farmers (from the Punjab Heritage Tourism Promotion Board) and 200 unregistered male and female farmers selected randomly from the Indian State of &nbsp;Punjab. Quantitative analysis suggests that there is a direct and significant impact of EET on the management, efficiency, and use of farming land. The findings also suggested that&nbsp; the fall in the agricultural productivity due to labour shortages; &nbsp;revenue losses are rising as &nbsp;commodity prices are falling. Therefore, it is not a surprise that farmers seek to &nbsp;supplement income through alternative means to enhance their socio-economic stability and viability. The findings suggest that there is high incidence of migration amongst male farming population&nbsp; and female farmers lack EET and reluctance on their part to work with external male population. However, analysis of male owner-managers of micro and small agritourist firms also reported to &nbsp;have lower levels of EET and hence the&nbsp; need for EET&nbsp; male and females; thus, EET and adequate access to finance were two major determinants of agritourist firms’ success in Indian Punjab.</p> navjot sandhu Copyright (c) 2024 International Conference on Gender Research Thu, 18 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Confronting Conundrums of Care in College Student Advising <p>At colleges and universities throughout the United States, academic advisors play a central role in stemming the tide of declining student enrollment and academic underachievement—especially in the wake of academic, physical, emotional, and interpersonal setbacks incurred during the COVID-19 pandemic. For many undergraduates, the mentoring relationship with their academic advisor provides the longest lasting and deepest connection with a faculty or staff member throughout their college experience. Increasingly, the expectations that institutions and students place on academic advisors have escalated far beyond simply guiding course selection and checking fulfillment of graduation requirements. While this more holistic approach to advising can cultivate a greater sense of belonging, it also places the advisors in a precarious position as the parameters of their responsibilities and the extent of caregiving continue to broaden. The ever-expanding expectations of caregiving placed on college academic advisors exemplify how pandemic-informed labor practices across many workplaces inadequately acknowledge caregivers while the care recipients may become overly dependent.</p> <p>This study investigates how advising evolves to become an extrapolation of the caregiving demands socially placed upon women in traditional, patriarchally structured families and workplaces. Using methods derived from critical incident theory that identify systemic crisis points and opportunities for intervention, the authors examine narratives of two women who serve as the lead advisors for their departments in southeastern United States universities. Their narratives delineate two double binds. First, the presumably bottomless reservoir of care demanded from women places nurturance of students in tension with career advancement and other care responsibilities (e.g., self and family). Second, setting boundaries to caregiving may generate accusations of insensitivity, but boundless care can accommodate and encourage learned helplessness among students. The investigation concludes with suggestions to reform institutional policies and build student resilience that equips them to learn independently.</p> Roy Schwartzman, Jenni Simon, Cynthia Zuckerman Hyman Copyright (c) 2024 International Conference on Gender Research Thu, 18 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Evaluating Women's Economic Empowerment During COVID-19 Pandemic in South Sulawesi, Indonesia <p>The factual condition resulting from the COVID-19 pandemic has changed and impacted various aspects of Indonesian society. It also made women one of the vulnerable and affected groups, requiring them to face various challenges, including loss of livelihoods as family breadwinners, and gender-based violence. Outside of Java, the region with the highest number of COVID-19 cases is South Sulawesi Province, with a total of 62,672 cases. This had an economic impact on communities and families, particularly affecting women, especially domestic workers, and female heads of households. This research aims to evaluate the effectiveness and efficiency of government policies and programs in South Sulawesi Province regarding domestic workers and female heads of households. It directly conducted interviews with stakeholders from the government, women's organizations, and domestic workers and female heads of households. It found that the COVID-19 pandemic significantly impacted women who are heads of households and female domestic workers. The situation for women leading households worsened during the COVID-19 pandemic as they had to navigate the crisis on their own. The situation and conditions of female domestic workers during the COVID-19 pandemic were also dire. Some of them were unilaterally terminated, while others were forced to work daily at their employers' homes, risking virus transmission during their commute due to inadequate personal protective equipment. Those who were laid off by their employers faced a crisis, as they had no income, especially when their spouses, who also worked in the informal sector, stopped working simultaneously. It revealed that both the government of South Sulawesi empowered female heads of households by distributing productive business capital assistance and providing support for female SMEs to access people's business credit. However, in contrast to the reality faced by female domestic workers, this group of women did not receive any social and economic assistance from the government during the COVID-19 pandemic.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Rina Shahrullah, Elza Syarief, Okky Chahyo Nugroho, Firdaus Firdaus, Penny Naluria Utami, Ulang Mangun Sosiawan, Djoko Waluyo, Ahmad Sanusi Copyright (c) 2024 International Conference on Gender Research Thu, 18 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Exploration of Girls’ Role Models: Are there Female STEM Role Models in Sight? <p>This study explores the presence and impact of female role models in Science, Engineering, Technology and Mathematics (STEM) education due to the underrepresentation of girls in STEM fields. The objective is to assess girls’ role models, particularly the role they play in their interest and in a career choice in STEM.A survey was distributed through an online panel and 546 valid answers from girls aged 14-20 in Germany were received. The analysis links to social cognitive theory and revealed that immediate family members (50,1%), musicians, actors and artists (12,4%), and media influencers (9,6%) were the top role model categories. Male role models dominated in teachers, entrepreneurs, and friends, while female role models were prominent in the family category. Female scientists and entrepreneurs who could serve as STEM role models, were found to be underrepresented. The study also showed that girls with STEM occupational role models in their immediate surroundings were more likely to have an interest in STEM subjects.</p> Adrienne Steffen, Claudia Hess Copyright (c) 2024 International Conference on Gender Research Thu, 18 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Can Participatory Action Research Deepen the Understanding of Intersectionality in the Field of Biodiversity Research? <p>Halting biodiversity loss and reducing inequalities are targets of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), which are not within reach. In 2022, the European Commission started to explicitly include gender with an intersectional perspective in their Horizon Europe working programme. In this paper, research is presented that tackles the very interlinkage of social inequalities in biodiversity studies. The first – conceptual – phase of an ongoing biodiversity project is analysed, explaining the knowledge co-creation process within a transdisciplinary, international team of researchers and practitioners, aiming to elaborate a methodological framework of intersectionality. Five intensive biodiversity case studies from Norway, Germany, Austria, Great Britain, and Switzerland, and their specific understandings of the concept of intersectionality are presented in detail and analysed with an action research approach. The outcome of this conceptual project phase is a report, which was further analysed regarding the development of approaches to include intersectionality in overall eleven biodiversity case studies, with a quantitative and qualitative content analysis. The main conclusion of this research is that intersectionality is a hard to grasp concept outside gender studies. Thus, it is on the one hand used as a synonym for terms like sociodemographic variables, and on the other hand closely related to diversity. It depends on the definition of diversity, whether these terms can be used almost interchangeably. This paper argues that the general focus of diversity – inclusion of all potential persons – is different to the focus of intersectionality, pointing towards discriminations at the crossroads of social or political categories. The latter is of specific relevance for environmental justice issues by addressing neglected, excluded or oppressed persons and their knowledges.</p> Anita Thaler, Sandra Karner Copyright (c) 2024 International Conference on Gender Research Thu, 18 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Gender Bias in Succession in Family Companies: Theoretical Analysis With Application to a Portuguese Region <p>In this paper we analyse the problematic of succession in family businesses, and we specifically address the situation of women within that process. The problem is important because, in one hand. family business are among the most prevalent in the economy, and because, in the other hand laws, and rules define gender equality as a very important social rule. We first make a literature review on the topic using the SCOPUS database, and after we detail the results of study made in the Portuguese region of Madeira Island. We conclude that, rather surprisingly, women are discriminated in succession, and this reality has been described in theory and in same empirical studies, and is confirmed, sadly, in our study about Madeira Island. The implications of these results should be great – it is of no use having all the laws published if they are not enforced and women are still harmed and discriminated in such an important social matter. The limitation of this study is that the sample we use in the study is small, but we would underline that the findings of our study are very much aligned with previous ideas. It seems that the old fashioned sexism so well described by Beauvoir in the middle of last century (Beauvoir, 1949) is still a fact. With those results we wonder if that sexism, culturally ignited and learnt as it, can be eliminated. Finally the paper is original because we first make a literature review and then present a case study that illustrates this theory.</p> Eduardo Tomé, Elizaveta Gromova, José Campos Copyright (c) 2024 International Conference on Gender Research Thu, 18 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0000 CEO Gender and Family Business Performance: The Moderating Role of Socio-Emotional Wealth <p>Family businesses are businesses that are managed and/or owned by a family. Like in any other company, the CEO is the manager and is responsible for achieving good performance. But unlike in non-family businesses, women are more represented in leadership positions and are more likely to work their way up. There is considerable disagreement in the literature about whether female CEOs outperform male CEOs. While some studies confirm this, other studies refute it, and other studies find no connection at all. In this study, we therefore investigate whether female CEOs perform better than male CEOs within family businesses. However, given the target group, it is essential not to ignore the influence of socio-emotional wealth (SEW) on this relationship, since family businesses distinguish themselves from other organizational forms with this characteristic. SEW includes the non-financial aspects of a business, such as a desire to maintain family control and family values that are incorporated into the corporate culture. According to SEW theory, family businesses focus more on maintaining SEW than pursuing purely economic prosperity. This can ensure that not all decisions are made with profit maximization in mind. To empirically test our hypotheses, we use a sample of 238 Belgian family businesses. Our results do not show any statistically significant results for the impact of the CEO’s gender on firm performance. What is significant, though, is the positive moderating effect of SEW on the relationship between CEO gender and performance in family businesses. The more SEW retention within a family business, the better the performance will be in the case of a female CEO.</p> Nadine Lybaert, Ine Umans Copyright (c) 2024 International Conference on Gender Research Thu, 18 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Is Artificial Intelligence Gender-Free? What Does Feminist Epistemology Say About That? <p>I start my contribution with some general questions: Is AI gendered? Is AI sexist or can it be? Does AI include gendered knowledge and suppositions? If so, how?</p> <p>After that, I proceed to develop my theoretical (i.e., qualitatively based) starting points with the main referential authors, Donna Haraway and Alison Adam. The fact that impersonal does not mean observer-independent (as Haraway described it in a slightly different context [1997]) is a good reason to turn to feminist epistemology, especially its concept of situated knowledges. Since knowledge (or the representation of knowledge) lies at the very centre of AI research, this makes it an appropriate vehicle for a gendered critique of AI (Adam, 2000).</p> <p>The concept of situated knowledges entails knowledge that reflects a perspective on a subject which is necessarily partial and limited, not universal (this is Haraway’s famous critique of the “view from nowhere”). Namely, there is no way to be simultaneously in all of the epistemologically privileged positions structured by gender, class, nation, etc.</p> <p>I then proceed to AI research. The knowledge engineers build systems that contain knowledge reflecting their own interests and competencies. While this representation of knowledge is usually regarded as being universal (Adam, 2000), it is hierarchical since it does not grant epistemic authority to all. Most importantly, social exclusivism and biological essentialism are re-inscribed in the ontology of AI (Adam, 2000). I address the question of which effects social and political contaminations and prejudices can bring for the development of AI.</p> <p>I suggest that unless we commit to deconstructing the harmful essentialisms that govern our human lives, we might just be perpetuating the same (i.e., our own and others’) practices of domination and unequal parts of privilege and oppression (Haraway, 1991) in developing AI.</p> Valerija Vendramin Copyright (c) 2024 International Conference on Gender Research Thu, 18 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Attracting Female Engineers: A Qualitative Analysis in Mechanical Engineering in Germany <p>The number of women working as engineers in the mechanical and plant engineering sector in Germany has risen to eleven percent in 2023 – remaining at humble levels. In higher positions, the share is even lower. While around 20 % of engineering students at German universities are female, these women do not seem to be entering the sector or they are leaving it again. The question arises as to what companies in the mechanical and plant engineering sector can do to attract female engineers after graduation. This study was conducted in cooperation with the German Engineering Association. The aim was to qualitatively explore the reasons why women enter, stay or leave the engineering sector and to include the industry’s perspective to obtain a holistic view of the situation. Therefore, on the one hand the perspective of female engineers was investigated and, on the other hand, combined with the perspective of companies. We provide insights from focus groups and interviews with 49 female engineers across all career levels, from an analysis of 90 online company websites and social media pages as well as from three on-site visits at exemplary companies. The findings point to unresolved issues in recruitment and beyond: highlighting role models of successful women in engineering, the need for companies to actively attract and support women in engineering, e. g. through recruiting strategies focusing on women, insights into the working culture, and transparency regarding career options. Overall, the study suggests that companies should embed gender diversity and group specific recruitment as important issues in their organizations. Consequently, the study provides recommendations for action for companies seeking to become a more inclusive and diverse industry. Limitations are discussed and further implications are presented.</p> Johanna M. Werz, Lea M. Daling, Lisa Brueggemann, Esther Borowksi, Ingrid Isenhardt Copyright (c) 2024 International Conference on Gender Research Thu, 18 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0000 How to Measure the Impact Generated by the Gender Equality Plan? <p>Gender Equality Plans (GEPs) are the primary policy tool to advance gender equality in research and innovation in Europe. The European Commission has mandated an institutional requirement for all public and research performing organisations applying for Horizon Europe 2021-2027 grants. These entities must develop GEPs addressing organisational culture, work-life balance, gender balance in leadership, recruitment and career progression, gender mainstreaming in research and teaching, and measures against gender-based violence. The Commission has outlined four mandatory elements for GEPs: they must be public documents, allocate resources for implementation, be based on sex/gender-disaggregated data collection and monitoring, and include training and capacity building. This new requirement is expected to stimulate significant activity at institutional and state levels across EU countries. From the research presented here, we expect an ongoing self-assessment of the progress of the actions implementation to reduce gender inequality and valuable suggestions for the future GEP UniBs 2025-2027 design and planning.</p> Aanna Brescianini, Mariasole Bannò, Camilla Federici Copyright (c) 2024 International Conference on Gender Research Thu, 18 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Emotion Work of Paid and Unpaid Caregivers of the Elderly in Chile <p>In most societies, care work is still considered a private, gendered activity, under the assumption that women would innately perform such tasks. Caring for the elderly represents particular emotional challenges, being emphasised that this dimension of caregiving needs more attention. Building on Arlie Hochschild’s (1983) conceptualisation of emotion work and incorporating Tonkens’ (2012) observation to include meso- and macro-level into the scope, I argue that emotion work is not only an individual experience, but it has a component in which the norms associated with the emotions to be displayed in caregiving correspond to a frame of reference historically constructed. Hence, this paper aims to understand how emotion work is characterised and configured by caregivers of the elderly in Chile. Using a qualitative approach, between April and June 2023 I conducted 9 in-depth interviews with caregivers of older adults in Chile (8 women, 1 man), and asked them to keep an ‘emotional diary’ for at least 4 weeks. Conducting a constructivist grounded theory analysis, the main findings indicate differences between the emotion work performed by paid and unpaid caregivers. Paid caregivers manage emotions regarding affection and pity towards older adults, and mainly anger towards older adults’ families, which is supported by a construction of old age based on the notions of abandonment and loneliness. Alternatively, the emotions of family caregivers are much more complex to manage, since they are permeated by the existing relationship with the old person being cared for, and they belong to life course decisions. It can be concluded that emotion work is a relational activity where familialistic narratives play a central role in Chile. The management of emotions in caregiving is permeated by the caregiver’s options of free decision-making, which are in tension with structures such as gender, class, or access to care support.</p> Catalina Ganga-León Copyright (c) 2024 International Conference on Gender Research Thu, 18 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0000 "STEM in Genere”: an impact evaluation <p style="font-weight: 400;">Research on labour market disparities between men and women has long since identified horizontal segregation in the educational system as one of the main factors driving the gender pay gap. One of the factors identified in the literature believed to be at the heart of horizontal gender segregation is the lack of representation and visibility of women in STEM fields. In this paper, we investigate the effectiveness of a program named “STEM in Genere”, developed within the Gender Equality Plan 2022-2024 of the University of Brescia (Italy), which is aimed at contrasting the underrepresentation and the stereotypical representation of women in science among primary and lower secondary school students. Students of participant classes will meet an educator for a total of 2 hours, in which counter-stereotypical thinking of women in science will be stimulated via learning games. Teachers of participant classes will follow in parallel a dedicated workshop about non-stereotypical science teaching. The effects of the program on students' gender stereotypes in science and study/job aspirations will be evaluated via a randomised controlled trial (RCT) conducted in primary and secondary schools of the Brescia province, an affluent province located in the northern part of Italy. In particular, we will randomise classes within participating schools to have a good balance between the statistical power of the experiment and potential contamination threats. The contribution of this evaluation is threefold. First, we will collect first-hand data on students' views and aspirations in a country - Italy - in which the population traditionally holds quite conservative views about gender roles. Second, we will provide robust, experimental evidence on the effectiveness of the program “STEM in Genere”, which is potentially scalable nationwide. Lastly, we will contribute to the methodological debate about question framing in survey methodology, by randomly varying the formulation of the questions in the surveys. Policy implications for educational and learning environments will be discussed.</p> Giovanni Maria Abbiati, Chiara Leggerini, Mariasole Bannò Copyright (c) 2024 International Conference on Gender Research Thu, 18 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Critical Race Feminism and the Counterterrorism Strategy ‘Prevent’. <p>There is extensive academic attention on the effects of counterterrorism policy on the Muslim population. My paper goes further by providing an analysis of the intersectionality of religion, race, gender, and the impact of counterterrorism policy, namely ‘Prevent’. I focus upon understanding Muslim women’s experiences concerning the UK’s counterterrorism strategy Prevent, with a theoretical framework of Critical Race Feminism. My research demonstrates the UK government’s incorporation of Muslim women into countering violent extremism policies and how this categorises Muslim women as a tool within deradicalisation. I directly address the gap between feminist research and the lived experiences of Prevent for Muslim women in post-16 education. This is achieved by drawing upon the qualitative experiences of Muslim women in further and higher education in the UK. Through an empirical exploration of focus group and interview data, my PhD paper is one of the first to offer insights into Muslim women’s feelings surrounding how Prevent operates within the UK’s post-16 education sector. To aid this exploration, Critical Race Feminism is used as a theoretical framework to advance the discussion of intersectionality. Within the data collected, certain themes were evident such as: the self-censoring of students; the responsibilization of Muslim women and gendered Islamophobia. The findings state that there is a gendered impact of the Prevent strategy within the UK’s post-16 education sector. This paper should be added to the context of debate about the future of Prevent (if any), and to existing work that discusses the securitisation of racialised people.</p> Lilly Barker Copyright (c) 2024 International Conference on Gender Research Thu, 18 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0000 The Power of Knowledge in Combat Sports Coaching <p>A growing number of studies develop recommendations for improving the expertise of coaching better athletes. Scholars build knowledge of how to coach and what competence a sports coach should have. Following feminist ideology in knowledge production, this paper explores who can decide on approved coaching know-how. It investigates the assumed expertise and the identification of competition-level coaches' competence and asks what capability is required to qualify as a sports coach. It scrutinises existing practices and collectively formed concepts that influence coaches’ pathways: how to become a coach and what possibilities are there for different positions as a coach. The study is conducted at the sports club level, where coaches are voluntary workers. The research includes judo, boxing, and wrestling, referred to as combat sports. Through feminist studies and analysis, the research examines power structures between people or groups. The study focuses on how practical, procedural knowledge is valued in the culture of combat sports. By describing culturally shared meanings and practices in sports, the study reveals the gendered practices by which situations are planned, implemented, and managed. The analysis shows how the male-dominated coaching environment relies on tacit knowledge of learning, cultural behaviour, and assumed know-how. The implied procedural knowledge is proven performatively in physical manners learned through experience, especially expertise from winning competitions. As a result, the study highlights the unchangeable, traditional environment, where repetition of current knowledge is indispensable. Consequently, the study suggests that coaches without previous sport-specific knowledge are excluded from coaching.</p> Sanna Erdogan Copyright (c) 2024 International Conference on Gender Research Thu, 18 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0000 The Educational Potential of Cyberfeminisms: An Intersectional Analysis of @coletivoandorinha, @feministasemmovimento and profiles <p>Focusing on the dialogue between cyberfeminisms and education, through an intersectional perspective, this study combines the work of feminist authors such as Haraway (1991), DeLaurentis (2004), hooks (2013), Crenshaw (1991), and Butler (2011) with others recent works to address the following question: How do cyberfeminist <em>Instagram</em> profiles contribute to intersectional education for gender equality? To answer that, we analysed the profiles @coletivoandorinha, @feministasemmovimento and between 2021 and 2023, using a qualitative method (Minayo, 2015), with semi-structured interviews to: 1. understand the strategies of the cyberfeminist profiles; 2. identify gender and race differences in the construction of cyberfeminist discourses; 3. identify the main challenges in translating cyberfeminist content into school vocabulary. Results show may enable understanding of how intersectionality is verifiable in cyberfeminist discourses, and how contents may prove adequate for educational purposes.</p> Clarissa Godoy, Maria João Cunha Copyright (c) 2024 International Conference on Gender Research Thu, 18 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Awareness of Women's Inclusion in STEM: Twitter Data in Italy <p style="font-weight: 400;">This paper focuses on assessing public awareness of women in STEM disciplines. The underrepresentation of women in STEM has garnered recent attention, and this study is grounded in Social Cognitive Career Theory, which examines how individual, contextual, and experiential factors impact interests and goals in STEM. Individual factors, such as self-efficacy beliefs and outcome expectations, play a crucial role in shaping career choices. Contextual factors influence women's leadership roles, particularly in male-dominated environments, and may differ in female-majority settings. Additionally, social modelling, where individuals learn from observing others, contributes to self-efficacy. Our study focuses on contextual factors that influence awareness of women in STEM. We employ a panel-type econometric model spanning 2014-2022 and analyse 29,985 tweets to explore the influence of socioeconomic factors on public opinions in various Italian regions. Italy's significant regional disparities make it an ideal setting for this research, considering factors like human capital, industry, and government. The managerial implications underscore the importance of understanding public opinion to inform decisions that promote women's inclusion in STEM fields for policymakers and corporate management. This study's unique use of geolocated data on Twitter adds a novel dimension to the intersection of STEM and women.</p> Chiara Leggerini, Mariasole Bannò Copyright (c) 2024 International Conference on Gender Research Thu, 18 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Enhancing Workplace Inclusivity for TGNC (Transgender/Nonconforming) Communities: “A Path to Psychological-Safety” <p>Discrimination against transgender and gender nonconforming (TGNC) individuals remains a<br>pervasive issue, significantly impacting their psychological safety and overall well-being. This marginalised<br>community faces an array of challenges, including experiencing homelessness, poverty, and harassment, which<br>are interconnected and, to a considerable extent, a consequence of systemic discrimination. Studies by Tebbe<br>et al. (2019) reveal that the TGNC community grapples with disproportionately high rates of homelessness,<br>poverty, and harassment, thus highlighting the systemic nature of the challenges they confront. Workplace<br>discrimination within the TGNC community extends across a spectrum, impacting individuals’ authenticity and<br>potential for forced engagement in underground economy work to offset poverty, including survival sex work<br>and drug dealing (Par &amp;amp; Howe, 2020).</p> <p><br>Workplace discrimination is a pivotal determinant of psychological safety and well-being for TGNC individuals.<br>Frazier et al. (2017) emphasise the critical importance of preventing discrimination and conflict in the<br>workplace, which contributes to negative mental health outcomes. The consequences of discrimination are<br>profound. A significant portion of the TGNC community reports a history of suicidal ideation, ranging from 45%<br>to 77% (Testa et al., 2017). Promoting psychological safety and well-being for this marginalised community is<br>not only a moral imperative, but also a pathway to fostering more prosperous and inclusive societies. This<br>research utilises a qualitative methodology, through semi-structured interviews among diverse gender<br>identities. By exploring the lived experiences of TGNC individuals in the workplace, this study uncovers the<br>impact of discrimination on psychological well-being. The results of the findings demonstrate how to improve<br>the psychological-safety of gender-diverse communities through</p> Colton Nguyen Copyright (c) 2024 International Conference on Gender Research Thu, 18 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0000 The Vulva Dialogues: The Sexual-Bodily Experience of Cisgender Women <p>Sexuality is an essential part of our lives. Despite being personal, it is deeply impacted by our culture and social scripts. Thus, the sexual-bodily experience of the cisgender woman relates to her life experiences through her body. Nonetheless, the female body is often subjected to prejudice, stigma, and misconceptions, driving women into genital alienation. There is plenty of misinformation on the vulva and the clitoris, even within the scientific community, which not only contributes to many women’s unawareness of their own bodies, but also puts their health at risk in the hands of poorly trained surgeons. Furthermore, the sexual-bodily experience of the cisgender woman is commonly observed from a phallocentric perspective, which tends to override and neglect her agency. My research seeks to analyse the most relevant aspects of the sexual-bodily experience of Portuguese cisgender women who date mostly men, focusing on their relationship with their vulva, their clitoris, and their sexual pleasure. I also want to identify the role of medicine and health professionals in that relationship, within the Western medicine perspective of the female body. The fieldwork is being carried out by qualitative methods, divided into three parts: 1) a minimum of 15 semi-structured, in-depth interviews with health professionals (gynaecologists, gynaecological surgeons, and sex therapists) working in the Lisbon Metropolitan Area (LMA); 2) a minimum of 15 in-depth interviews via the Biographic-Narrative Interpretative Method (BNIM) with Portuguese cisgender women residing in the LMA who date mostly men; and 3) a review of how female genitalia are portrayed in anatomy books used in Portugal’s top medical schools. Therefore, I aim to understand how centuries of control over the female body and decades of medicalization of female sexuality have impacted the corporeality and sexuality of Portuguese cisgender women, to contribute to an in-depth debate on such matters in Sociology.</p> Adriana Maria Penna Quintão Copyright (c) 2024 International Conference on Gender Research Thu, 18 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Diversity and inclusion in the South African telecommunications industry: An LGBTQIA+ employee perspective <p>Despite improvements globally in actions and campaigns supporting the LGBTQIA+ community, individuals who belong to the community continue to face immense backlash and challenges in their lives for their choices and beliefs. In Africa, there are still over 30 countries that criminalise acts of homosexuality. People who identify as LGBTQIA+ often face discrimination, harassment, and violence because of their sexual orientation or gender in social and workplace settings. This study aimed to understand the experiences of employees who align with the LGBTQIA+ community and how they navigate diversity and inclusion in the workplace. While examining whether organisational culture may enable the seamless reasonable accommodation and inclusion of LGBTQIA+ employees in the workplace. The study focused on one sector at this time to further understand if the South African telecommunications industry is embracing diversity, equity and inclusion of employees who identify as LGBTQIA+. The two theories which guided the study were the queer theory and institutional theory. These theories assisted in providing a greater understanding of the concepts and phenomena studied. Providing a lens that enabled an understanding of how an individual’s unique experiences in the workplace may be perceived, as a deterrence for inclusion. Following a mixed qualitative methodology, data was gathered using a two-phase approach. The first phase entailed purposively selecting eight participants who engaged in a reflective diary. The second phase involved a set of interviews with fifteen participants. Data gathered from both phases were coded and thematically analysed enabling a triangulation of findings. Which revealed that diversity and inclusion measures are unmet. Employees who identify, as belonging to the LGBTQIA+ community are challenged each day with many resigning in an attempt to escape discrimination, harassment, and abuse. Participant's commitment to continue with the diary study for fear of being identified as the first limitation. The second limitation was the industry's reluctance to share their insights. Trust had to be built to continue with the research process. Recommendation for further research in this area and for studies to include other sectors with larger samples. </p> Xolile Sibande, Jenika Gobind Copyright (c) 2024 International Conference on Gender Research Thu, 18 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0000