International Conference on Tourism Research 2024-03-20T07:19:21+00:00 Louise Remenyi Open Journal Systems <p>The International Conference on Tourism Research has been run on an annual basis since 2018. Conference Proceedings have been published each year and authors have been encouraged to upload their papers to university repositories. In addition the proceedings are indexed by a number of indexing bodies.</p> <p>From 2022 the publishers have decided to make all conference proceedings fully open access. Individual papers and full proceedings can be accessed via this system.</p> <p><strong>PLEASE NOTE THAT IF YOU WISH TO SUBMIT A PAPER TO THIS CONFERENCE YOU SHOULD VISIT THE CONFERENCE WEBSITE AT<a href=""></a> THIS PORTAL IS FOR AUTHORS OF ACCEPTED PAPERS ONLY.</strong></p> e-Sports Events: A Sports Parent's Perspective 2024-03-18T11:02:38+00:00 Nosiphiwo Mahlangu Rosa Naudé-Potgieter <p>e-Sports is a rapidly growing industry, which has gained popularity in the recent years. It is estimated that the global e-sports market will have a value of $1.87 billion in 2025. e-Sports competitions and tournaments are becoming increasingly popular, especially among schoolchildren and college students. The growth of leagues, at school level, requires that parents should understand this sport and have a positive attitude towards e-sports and e-sports events, due to the likely support that parents are required to provide to participants at these events. The study is a preliminary study, which aims to understand parents' view of e-sports, as a form of sports, to determine the financial investment to participate in e-sports and parents’ experience during an e-sport event. The study used a qualitative approach, utilising a semi-structured interview schedule, with six parents interviewed at an event, as well as a focus group discussion, with 21 parents of e-sports players. The study found that parents have a positive perception of e-sports events and are fully supportive of their children participating in them. Further, it was concluded that e-sports is viewed as a form of sports and, in comparison to other ‘traditional sports’, it is actually a very affordable form of sport to partake in. Parents spend most of their money at e-sports events on food, whilst some parents will go to a restaurant after the event, to celebrate the child’s accomplishments. The results of this preliminary study will guide further studies on e-sports events and are already giving an indication to e-sports organisers what the perspectives and needs of parents are.<br><br></p> 2024-03-18T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 International Conference on Tourism Research The Perceptions of Tourism Students Towards Blended Learning: A Case From a Comprehensive University in South Africa 2023-12-08T10:13:20+00:00 Sibusiso Ntshangase Nolwazi Mabaleka <p>This paper explores tourism students’ perceptions of blended learning (BL) and examines the correlations between BL statements, student academic performance (AP), and the level of satisfaction with blended courses (BCs). A questionnaire survey was used to collect data from 166 randomly selected tourism students in a comprehensive University in South Africa. For data analysis, IBM SPSS Statistics 29.0 (IBM Corporation, 2022) software was used. The results indicate that most tourism students had positive perceptions of BL based on their degrees of AP and satisfaction with the BC. Most tourism students claim that they are not comfortable completing assignments and taking assessments online. The results further reveal that students they are frequently disappointed with the assessment approach of online discussions. The study recommends that the university studied conduct a variety of reform programmes geared at strengthening tourism lecturers’ BL abilities (such as upgrading online assessment methodologies and lecture design). To encourage learning involvement, tourism lecturers could improve students’ perceptions of the BL platform in their instructional design. This will gradually improve tourism students’ low perceptions of BL, as identified in this study.</p> 2024-03-25T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 International Conference on Tourism Research Potentials of Rural Tourism Around Hluhluwe iMfolozi Park, South Africa: Local Community Perspective 2024-03-20T07:19:21+00:00 Nelisile Mgabhi Nomfundo Mzimela Ikechukwu Ezeuduji <p>Developing nations continue to place a high priority on rural development, especially those like South Africa (SA) that have large rural populations and little or no economic activity. In addition to urban tourism, rural tourism is another type of tourism that is gaining popularity. This study conducted in the context of SA, KwaZulu-Natal, aimed at assessing the potentials of rural tourism in the communities surrounding Hluhluwe iMfolozi Park (HiP). A qualitative research method based on the explorative and interpretative paradigms was used. A purposive technique was used in a form of non-probability sampling. Focus group discussions were held with the participants. Three (3) focus group discussions were conducted with a total of twenty-four (24) participants, eight (8) participants in each group. Content analysis was performed to analyse data. Results revealed that the study area lacked access to basic infrastructure like decent road networks as well as access to clean water and sanitary facilities. The research further revealed that residents in the study area lacked fundamental understanding of what it takes to operate effective tourism enterprises. The study recommends that rural offerings be positioned and offered as parts of tourist products and services within this rural space, after the study area weaknesses have been addressed. The study further suggests that leadership should be committed to advancing the growth of rural tourism through capacity building, including training citizens and assisting in the creation of business strategies and the acquisition of funding for the launch of new ventures.</p> 2024-03-25T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 International Conference on Tourism Research Tourism Entrepreneurial Education and Intention Among Youths: A Case from KwaZulu-Natal in South Africa 2023-11-13T08:51:38+00:00 Zinhle Mhlongo Sibusiso David Ntshangase Ikechukwu Onyekwere Ezeuduji <p>This paper explores the relationship between entrepreneurial education (ED) and youths’ entrepreneurial intention (EI) towards starting tourism businesses. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data. The study used purposive sampling method of the non-probability sampling design to select 400 youths living in different regions of the King Cetshwayo District Municipality (KCDM), KwaZulu-Natal Province of South Africa. The methodology employed partial least squares - structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM) using SmartPLS software version to assess the relationships among the construct variables. The results show a significant positive relationship between entrepreneurial education and entrepreneurial intention. Recommendations are offered to the KCDM decision-makers (business support offices),&nbsp;National Youth Development Agency&nbsp;(NYDA), as well as Tourism KwaZulu-Natal to encourage youth entrepreneurship. South African higher education leaders and policymakers can benefit from these findings.</p> 2024-03-25T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 International Conference on Tourism Research Socio-demographic Variables and Push Travel Motivation: Tourists Visiting a Protected Area in South Africa 2023-11-20T16:20:05+00:00 Nomfundo Sinethemba Mzimela Sibusiso David Ntshangase Ikechukwu Onyekwere Ezeuduji Nelisile Zanele Mgabhi <p>This study aims to explore the key push travel motivation factors from Dann’s theory of push and pull motivation and analysed the influence of tourists’ socio-demographic variables on push travel motivation factors to visit protected areas (PAs). Data were collected via a structured questionnaire from 435 randomly selected tourists visiting Hluhluwe-iMfolozi park (HiP). Data analyses employed descriptive statistics to generate frequencies, mean scores and standard deviations using IBM's SPSS version 28 software. Mann-Whitney Wilcoxon test implemented in Stata software version 15 was employed. The findings revealed that the key tourists push factors are “relaxation and family togetherness”. The study further indicates that demographic variables such as “nationality, residency, employment status and age” have significant effects on tourists’ overall push factors (i.e., relaxation, social interaction, family togetherness, and prestige motivation). Based on the findings, the study made recommendations directed to the park management focusing on promoting and sustaining activities that address the key push motivation factors.</p> 2024-03-25T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 International Conference on Tourism Research Abstracts for Additional Presentations & Posters 2024-03-15T15:22:45+00:00 <p>Abstracts for Additional Presentations &amp; Posters</p> 2024-03-15T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 International Conference on Tourism Research Indigenous Therapeutic Tourism: Challenges, Emerging Trends, and Sustainability 2023-11-27T22:30:56+00:00 Fernanda A. Ferreira Márcio Abella Flaviano Fônseca Jorgenaldo Santos <p>A healthy, harmonious, proactive, and happy life is not just desirable; it is a fundamental human aspiration in our increasingly threatened contemporary world. This social research, applied to tourism, focuses on the indigenous peoples of Aldeia Fulkaxó in the state of Sergipe, Brazil, conducted between 2022 and 2023. The primary objective of this study is to explore the healing ceremonies and rituals practiced by this indigenous community, which constitute a complex, systemic, and transdisciplinary phenomenon. The research aims to identify and assess the integrative and complementary aspects of the health practices of these indigenous peoples and their impact on governance. The methodology employed is exploratory and involves a review of the state of the art in this field from 2003 to 2023. Qualitative research methods are also utilized, including audiovisual ethnography and field diaries. This approach reveals the challenges and possibilities of indigenous phytotherapeutic processes as ethnocultural tourist attractions. We observe their annual retreats offered to both national and international groups. Preliminary findings indicate a growing demand for tourist experiences that immerse individuals in nature and the indigenous way of life, with a particular emphasis on therapeutic benefits. Furthermore, this study highlights the sociocultural emergence of therapeutic tourism as an innovative product within the realm of health and well-being, with a specific focus on addressing issues such as anxiety, stress, and depression.</p> 2024-03-11T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 International Conference on Tourism Research Human Resources Management and the Impact of the Restaurant Opening Hours: An Exploratory Study 2024-02-26T10:45:48+00:00 Daniel Azevedo Susana Silva <p>The hospitality sector is struggling with a generalized shortage of manpower to cope with the post-pandemic economic recovery. Furthermore, the work-life balance has become a very important issue when it comes to choose a place to work. This has been creating huge constraints in the hospitality industry in running and/or developing new businesses due to lack of qualified human resources. Considering the importance of this sector in the Portuguese economy, it is of paramount importance to better understand the origin of such constraints and how businesses can adapt to a new labour market reality. An exploratory study was conducted to understand how restaurant opening hours, as a top-level management decision, affects the work-life balance in the industry thus contributing to enrich the attractiveness of the jobs offered. To develop the study two groups of restaurants were studied. The first group is comprised of limited opening-hours restaurants, and the second group (as a control group), a non-limited opening hours restaurant. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with proprietors and/or top-level managers to ascertain how the decision on opening hours was weighed in the work-life balance concerns and what are the most important managerial implications, business profitability impacts, and staff retention indicators. Preliminary results seem to indicate that restaurant opening hours are one important top-level management decisions and the work-life balance has played a crucial role in the definition of the business model of the studied restaurants. By choosing limited opening hours, managers are able to schedule staff much easier and respect, as much as possible their work-life balance which then contributes to a more stable and motivated workforce. The results also show that this is only possible because restaurants manage to be profitable within the limited opening hours period. Further studies should be conducted to better understand how these new business model approaches could be used in larger-scale restaurants with non-limited opening hours.</p> 2024-03-11T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 International Conference on Tourism Research Preparing for Pandemics: Reflecting on the Impact of Strategic Elements in the COVID-19 Influenced Online Travel Agencies' Marketing Mix 2024-02-06T05:42:21+00:00 Rifa F. Darmawan John Baker <p>The landscape of online hotel booking, particularly through online travel agencies (OTAs), witnessed a transformation during the COVID-19 pandemic. This shift triggered intense competition among OTA marketers. Interestingly, amidst this competitive environment, while causal predictive models exist that focus on moderate to high effects of major features on Price and hotel BI, the strategic impact of minor features has largely been overlooked. To address this gap, a frequency analysis involving a comprehensive sample of 63 OTAs identified four minor features. Subsequently, a partial least squares structural equation modeling approach explored 499 consumers’ perceptions. Two features were shown to be significant (COVID-19 Hygiene Label, Price Discount), with COVID-19 Hygiene Label mediating Price. However, Scarcity and Loyalty Program showed no direct or mediating effects. The model accounted for a strategic 0.298 R<sup>2</sup>. As COVID-19 is an ongoing recurring issue and preparation for future pandemics is prudent, the results provide valuable insights for OTA app developers aiming to gain additional predictive marginal performance advantages (i.e., .10 or greater). Implications and suggestions for future research are also offered.</p> 2024-03-11T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 International Conference on Tourism Research Paradisiacal Lived Experiences of Tourists in Islas de Gigantes 2024-01-27T18:27:51+00:00 Don Anton Balida <p>This study explores the viewpoints and experiences of tourists at Islas de Gigantes, a captivating tourist destination located in the Philippines. This research aims to unravel the complex factors that influence tourists' perception of Gigantes as an authentic paradise, using a combination of interviews and observations. This study explores the underlying motives of tourists, their interactions with the local environment and community, and their overall level of contentment during their travels. Moreover, it carefully examines the complex relationship between tourism and the remarkable variety of biodiversity of plants and animals found on these islands. It places special importance on the long-term viability of activities like scallop harvesting and their compatibility with efforts to protect the environment and promote the welfare of local communities. This analysis examines the economic consequences of tourism for local communities, emphasizing the crucial role that tourism plays in promoting local economic growth while also acknowledging the possible disruptions that may occur. The study reveals intricate patterns and underlying patterns, enhancing our understanding of idyllic travel experiences. This research considerably contributes to the global discussion on paradisiacal locations by exposing these findings to a comparison analysis with previous literature. Additionally, it provides practical suggestions to individuals involved in the tourism industry, highlighting the significance of responsible and sustainable actions that protect the natural surroundings and conserve the local cultural heritage. Although acknowledging the inherent constraints of any research undertaking, this study provides guidance for future inquiries. This statement proposes potential areas for future research, including longitudinal studies and evaluations of climate resilience, with the aim of improving the sustainability and resilience of tourism in picturesque locations in an increasingly volatile world. This research offers valuable insights into the enticing appeal of Islas de Gigantes, as well as enhances our comprehension of how pleasant destinations can coexist harmoniously with the environment and local communities, serving as an exemplary model for responsible and sustainable tourism practices worldwide.</p> 2024-03-11T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 International Conference on Tourism Research The Competitiveness of Tourist Destinations: A Review of the Scientific Literature 2024-02-26T00:53:47+00:00 Franklin Cordova-Buiza Yesenia Aylen Serruto-Perea <p>The competitiveness of tourist destinations worldwide is of vital importance for any destination that wishes to develop and improve its positioning in the global, national and/or regional market, because the actors of tourist destinations are aware that the greater the number of tourists and tourist spending in the destination, the greater the economic development that directly and indirectly affects the different actors, the ultimate objective being to improve the quality of life of the people in the community. Therefore, this study focuses on carrying out a review of the scientific literature on the competitiveness of tourist destinations, with the objective of identifying the dimensions, factors and indicators used in the different models of destination competitiveness, which can be applied to a tourist destination at the present time and have greater clarity when evaluating it. In this sense, a bibliographic review of 40 scientific articles from Scopus and Science Direct published between 2000 and 2021 was carried out, of which 29 articles were selected based on the criteria of the proposed models of competitiveness of tourist destinations, factors and indicators used. The results of the study contemplate a theoretical framework of competitiveness in itself, the competitiveness of tourist destinations and the models of competitiveness of tourist destinations, making an analysis of the differences and similarities between them; likewise, indicators used to analyze the destination are presented, and finally, studies that have used these theories and models in different countries are presented. Finally, it is concluded that the theories of the competitiveness of tourist destinations that have most influenced these models have been those proposed by Ritchie and Crouch, and Dwyer and Kim, since they have between 7 and 9 factors in common and 57 indicators.</p> 2024-03-11T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 International Conference on Tourism Research The Implementation of the Circular Economy R-Principles and Strategies: The Portuguese Hotel Industry Perspective 2024-01-31T18:11:39+00:00 Susana Rodrigues Natália Santos Berta Costa <p>Circular Economy (CE) is a concept that has been gaining increasing importance in business circles and advocated by European Union, and by several governments worldwide. It is acknowledged that it has the potential to optimise resource efficiency, minimise production and consumption of greenhouse gas emissions, while simultaneously granting competitive advantage business prospects. Although it has been gaining momentum among academia, politicians, and practitioners, it is apparent some struggling when it comes to the design of a framework explaining how companies can embrace circularity and on how to adapt their business model to this new economic system. Despite its importance and applicability by the travel and tourism sector in general and the hotel industry in particular, it is insufficiently studied and examined. This empirical study investigates this concept on the Portuguese hotel industry perspective concerning the adoption of CE practices and CE R-principles through a survey instrument disseminated across the Portuguese hotel industry, with 78 valid responses. This article also introduces a new set of R-principles to the already existing ones, and contributes to the scientific research on the travel and tourism industry, and mainly to the one linked with the Portuguese hotel industry, which has been vaguely examined up to now.&nbsp;The results obtained indicate that these R-principles have been gaining importance, being adopted, and put into practice&nbsp;by the Portuguese hotel industry with special emphasis on the 3R-Principles (Reduce, Reuse, Recycle) along with Repair. Findings also indicate that some initiatives that are in line with a Circular Economy paradigm, namely recycling, reducing water and energy consumption, and cleaning management policies, towel and bed linen programmes, staff and education programmes, green products, certifications, among others, are also being considered.</p> 2024-03-11T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 International Conference on Tourism Research COVID-19 Disruptions Driving Sustainable Tourism: A Case of the Hawaiian Tourism Industry 2024-01-08T15:59:59+00:00 Maryanne Eva Mark Esposito <p>This study inquires about the COVID-19-generated momentum and how it resulted in transformative opportunities for the hard-hit tourism industry in Hawai’i. A single embedded case study has been selected to explore the implications of the COVID-19 pandemic-generated momentum for the risk-prevalent industry and identify sustainability-based management strategies within the tourism industry in Hawai’i’s small island economy. Documentation and archival records analysis paired with direct observations performed during the 2022 Hawai’i Tourism Conference exposed the pivot taken by the Hawai’i Tourism Authority and the four island counties, toward rebuilding, redefining, and resetting the tourism industry in accelerating the timeline for sustainable and regenerative tourism. Findings indicate that actors from the tourism industry in Hawai’i perceived the COVID-19 pandemic as a <em>huliau</em>, or a point of transformation, to reflect and reevaluate the tourism industry's responsibility and shift toward a recovery focused on sustainability. This research confirms that the pandemic-driven momentum accelerated opportunities for changing and transforming traditional business models and indicators of progress within the tourism industry in Hawai’i and it revealed that the Hawai’i Tourism Authority and the four island counties adopted new management and collaborative approaches and measures of success to rebuild, redefine, and reset the directions of tourism. Further research may explore additional Pacific Island countries to gain a deeper understanding of the problem within the region’s context.</p> 2024-03-11T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 International Conference on Tourism Research Gender Perspectives on the Service Quality of Low-Cost Hotels 2023-11-03T19:59:33+00:00 Precious Ezeh Ikechukwu Ezeuduji <p>Service sector has recently become quite important to the global economy. The Nigerian government and numerous public sector investors are developing infrastructure and implementing sound business plans to take advantage of the hospitality industry's enormous potential in the service sector. However, due to the intense competition in the marketplace and the hospitality sector's rapid development, many businesses have felt pressure to distinguish themselves from rivals through superior customer service. Despite the level of competition among the low-cost hotels, most of the low-cost hotels in Nigeria still lack marketing concepts to attract guests. Previous studies on SERVPERF (service performance) model focused on other classes of hotels, neglecting low-cost hotels. Thus, this study analysed the SERVPERF dimensions regarding guests' satisfaction in low-cost hotels, from the demographic perspective (gender). Five undergraduate students received authorization from low-cost hotels to collect research data with the assistance of hotel employees. Each of the five survey teams consisted of a hotel employee who speaks and understands Hausa language (local language) as well as an undergraduate student from Federal University Gusau, Zamfara state, Nigeria. Data were collected from 300 guests at low-cost hotels and analysed through structural equation modelling (SEM). Composite reliability, Cronbach’s alpha and average variance extracted were used to test the reliability and validity of the instrument. It was revealed that assurance positively influenced male guests’ satisfaction, while reliability positively influenced female guests’ satisfaction in low-cost hotels. Furthermore, assurance negatively influenced female guests’ satisfaction. Male guests in low-cost hotels cherish the staff’s expertise and civility, as well as their capacity to instil trust and confidence. They want the hotel employees to make them feel comfortable while the services are being provided. The study’s practical implications are elucidated in this paper.</p> 2024-03-11T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 International Conference on Tourism Research An Importance–Performance Analysis Approach to a Tourism Destination: the Case of Lisbon Metropolitan Area, Portugal 2024-02-12T21:10:16+00:00 João Ferreira do Rosário Filipe Segurado Severino Sandra Nunes Zélia Raposo Santos Teresa Costa Maria de Lurdes Calisto <div> <p class="px-4"><span lang="EN-GB">Pull factors, the attributes of a specific location, matter in tourism. These factors encompass the distinctive characteristics and alluring features that attract tourists to a destination, their importance and performance influencing the decision-making process and overall experience. A clear comprehension of this concept is crucial for destinations' economic vitality as they compete for tourists and strive for economic expansion and employment prospects. Indeed, an in-depth knowledge of these factors' importance and performance underscores the need for regions to adjust their approach to evolving tourist preferences. This adaptation is crucial to fostering responsible and sustainable tourism practices that safeguard cultural and natural resources. However, besides learning about the factors considered critical by tourists to visit a location, it is paramount to analyse how they evaluate the performance of each of these factors while staying there.</span><span style="font-size: 0.875rem;">This study focuses on the Lisbon Metropolitan Area (LMA), Portugal, and the findings will provide essential insights into destination competitiveness, sustainable tourism development, and the creation of unique travel experiences. As a destination that gained popularity, attracting tourists from all over the world, it is necessary to comprehend the specific factors that contribute to this vibrant region's allure and how it performs regarding them. The research will use the Importance-Performance Analysis to make data interpretation accessible and suggest relevant measures to improve competitiveness based on optimising the allocation of resources among the various factors/attributes analysed. The research incorporates numerous criteria categories, including historical significance, urban appeal, natural scenery, culinary experiences, cultural heritage, and aspects like streets' cleanliness, transport availability, or health emergency infrastructures. </span><span style="font-size: 0.875rem;">The study's conclusions will impact Lisbon region's (LMA) tourism and destination management. By understanding what factors are more important for tourists that visit the area and their evaluation of the performance of each of these factors, stakeholders can improve marketing, infrastructure, and the visitors' experience to promote sustainable development and maintain Lisbon's standing as a top tourist destination for rewarding and enlightening experiences. Relevant data is also provided to inform future tourism initiatives. This study adds to the academic discussion of location competitiveness and unique travel experiences.</span></p> </div> 2024-03-11T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 International Conference on Tourism Research Accessible and Inclusive Tourism: The Hotel Industry in Porto – The InterContinental Porto, Palácio das Cardosas 2024-03-08T15:32:04+00:00 Ana Ferreira Marta Villares <p>Porto is internationally renowned for its hospitality. A city that knows how to welcome, a tourist destination that excels in hospitality, according to the opinion of millions of tourists who visit us every year. Tourism, on its side, has become increasingly specialised to respond to a growing demand for unique, sustainable and accessible experiences for everyone. In recent years we have been faced with the demands of different and new markets. According to a study by, 54% of travellers in 2023 will choose to travel as a family, with the aim of reuniting the various members. This multi-generational market is very challenging as it includes different age groups in the same group with different motivations and needs, needs that can be special. In addition, physical and mental disabilities are increasingly present, such as limited or reduced mobility, visual and/or hearing impairments, learning difficulties caused by long-term illnesses, in a general way, target public with specific needs to which the tourist offer must be adapted. These new demand requirements should therefore be considered a central point in the discussion of accessible and inclusive tourism. As the hotel industry is a fundamental pillar of tourism, there is an increasing need to rethink its approach in terms of offer.In this article we will present the Intercontinental Porto - Palácio das Cardosas Hotel as an example of this new way of looking at tourist services, making a significant contribution to affirming Porto as an accessible and inclusive destination.</p> 2024-03-11T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 International Conference on Tourism Research A Western Cape Food Tour: Examining Indigenous Foods in Eateries Through the Lived Experience Model 2024-02-03T07:33:33+00:00 Hennie Fisher Gerrie Du Rand <p>Drawing attention to indigenous foods is economically advantageous for local communities growing plants to sell to the food industry, to promote food tourism and establishing alternative food systems characterised by lower costs, lessened environmental impact, and local availability. There is evidence that indigenous land stewardship could reinforce indigenous food sovereignty by recovering indigenous foods that could disappear. Although South African cuisine is not globally recognised as an ethnic cuisine, interest in it is growing, as its recent 52nd ranking (out of 100) on the global cuisine rankings for 2023/2024 shows. Increasing understanding, availability, and celebration of indigenous foods in commercial eateries is therefore critical, along with an understanding of their sociocultural contextuality. Lived experience was the predominant guiding methodological model for this research. The researchers used qualitative phenomenological reporting to present their first-hand lived experiences, along with knowledge gained through meaning making of indigenous and heritage foods. Although this model has been criticised for methodology slurring, attention to academic rigour (in line with Husserl and Heidegger’s applied philosophical viewpoints) ensured that the knowledge gained was grounded in the researchers’ own experiences. The researchers report key insights and meaning making from their eating experiences and indigenous foods found during a food tour from 17 to 22 September 2023, along a predetermined road route within the Western Cape province of South Africa. This research contributes to the unique application of lived experience within the hospitality and tourism environments, and particularly the application of IPA (Interpretive Phenomenological Analysis) to assess participants’ ways of making meaning of indigenous food offerings found in eateries in detail.</p> 2024-03-11T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 International Conference on Tourism Research The Socio-Economic Impact of a Major Cultural Event in Cape Town During and Post-Pandemic Era 2023-12-28T20:43:07+00:00 Janice Hemmonsbey Elhaam Abrahams Hilary Kennedy Nji Bama Gift Muresherwa <p>This study sought to consider the socio-economic impacts of the Cape Town Carnival, given the significant impacts impinged on the event’s exponential socio-economic potential in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. During the period 2020 and 2021, the event was suspended as the world grappled with mobility-restricting and other pandemic-related regulations, which grounded almost all social and economic activities. Through strategic planning and innovative efforts by the event’s organisers to curtail the pandemic’s impact, a reimagined format was conceptualised in 2022, while a post-pandemic version returned in 2023, explorations of which form the focus for the current study. Relying on CTC pre-pandemic socio-economic impact studies, pandemic, and post-pandemic era empirical investigations of 800 spectators provided data for socioeconomic impact exploration. SPSS version 29 software was utilised in the analysis and exploration of variable relationships in the collected data. The findings of the study suggest that spectators displayed positive perceptions of the socio-economic benefits of the CTC relating to job creation, tourism revenue generation, and community empowerment. The negative impact of the pandemic on the CTC's ability to deliver these benefits was acknowledged. The study highlights the importance of mitigating the negative effects that come with unprecedented events such as COVID-19 through the development of resilience strategies including adaptation, diversification of revenue streams, development of new partnerships, and investment in community engagement opportunities. The study recommends the need for a qualitative inquiry exploring stakeholder insights with key stakeholder groups to assimilate socio-economic objectives for the event for comparative purposes. Additionally, a deeper investigation into specific sectors, such as accommodation, catering, and local businesses is recommended for a more holistic view on the socio-economic impacts while a participant survey is suggested to determine the aspects of job creation and innovation, as envisioned by the objectives of the CTC.</p> 2024-03-11T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 International Conference on Tourism Research Wildlife Volunteer Tourism: Scientific and Educational Contributions in South Africa 2024-02-21T04:35:45+00:00 Uwe P Hermann Charmaine D De Klerk <p>Wildlife volunteer tourism has evolved into a popular form of sustainable tourism in South Africa. This form of tourism can exhibit both positive and negative impacts on a host destination. However, limited research has examined the potential contributions of wildlife volunteer tourism in South Africa. This paper focuses on filling this theoretical gap by investigating the scientific and educational contributions of wildlife volunteer tourism in South Africa. An exploratory qualitative approach was followed, where seven managers of volunteer tourism organisations were interviewed in August and September 2022. Thematic analysis was used to analyse the data. From the results, it is clear that wildlife volunteer tourism makes significant scientific and educational contributions. However, funding remains a challenge. The results provided an increased understanding of wildlife volunteer tourism in South Africa, and is valuable to managers, and contributes to the current discourse on volunteer tourism as an emerging market segment.</p> 2024-03-11T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 International Conference on Tourism Research Sustainability practices in the Hospitality Industry: Evidence from Chain Hotels in Kandy 2024-01-17T06:56:07+00:00 Janith Iddawala Binuri Mehara Welengoda Banudee Thisali Rathnayaka <p>The tourism and hospitality industry has typically been at the forefront of integrating sustainability practices in its overall operations globally. Nonetheless, there has been a continued paucity in the tourism and hospitality academia, with limited research being conducted on adopting sustainable practices and their impacts on developing tourism destinations. Therefore, this research primarily focuses on exploring the current context of sustainability practice adoption and its implications from the perspective of a developing tourism destination through a case study research based in Kandy, Sri Lanka. This research initially builds on the works of Mihalič, Žabkar, &amp; Cvelbar (2012), where their Hotel Sustainable Business Model is used as a benchmark in exploring the sustainability practices within Kandy, Sri Lanka. This study employed a qualitative research methodology, where semi-structured interviews were conducted with eleven senior managerial employees representing 11 chain hotels in Kandy, Sri Lanka, selected through a purposive sampling. The interview findings were further validated using participant observation facilitated through individual field visits across all chosen establishments in the sample. The key results of the research suggested that hotels in Kandy, Sri Lanka, had already adopted a wide array of sustainability practices, especially across the environmental and socio-cultural bottom lines of their operation. The findings further suggested that despite all hotels emphasizing their economic progression, most practitioners had a limited understanding of how economic indicators related to their sustainability commitments. The overall findings also indicated that hotels belonging to larger hotel chains had a greater tendency to implement sustainable practices, while hotels belonging to smaller ones showcased significant inconsistencies in their overall sustainability practice adoption. Furthermore, this research provided theoretical and practical implications for future researchers and local hospitality practitioners by providing a comprehensive overview of the current context of sustainability practice adoption in Kandy, Sri Lanka.</p> 2024-03-11T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 International Conference on Tourism Research Regulatory Performance of Tourist Hunting and Legal Game Meat Trade in Tanzania 2024-01-06T12:46:10+00:00 Reuben M.J. Kadigi <p>Recently, the government of Tanzania has legalized the sale of game meat under special rules namely the Wildlife Conservation (Game Meat Selling) Regulations of 2020 as an effort to curb illegal hunting. The regulations mention tourist hunting as one of the sources of commercial game meat. Other sources include resident hunting; wildlife farms/ranches/zoos; and culling, cropping, and control of problem animals. In this paper we examine the performance of tourist hunting, legal game meat in the country, and its regulatory framework from the perspectives of key stakeholders, including both public and private or non-state stakeholders. We use a variant of Likert’s methods of summated ratings and the cumulative ordinal regression model to analyse and compare the opinions of stakeholders. We found that there are still challenges, especially related to sources of wild animals. Operators of game meat facilities find it difficult to source game meat from tourist hunting companies and the latter are not willing to offer the meat to licensed operators of game meat shops. Our results support the hypothesis that authorization of the game meat trade can serve as one of the boldest conservation tools to mitigate illegal poaching if well-planned and regulated. The results of the cumulative ordinal regression model predict an improvement of 42% in the performance of regulatory framework per unit improvement in the procedures for application and registration of game meat selling facilities (p = 0.010). The paper recommends leveraging stakeholders' active engagement and strengthening cooperation between game meat value chain actors and law-enforcement authorities. An innovative participatory model for enforcing game meat sanitary and safety regulations is also recommended to avoid potential health risks to consumers. It underscores the importance of institutional capacity building, awareness creation, and adequate funding in the fight against illegal hunting and game meat trade. In order for the country to be able to achieve sustainable game meat trade in the country, the challenge of limited wild animal sources has to be addressed, possibly by supporting the establishment of privately owned wild animal farms, ranches, and zoos, this also has its own challenges that need to be addressed too.</p> 2024-03-11T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 International Conference on Tourism Research Nation-branding Opportunities Through Sport Mega-events: Tourism Impact from FIFA World Cup in South Africa 2010 and Qatar 2022 2024-03-08T04:13:34+00:00 Brendon Knott Kamilla Swart Othman Althawadi Yara Zeyad Ali <p>Sport mega-events can be powerful agents in the imaging, re-imaging and branding of places, especially for emerging mega-event host nations. South Africa was the first African country to host the FIFA World Cup in 2010 and is a good case of how nation-branding opportunities were leveraged to showcase its global engagement, re-emergence post-apartheid, and its competence as a tourism and mega-event host. Similarly, Qatar’s hosting of the 2022 FIFA World Cup is a region-first for the Middle East. Hosting the World Cup is aligned to Qatar’s strategic leveraging of sport to build a new image, acquire global recognition as a world-class venue for major events, sport sponsorships, and state-of-the-art stadiums. Yet Qatar, like South Africa, was confronted with significant detractors and negative media coverage in the lead-up to its hosting. This paper compares nation-brand perceptions collected from international visitors to the respective mega-events. The studies aimed to identify any changes to these brand perceptions because of their visit to these nations. It utilises the same instrument and method; with the survey instrument for 2010 adapted for Qatar to increase its relevance. A total of 561 (South Africa) and 421 (Qatar) international visitors were interviewed at event and tourist locations, using a spatially based, purposive sampling approach. The findings reveal how visitor perceptions changed in both instances. It reveals nuances in profiling mega-event sport tourists and contrasts expected nation-branding legacies for host nations, especially in emerging nation contexts.&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2024-03-11T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 International Conference on Tourism Research Film Tourism, Creative Process and Territorial Entrepreneurship 2023-11-28T19:43:48+00:00 Eunice Lopes Jorge Simões Eunice Duarte Ana Pacheco Rúben Loureiro <p>Recognition of the potential of film tourism was manifested by deepening knowledge of this market, given the cultural and tourist dynamics developed, but also through the creation of new tourism products specific to this sector. Film tourism, that is, the tourist activity associated with cinema and television, has been of increasing interest for the promotion of territories. In contemporary times, the interconnections between tourism, space, and media have generated interest, recognizing the occurrence of a distinct type of behaviour, activity, and tourist experience associated with this tourist segment that, through creativity, is manifested in academic entrepreneurship. The parameters of film tourism are multidimensional, generating territorial impacts, but also opportunities and challenges associated with the management and marketing of tourist destinations. Film tourism must be looked at, not only from a demand perspective but also from a supply perspective. This is because cinematographic tourism developed from opportunities generated by cinema understood in this study as an agent that induces travel to cultural and tourist destinations. In this study, carried out geographically in the centre of Portugal, the aim is to present a case study related to cinematographic tourism through the mapping of filming and scenarios where film scenes were recorded in heritage resources, in their relationship with the enhancement of cultural and tourist experience. The main objectives of this study include an approach to film tourism as a factor of entrepreneurship in the territory and verifying the importance of film scenarios in heritage resources as factors of attractiveness and cultural and tourist enjoyment. To achieve both objectives, a quantitative analysis was carried out on residents of a territory where film scenes were recorded. The conclusions identify that the recording of filmic scenes encourages interest in heritage and cultural spaces, with a greater dynamization of these spaces for tourist appropriation and, in turn, the incentive to the creative process and territorial entrepreneurship.</p> 2024-03-11T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 International Conference on Tourism Research Social Sustainability: the challenges to the restaurant sector 2024-02-26T12:05:39+00:00 Beatriz Maia susana Silva António Melo <p>The guarantee of sustainable development has been a growing concern in various economic sectors, particularly from the economic and environmental perspective. In a post-pandemic scenario, the restaurant industry was one of the most affected worldwide and had to undergo abrupt changes to remain operational. Thus, this study primarily focuses on addressing the challenges faced by Human Resources Management (HRM) in attracting and retaining employees in the restaurant sector. This research aims to understand the challenges faced in retaining and attracting talent to restaurants and to explore the strategies that should be adopted to ensure the restaurant’s social. It used a qualitative methodology, with 10 (5 female and 5 male, with a mean age of 35 years old) semi-structured interviews with professionals who chose to leave this profession, to ensure a concerted view of the current state of the sector in the north of Portugal. Through thematic analysis of the interviews, the results identified the current difficulties in attracting and retaining employees in the sector, as well as some HRM strategies that can address these challenges. These findings emerged from the themes 'Special Features of the Restaurant Sector' and 'Attraction and Retention Strategies.' The first theme contextualizes and characterizes the sector's reality, arising from four categories: activity context, company type, the COVID-19 pandemic, and turnover factors. Meanwhile, the second theme presents the attraction and retention strategies that HRM in restaurant companies should implement, while also exploring some challenges faced in designing and implementing these strategies in practice. Specifically, recruitment and selection, compensation and benefits, onboarding, integration and socialization, and career management. In conclusion, social sustainability still has little prominence in the restaurant sector. To become more attractive, the restaurant sector needs to invest in better non-monetary benefits, such as flexible working hours, health insurance, professional recognition, training investment, and career advancement opportunities. This study intends to help companies take measures to improve employee satisfaction and also increase talent retention and new employees’ attraction.</p> 2024-03-11T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 International Conference on Tourism Research Cooking Up a Sustainable Future: insights of Circular Economy in the Restaurants 2024-02-20T22:44:07+00:00 António Melo Beatriz Maia Susana Silva susanasilva@esht.ipp Goretti Silva Daniel Azevedo Henrique Camões Carla Melo <p>Restaurants increasingly prioritize promoting sustainability within their kitchen’s operations, focusing their offers on valuing raw materials as a central point of gastronomy, thus highlighting the importance of local, responsible consumption and respect for nature and the environment. The Circular Economy (CE) emerges as a new sustainability paradigm, uncovering valuable opportunities for organizations and customers, in harmony with the environment. This study aims to characterize good sustainable and circular practices in the restaurant sector, understanding how endogenous products can enhance food waste reduction. Through a qualitative methodology, nine semi-structured exploratory interviews were carried out with restaurant experts, to gain in-depth knowledge into sustainable and CE practices used in restaurants. By conducting a thematic analysis, three main themes emerged 'Positioning and Branding,' 'Circular Economy,' and 'Product and Food Waste'. 'Positioning and Branding' covers the evolution of an eco-conscious mindset in organizations, from the inception of sustainable thinking to the imperative for change. It emerges from the categories: ´Organization, actions, and partnerships’, ‘Challenges and success factors’, and ‘Awareness’. The theme 'Circular Economy,' presents circular practices within daily restaurant operations, their understanding of circular concepts, and the progress made in adopting these behaviors. It arises from three categories: ‘Circularity’, ‘Resource Management’ and ‘Transition’. The 'Product and Food Waste' theme addresses concerns related to product and food waste, including supplier selection, innovative gastronomic offerings, and food waste minimization strategies. It is based on the categories: ‘Suppliers and Raw Materials’, ‘Food Waste Minimization”, and ‘Gastronomic Offer’.<br>The findings reveal a growing awareness of the need for sustainability and circular practices in the restaurant sector. Organizations are actively seeking ways to reduce food waste, optimize sourcing, best operating procedures and offer more sustainable menus representing significant progress toward a more sustainable future in the restaurant business.</p> 2024-03-11T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 International Conference on Tourism Research Covid-19 impact on future study choices: Will students consider a tourism qualification post the pandemic? 2024-01-17T10:34:06+00:00 Washington Makuzva Gift Muresherwa <p>The Covid-19 pandemic devastated various industries, with the tourism sector suffering the most. The tourism industry, which relies mainly on the movement of people, was interrupted for several months as governments instituted restrictions and regulations to prevent further spread of the virus. These restrictions put the industry at a standstill, putting much strain on the economy. With businesses closing, many people became unemployed, and those who remained had their salaries and wages reduced. The high unemployment rate in the country, worsened by Covid-19 and other external forces, presented challenges to exit-level tourism students. The current study investigated the effects of the Covid-19 pandemic on the future of studying towards a tourism management qualification. A qualitative research approach was adopted where the exit-level tourism students at a university of technology were purposively selected to participate in semi-structured interviews. Thematic and constant comparative analysis methods were used to analyse the emerging themes and compare the responses from the participants. The study revealed mixed feelings about the tourism management course. While others regretted enrolling to the tourism program, some remained optimistic that the industry would reopen and recover and present better opportunities for them. Prospective tourism industry staff, particularly tourism management students, have become uncertain about the likelihood of getting job opportunities in the industry. This raises a question about how the pandemic has influenced the future of studying tourism management in higher learning institutions. The study contributes to the understudied phenomenon of the impact of the Covid-19 pandemic on influencing future enrolments in tourism courses.</p> 2024-03-11T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 International Conference on Tourism Research Developing and Managing Tourism in the Post Covid-19 Era: Perceptions from Hotel Industry Professionals in Cyprus 2024-02-21T20:38:17+00:00 Nikolaos Boukas Stelios Marneros <p>As in any other part of the world, the COVID-19 pandemic had a huge impact on tourism in the south-eastern island of Cyprus. Indeed, in a turbulent environment with many challenges that Cyprus’ tourism had to face, such as loss of competitiveness, monoculture of tourism, unplanned development, human resources management issues, etc., the pandemic was considered the most significant, that not only led to the halt of tourism activity – and hence, the partial collapse of the industry - for many months, but also brought into the surface several chronic structural problems of the island’s hospitality business, in terms of management. This paper seeks to examine how the tourism sector and more specifically, hotel enterprises in Cyprus handled the crisis and its consequences. To collect the data, exploratory research was utilised through the form of document scanning as well as face-to-face in-depth interviews with representatives of five-star hotels in Cyprus. Findings revealed that the greatest challenge that hotels in Cyprus needed to face during the pandemic era, was the high degree of uncertainty. All respondents stressed the role of the government and its support and emphasized the cooperation between the public and private sectors on the island. The results of the study would be useful for hotel managers to reduce the immediate impact of the crisis and support the long-term recovery of their operations and expansion, of Cyprus tourism, in a sustainable manner.</p> 2024-03-11T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 International Conference on Tourism Research Ethical and Medical Dilemmas of Extreme Tourism 2024-02-26T18:20:54+00:00 Melvin Marsh <p>Originally funded and experienced by millionaires and billionaires willing to spend hundreds of thousands or even millions for an extreme adventure where previously only explorers and scientists previously dared to go, extreme environment (i.e. polar, tundra, desert, space, space analog, deep ocean, mountaineering, nuclear meltdown sites etc.) tourism is becoming more common allowing more people to be exposed to increased dangers and risks that such tourists will be exposed to.&nbsp; Some of those risks might be relatively minor such as possibly minor motion sickness.&nbsp; Other risks, however, could include serious injury, such as in the case of the Titan submarine which imploded on a tour to the Titanic in June 2023, death. &nbsp;The disaster, caused primarily by cost cutting measures and disregard of the danger from the company running the tour, which caused all 5 people on board to be killed instantaneously.&nbsp; This presentation and paper will expand on previously published work on the medical and ethical dilemmas of space tourism as well as include an additional focus on tourism to other extreme environments including the neonate industry of space analog tourism where individuals pay to participate in a space analog mission at a hefty fee while potentially contributing or disrupting the legitimate scientific research going on such missions while still exposing themselves to additional risk which they might be unsuited for.&nbsp; Further, this will discuss a few of the lesser known risks and concerns that have come more recently to light as well as a discussion as to not only if adults should be able to ethically, morally, and legally consent for their children during these high risk activities but whether or not, given the human brain does not fully develop until a person is in their mid-20s, how old should a person be in order to adequately understand and appropriately balance the risks and requirements of an extremely dangerous environment and be able to fully consent to the tourism venture’s risks.</p> 2024-03-11T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 International Conference on Tourism Research Leveraging Major Sport Events’ Success Towards Positioning Qatar as a Sport Tourism Destination 2024-03-11T11:57:17+00:00 Mohammed Yaqot Brenno Menezes Kamilla Swart <p>Through substantial investments in the sports sector, Qatar has solidified its position as a prominent global sport events destination. Notably recognised for hosting the monumental 2006 Asian Games, this marked the inception of Qatar's evolution into a hub for sport tourism. Since then, Qatar has successfully hosted several large-scale international sporting events, culminating in the historic hosting of the 2022 FIFA World Cup. This trajectory continues with Qatar securing bids for forthcoming events such as the 2027 FIBA Basketball Cup and the 2030 Asian Games. Despite earlier unsuccessful bids for the Olympic and Paralympic Games in 2016 and 2020, Qatar remains committed to upholding its exceptional hosting legacy. This study seeks to discern the critical dimensions contributing to successful hosting and their broader impact on the host country. Drawing insights from a critical review of past events, including comparative analyses with FIFA World Cups from 2022, 2018, and 2014, this research aims to identify common key indicators and their influence on local communities. By discerning these elements, the study endeavours to craft a roadmap for hosting major sporting events, addressing challenges, and leveraging supporting factors. The outcomes will offer prospective agendas and recommendations intended to bolster Qatar's strategic positioning as a competitive international sport tourism destination. For aspiring nations like Qatar, these large-scale sporting events serve as catalysts for sustainable impacts that transcend the event itself.</p> 2024-03-11T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 International Conference on Tourism Research The limited hospitality career knowledge of learners In Township High Schools, Cape Town 2024-02-27T18:41:00+00:00 Celiwe Anathi Menze Tshinakaho Nyathela-Sunday <p>The hospitality sector contributes positively towards the SDG’s by addressing youth employment and economic challenges, specifically in South Africa. Therefore, awareness and knowledge regarding careers and opportunities that are available within the hospitality industry are vital. As a result, high schools are encouraged to incorporate the relevant knowledge about careers within the curriculum. Hence, this paper reports on the level of hospitality knowledge of high school learners in Cape Town townships. This was a cross-sectional study that followed a quantitative approach, whereby data was collected using questionnaires. Respondents were 720 pre-matric (Grade 11) learners who attended school in townships. Data were analysed using the Number Cruncher Statistical System (NCSS) 9. Thirty-seven per cent (37,2%) of the learners indicated that they received information about the hospitality industry through various platforms . The findings above are substantiated by the results that indicate that most learners (67.2%) know nothing about the hospitality industry. Furthermore, a few learners (28,5%) indicated to know about the industry. To support this statement, 8,8% mentioned available careers to be within the medical field. The present findings showcase the knowledge gaps that exist at the high school level, and this has a negative effect on the career choice and employment opportunities the hospitality industry offers. This calls for an intervention from higher education and industry to address identified gaps. The findings of the study share valuable insights regarding limited access to hospitality careers. This is a challenge because it hinders knowledge of career and employment opportunities. <br><br></p> 2024-03-11T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 International Conference on Tourism Research A Cybersecurity Collaborative Model: Best Practices Sharing Among South African Tourism and Hospitality Businesses 2024-02-27T18:47:30+00:00 Tapiwa Gundu Nangamso Mmango <p>In an increasingly interconnected digital landscape, cybersecurity has emerged as a paramount concern for South African tourism and hospitality businesses, especially those mostly serving international travellers who depend on online services for bookings and payments. This abstract introduces a comprehensive research study that centres on developing a collaborative cybersecurity model. The primary objective of this model is to facilitate the exchange of best practices among South African tourism establishments, thereby fortifying their collective defences against evolving cyber threats. This research study is based on a systematic literature review that encompasses a diverse array of tourism and hospitality businesses, including hotels, travel agencies, and tour operators. The study delves into existing collaborative initiatives, explores the perceived advantages of information sharing, and examines the challenges that may hinder the effective implementation of collaborative cybersecurity practices. The literature highlighted numerous cybersecurity risks associated with these types of businesses but also revealed a common shortage of dedicated cybersecurity resources and expertise. Collaborative models are regarded as a promising avenue to address these deficits. Businesses actively participating in collaborative networks report tangible benefits, including improved threat intelligence, cost-effective cybersecurity solutions, and enhanced capabilities for incident response. The outcomes of this research endeavour aspire to offer practical insights and actionable recommendations for South African tourism and hospitality businesses, policymakers, and industry associations seeking to cultivate a culture of cybersecurity collaboration. Ultimately, the collaborative model advocated herein contributes to the creation of a more secure online environment for local and international tourists visiting South Africa. This, in turn, safeguards the reputation and long-term sustainability of the tourism and hospitality sector in the country.</p> 2024-03-11T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 International Conference on Tourism Research Unlocking the Potential of Hybrid Learning: Tourism Student Voices in South African Universities of Technology 2024-03-06T11:17:06+00:00 Pavla Mokoena Christiaan Hattingh <p>This article examines the impacts the pandemic learning environment had on student learning and wellness, and how rethinking higher education (HE) design could bolster the improved student well-being. In the wake of Covid-19, academia is searching for some “normalcy” which requires a critical review of the suitability of current structures, as policy design struggles with the possibilities of a hybrid approach to pedagogic delivery. The body of knowledge on blended/hybrid learning design requires the student voice, in cold face experiences of pandemic-induced academic evolution, to get closer to discovering a model that benefits both teaching and learning. The unearthing of possible unrealised disruptions to the learning environment, affecting social, personal and cognitive presence. A sequential explanatory study that included the collection of quantitative survey data, and qualitative focus group interviews was conducted. The census enquiry of tourism management students at three universities of technology in South Africa was concluded online, as per remote learning requirements at the height of the pandemic. Study results indicate that remote learning during the Covid-19 pandemic impacted negatively on student learning and mental health at universities of technology (UOTs) in South Africa. Student data indicated that even through strict pandemic regulations, the university campus life morphed, and did not die.&nbsp; Students gravitated towards parts of the campus considered soothing, with proper internet access, arguing for a holistic, sustainable university architecture that bolsters learning and student support. HE institutions need to further consider the role and design of university architecture for hybrid/blended learning, with a user-focused perspective.</p> 2024-03-11T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 International Conference on Tourism Research The integration of Graduate Attributes within the hospitality management curriculum at higher education institutions 2024-02-24T20:11:40+00:00 Ngizimisele Mosho Tshinakaho Nyathela-Sunday Oswald Mhlanga <p>South African institutions of higher learning are responsible for producing graduates who are well-prepared for the demands of the world of work. To meet this imperative, universities have adopted the use of graduate attributes (GAs) to develop and showcase their graduates’ skills and competencies. Furthermore, the current economic landscape places pressure on universities to produce highly skilled and employable graduates. Despite the recognised significance of GAs, lecturers often encounter difficulties when attempting to integrate them into the curriculum. The problem (gap), however, is that lecturers find it difficult to integrate these GAs for various reasons, including a lack of comprehensive understanding, effective teaching methods, and reliable assessment strategies of GAs. Moreover, the absence of structured training programs for lecturers on how to integrate GAs into the curriculum is a hindrance to the GAs’ successful implementation. This paper aims to determine the extent to which the GAs have been implemented within the hospitality curriculum in South Africa. A desktop review study was conducted and analysed according to identified themes. The findings propose developing the framework, a guiding tool, that will enable academic institutions to integrate GAs into their curriculum.</p> 2024-03-11T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 International Conference on Tourism Research Challenges and Opportunities Facing Ecotourism in Sub-Saharan Africa from Climate Change Desertification 2023-12-05T16:53:58+00:00 Thomas Mullikin <p style="font-weight: 400;">This study explores one aspect of the macro-atmospheric phenomenon of amplified climate change that is causing significant micro manifestation challenges in one of the most fragile ecosystems on earth, sub-Saharan Africa. The micro manifestation of desertification impacts humans, flora, and fauna all of whom already struggle to survive in these areas. Desertification in turn effects ecotourism. Desertification is a type of land degradation in which biological productivity is reduced and where fertile areas become arid. Desertification causes the loss of vegetation and food for livestock and humans and a decrease in drinking water reserves. Our examination researches the extents of desertification in the area and the effect it is having on ecotourism. We explore the strategies for proper ecotourism management and planning that are being utilized to offset these effects and explore how these strategies can and are being utilized to offset these effects and even supply numerous economic resources for government, private sector, and local groups to help improve living conditions and quality of life. Ecotourism in these unique ecosystems that are impacted by climatic changes provide a meaningful opportunity to enhance the lives of host communities and protect the environment. During a recent visit to Namibia, I found residents who are utilizing innovative strategies such as solar energy, rainwater collection and other innovations to protect the ecosystem, wildlife and environment and allow them to continue to continue to host ecotourists and provide services. Resources for ecotourism in deserts are made of the mutual effect of topography, climate, water, wildlife, plant type and density. Previous studies have shown that if ecotourism is properly managed and planned, it has the potential for numerous economic resources for the local community. We examine the extent of desertification in these semi-arid deserts, the planning and management of ecotourism activities, and the role that education of these ecosystems could provide for additional economic resources and ecological protection. </p> 2024-03-11T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 International Conference on Tourism Research Sustainable Tourism Practices in the Post-Covid Era: Lessons from Southern Africa 2024-02-05T14:00:19+00:00 Gift Muresherwa Washington Makuzva Cynthia Nokubonga Dube <p>For several decades, the southern African region, with its diverse natural and cultural attractions, has been an uninterrupted prime destination for sustainable tourism. However, the devastating Covid-19 pandemic presented severe challenges to the global tourism industry, crippling several businesses. The effect was more pronounced especially in the global south, including southern Africa which is confronted by a multitude of challenges. Meanwhile, this crisis presented opportunities for the adoption of sustainable tourism practices in the post-Covid era. This paper provides insights into sustainable tourism practices in the post-Covid era, drawing lessons on how the southern African region survived the crisis. The paper discusses the concept of sustainable tourism and its importance in the post- Covid era. Furthermore, it explores the impact of the pandemic on the tourism industry in southern Africa and the need for sustainable tourism practices. Sustainable tourism practices that have been adopted in the region, such as community-based tourism, eco-tourism, and responsible tourism are discussed. This paper highlights the lessons that can be learned from sustainable tourism practices in southern Africa in the post- Covid era. These lessons can be applied globally to promote sustainable tourism and ensure the resilience of the tourism industry in the face of future crises.</p> 2024-03-11T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 International Conference on Tourism Research eSports events, the good, the bad and the ugly, from a parent’s perspective. 2024-01-09T19:28:27+00:00 Rosa-Anne Naudé-Potgieter Nosiphiwo Mahlangu <p>eSports events in the form of tournaments are a relatively new occurrence in South Africa. Therefore, it is vital to understand this form of entertainment, the events hosted, and the perspectives of participants and spectators. A pilot qualitative study was undertaken at a local school that hosted an interschool eSports tournament event. The study focused on the parents of minor eSports participants to gauge their perspective of the eSports events hosted, the advantages and disadvantages of participating in these events, and their actual experience of the hosted event. Out of a population of 20 parents who attended the event, six parents consented to be interviewed. Findings have been made on topics such as the addiction of minors to eSports gaming, why minors participate in eSports, the advantages and disadvantages of eSports gaming, and what parents want from eSports events. The findings of this study will direct eSports stakeholders on how to improve on offered eSports events, and inform them of the views of stakeholders. The tourism industry should take note of this newly emerging type of event, which could be a catalyst for South African events as the hub for Africa eSports events. &nbsp;&nbsp;</p> 2024-03-11T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 International Conference on Tourism Research Experiential marketing and purchase intention of ecotourism experiences - Z-Generation case 2024-01-17T21:19:59+00:00 Sónia Nogueira Marília Durão Luís Pacheco Makhabbat Ramazanova João Carvalho <p>Consumers are more willing to invest in experiences with relaxation and stress reduction. Tourism, a pivotal driver of the economy, and its associated activities hold significant potential for experiential marketing. It is particularly evident in the growing interest of tourists in natural settings and experiences related to nature, fostering an environment conducive to the expansion of ecotourism. Consequently, an exploratory study was conducted with the following research question: How does experiential marketing relate to consumer satisfaction, loyalty, word-of-mouth, and intention to purchase ecotourism experiences, explicitly focusing on Generation Z? - The results indicate positive correlations between experiential marketing and satisfaction constructs, consequently establishing a link between satisfaction, loyalty, word-of-mouth promotion, and purchase intention. Thus, the findings provide valuable insights into the behaviors of ecotourism consumers and how experiential marketing can facilitate the development of more effective marketing strategies to enhance tourist satisfaction.</p> 2024-03-11T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 International Conference on Tourism Research Religious Pilgrimages in South Africa: A Catalyst for Sustainable Tourism and Local Economic Development 2023-11-15T08:54:29+00:00 Linda Nompumelelo <p>Sustainable tourism and local economic development as a mechanism for religious pilgrimages in KwaZulu-Natal (KZN). This is particularly pertinent for religious pilgrimages in KZN province which boosts historical landmarks and pilgrimage destinations. Pilgrimage tourism and several other forms of tourism related to it have significant affinities to the tenets of sustainable development. The purpose of this paper is to examine the complications that could arise from religious pilgrimages' potential as a form of travel that, once implemented, would be beneficial for sustainable tourism and local economic development (LED). This paper further intends to assess the pilgrimage destinations to be viewed as a mechanism for local economic development. A quantitative research design was employed, as the nature of this research necessitates the use of numerical data and descriptive statistics to draw conclusions. A standardised questionnaire was used to collect data from 410 respondents selected using a convenience sampling technique from different pilgrimage destinations in KZN, South Africa. Descriptive, bivariate, and multivariate analyses were conducted using IBM’s SPSS version 28 software. The pilgrims and local communities’ perceptions of socio-economic contribution indicate that the availability of tourism facilities might be perceived as a socio-economic contributor to pilgrimage destinations. The findings further reveal that African religious pilgrimages can be sustainable and be a local economic development catalyst in KwaZulu-Natal. The study recommends that the South African National Christian Forum (SANCF), in collaboration with the South African government (national and provincial), develop an operational plan to provide business education, entrepreneurial skills, and relevant support to local communities surrounding religious pilgrimages or religious destinations, to empower them to contribute to the development of the local economy. This will assist to reduce South Africa's high unemployment rate, particularly in less developed regions.</p> 2024-03-11T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 International Conference on Tourism Research Women Tourism Entrepreneurs in KwaZulu – Natal, South Africa: Capabilities and Challenges? 2023-12-14T11:40:03+00:00 Nompumelelo Nzama Ikechukwu O. Ezeuduji <p>This study conducted in the context of South Africa, aims to explore gender nuances in the performances of tourism-related businesses in the Durban Central Business District, KwaZulu-Natal, with emphases on traditional societal perceptions and access to capital. Questionnaire survey, a quantitative research method, was used to collect data from 150 tourism-related business owners and managers using purposive sampling method. Data was analysed using IBM’s SPSS version 25 software. Descriptive (frequency, mean), bivariate (Spearman’s Rank Correlation (two-tailed) test, Pearson’s Chi-Square test, Mann-Whitney U test) and multivariate (Reliability test using Cronbach’s Alpha) data analyses were applied in this study. Results shows that entrepreneurial performance is influenced by the belief system of the society, marketing capabilities, and the entrepreneur background. Hence, there may be the influence of African traditional societal perceptions on African women entrepreneurs to be more contented than men with the small size of their businesses (because society expects them not to manage large businesses). This study did not make a conclusive finding that gender plays a strong role in differentiating business success or performance. However, the study found that it is somewhat easier for female entrepreneurs to find business start-up capital. Based on this study results, authors recommend that entrepreneurial training and mentorship programmes should emphasise that gender has no role in determining entrepreneurial success. Better optimisation of marketing capability and increased awareness of entrepreneurs regarding sources of business funding, are crucial for business start-ups and success.</p> 2024-03-11T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 International Conference on Tourism Research The Disruption of the Pandemic in the use of Hospitality Establishments and Services in South Africa 2024-03-11T12:54:11+00:00 Tshinakaho Nyathela-Sunday Stanley Lekata Hema Kesa Mosa Selepe <p>The tourism and hospitality sectors were among the most negatively impacted industries during the COVID-19 pandemic. Many studies have reflected on the impact of COVID-19 on the tourism and hospitality industry; however, more needs to be written about the effect on the customers. Therefore, this paper aims to report if COVID-19 has affected the use of hospitality establishments and service customers during and after the lockdown in South Africa. This was a cross-sectional quantitative study. Google Forms were used for data collection using snowball and convenience sampling techniques. Seven hospitality establishment categories (Bed and breakfast, guesthouses, hotels, Airbnb, sit-down restaurants, fast food outlets, and wine farms) and two hospitality services (Catering services and delivery services) participated in the study. Data were analysed using SPSS version 26 and presented using descriptive statistics. Demographic data was introduced to give an overview of all the respondents. Most respondents were female (64%) and Africans (69%). Most respondents were employees (49%), earning salaries ranging between R5000 and R50 000. Most customers indicated that they continued to use these establishments and services during the lockdown and were willing to continue doing so post-lockdown. In terms of salaries versus the categories of establishments, customers who earned less visited establishments the most. However, it was observed that customers who visited restaurants were from all salary ranges (brackets). This indicates that customers always continue visiting hospitality establishments and utilising hospitality services. This affirms the importance of the hospitality industry in the social and economic space.</p> 2024-03-11T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 International Conference on Tourism Research Improving environmental sustainability in Hospitality and Tourism: the key strategies 2024-02-20T17:16:20+00:00 Mónica Oliveira Susana Silva Cândida Silva <p>The Hotel and Tourism Industry has experienced profound changes in recent years and has been one of the sectors most affected by COVID-19.&nbsp; With the return of tourist activity, many companies went back to their normal routines, but the sector has changed dramatically. Tourists have new expectations, needs, and priorities, and sustainability is the one that is most emphasised, particularly when it comes to excessive water consumption, misuse of energy, and poorly utilised waste. The industry has a unique opportunity to recognise the importance of sustainability and define strategies to guarantee customer satisfaction, in symbiosis with environmental concerns and the preservation of the planet for future generations.</p> <p>This study aims to characterise the good strategies and practices for environmental sustainability in Hospitality and Tourism, namely in terms of energy, water, and waste. The purpose is to present the procedures and processes that lead to greater sustainability performance and to accomplish this a focus group was organised, with 2 hospitality stakeholders, 2 environmental groups stakeholders, and 2 VET (Vocational Education and Training) stakeholders, to discuss and identify the main factors directly related to the excessive use of water and energy and the poor treatment of waste and ranked by the participants. The meeting was done face-to-face, lasted 3 hours, and was based on their expertise and good practices. The Hospitality and Tourism Industry is conscious of its ecological footprint, namely in terms of energy efficiency, water conservation, and waste management. Considering energy, some examples were given such as electricity-saving practices, using LED bulbs, occupancy sensors, and automatic light controls. With respect to water, it is mandatory to install low-slip faucets and shower heads, reduce laundry and cleaning, and recycle water that can be reused for irrigation or toilet flushing, reducing the use of fresh water.</p> <p>The research presented contributions to the growing Knowledge on this topic, and the findings propose a straightforward guide for managers in the Hospitality and Tourism industry. Further research is endorsed to reinforce the value of environmental sustainability and to involve a greater range of stakeholders with different profiles in the sector. &nbsp;</p> 2024-03-11T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 International Conference on Tourism Research Entrepreneurship, Tourism, Local Fashion, and Curriculum Development: A South African study 2024-03-04T12:26:38+00:00 Sweta Patnaik <p>Entrepreneurship stands as a pivotal force in our modern landscape, with an array of business opportunities beckoning young individuals. It is imperative that institutions, enterprises, and decision-makers recognize and harness the entrepreneurial potential of the youth. In an age defined by technological advancements and innovation, young people are uniquely equipped to seize these opportunities. Many of the emerging businesses in today's knowledge-driven society bear testament to this phenomenon, a fact underscored by the ongoing global crisis. In South Africa, the cultural and creative industry shines as a beacon of economic potential, ranking among the most vibrant sectors. Given this backdrop, it is prudent to explore avenues for nurturing enterprises within the realm of culture, creativity, fashion, and tourism. Furthermore, it is essential to consider the roles of educational institutions in offering incentives and support for the initiatives of young entrepreneurs venturing into these domains. These institutions play a crucial role in dismantling the obstacles that often hinder the smooth establishment and development of such enterprises. This paper significantly contributes to the existing body of knowledge by presenting empirical evidence that aligns with entrepreneurial motivation theory, albeit in a more specific context: the entrepreneurship of fashion clothing. Furthermore, it offers insights into the formulation of a fashion and clothing entrepreneurship curriculum, as perceived by university students specializing in clothing and textile studies. This research not only sheds light on the motivations of aspiring fashion entrepreneurs but also informs the design of educational programs that can better equip them to navigate this competitive landscape.</p> <div class="jso-cursor-trail-wrapper" style="position: fixed; left: 0px; top: 0px; width: 100vw; height: 100vh; overflow: hidden; pointer-events: none; z-index: 9999;"> <div class="jso-cursor-trail-shape" style="position: absolute; left: 107px; top: 88px; pointer-events: none; display: none;"> </div> <div class="jso-cursor-trail-shape" style="position: absolute; left: 0px; top: 0px; pointer-events: none; display: none;"> </div> <div class="jso-cursor-trail-shape" style="position: absolute; left: 0px; top: 0px; pointer-events: none; display: none;"> </div> <div class="jso-cursor-trail-shape" style="position: absolute; left: 0px; top: 0px; pointer-events: none; display: none;"> </div> <div class="jso-cursor-trail-shape" style="position: absolute; left: 0px; top: 0px; pointer-events: none; display: none;"> </div> <div class="jso-cursor-trail-shape" style="position: absolute; left: 0px; top: 0px; pointer-events: none; display: none;"> </div> <div class="jso-cursor-trail-shape" style="position: absolute; left: 0px; top: 0px; pointer-events: none; display: none;"> </div> <div class="jso-cursor-trail-shape" style="position: absolute; left: 0px; top: 0px; pointer-events: none; display: none;"> </div> <div class="jso-cursor-trail-shape" style="position: absolute; left: 0px; top: 0px; pointer-events: none; display: none;"> </div> <div class="jso-cursor-trail-shape" style="position: absolute; left: 0px; top: 0px; pointer-events: none; display: none;"> </div> <div class="jso-cursor-trail-shape" style="position: absolute; left: 0px; top: 0px; pointer-events: none; display: none;"> </div> <div class="jso-cursor-trail-shape" style="position: absolute; left: 0px; top: 0px; pointer-events: none; display: none;"> </div> <div class="jso-cursor-trail-shape" style="position: absolute; left: 0px; top: 0px; pointer-events: none; display: none;"> </div> <div class="jso-cursor-trail-shape" style="position: absolute; left: 0px; top: 0px; pointer-events: none; display: none;"> </div> <div class="jso-cursor-trail-shape" style="position: absolute; left: 0px; top: 0px; pointer-events: none; display: none;"> </div> <div class="jso-cursor-trail-shape" style="position: absolute; left: 0px; top: 0px; pointer-events: none; display: none;"> </div> <div class="jso-cursor-trail-shape" style="position: absolute; left: 0px; top: 0px; pointer-events: none; display: none;"> </div> <div class="jso-cursor-trail-shape" style="position: absolute; left: 0px; top: 0px; pointer-events: none; display: none;"> </div> <div class="jso-cursor-trail-shape" style="position: absolute; left: 0px; top: 0px; pointer-events: none; display: none;"> </div> <div class="jso-cursor-trail-shape" style="position: absolute; left: 0px; top: 0px; pointer-events: none; display: none;"> </div> <div class="jso-cursor-trail-shape" style="position: absolute; left: 0px; top: 0px; pointer-events: none; display: none;"> </div> <div class="jso-cursor-trail-shape" style="position: absolute; left: 900px; top: 10px; pointer-events: none; display: none;"> </div> <div class="jso-cursor-trail-shape" style="position: absolute; left: 97px; top: 27px; pointer-events: none; display: none;"> </div> <div class="jso-cursor-trail-shape" style="position: absolute; left: 109px; top: 39px; pointer-events: none; display: none;"> </div> <div class="jso-cursor-trail-shape" style="position: absolute; left: 107px; top: 93px; pointer-events: none; display: none;"> </div> </div> 2024-03-11T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 International Conference on Tourism Research Tourism as a Catalyst for Supporting Sustainable SMME Development 2024-03-04T12:25:02+00:00 Sweta Patnaik Shamil Isaacs <p>Globally, entrepreneurship is evident in the tourism industry, primarily receiving policy support and donor-assisted funding in developing countries. The South African Minister of Tourism reported that foreign direct spend on tourism for the first quarter of 2023 was R 25.3 billion increasing by 143.9% from the same period the previous year. This highlights the amount of tourist footfall that happens in South Africa. This can be seen as a huge boost to entrepreneurs and support rising unemployment. While research in entrepreneurship education has been extensively explored, entrepreneurship within the fashion domain has been largely overlooked, with significantly less existing literature in South Africa. Nonetheless, understanding the role of entrepreneurship in tourism development remains limited in academic discussions. Tourism serves as a crucial source of revenue for any economy, contributing not only from tourism itself but also through various associated industries. This includes locally-made products that attract tourists seeking souvenirs as gifts after their travels. To remain competitive, overcome challenges, and avoid unattractive product offerings, the tourism sector must embrace innovation. This research, conducted using a qualitative approach with university students, engaged with small and medium-sized enterprises (SMMEs) producing souvenirs for tourists, encouraging them to employ innovative and cost-effective methods in their product creation. The study's findings revealed five distinct categories of innovation, namely: product innovation, process innovation, managerial innovation, management innovation, and institutional innovation. Among these, process innovation and product innovation were the most frequently implemented innovations to promote locally-made products in the market.</p> <div class="jso-cursor-trail-wrapper" style="position: fixed; left: 0px; top: 0px; width: 100vw; height: 100vh; overflow: hidden; pointer-events: none; z-index: 9999;"> <div class="jso-cursor-trail-shape" style="position: absolute; left: 435px; top: 59px; pointer-events: none; display: none;">&nbsp;</div> <div class="jso-cursor-trail-shape" style="position: absolute; left: 0px; top: 0px; pointer-events: none; display: none;">&nbsp;</div> <div class="jso-cursor-trail-shape" style="position: absolute; left: 0px; top: 0px; pointer-events: none; display: none;">&nbsp;</div> <div class="jso-cursor-trail-shape" style="position: absolute; left: 0px; top: 0px; pointer-events: none; display: none;">&nbsp;</div> <div class="jso-cursor-trail-shape" style="position: absolute; left: 0px; top: 0px; pointer-events: none; display: none;">&nbsp;</div> <div class="jso-cursor-trail-shape" style="position: absolute; left: 0px; top: 0px; pointer-events: none; display: none;">&nbsp;</div> <div class="jso-cursor-trail-shape" style="position: absolute; left: 0px; top: 0px; pointer-events: none; display: none;">&nbsp;</div> <div class="jso-cursor-trail-shape" style="position: absolute; left: 0px; top: 0px; pointer-events: none; display: none;">&nbsp;</div> <div class="jso-cursor-trail-shape" style="position: absolute; left: 0px; top: 0px; pointer-events: none; display: none;">&nbsp;</div> <div class="jso-cursor-trail-shape" style="position: absolute; left: 0px; top: 0px; pointer-events: none; display: none;">&nbsp;</div> <div class="jso-cursor-trail-shape" style="position: absolute; left: 0px; top: 0px; pointer-events: none; display: none;">&nbsp;</div> <div class="jso-cursor-trail-shape" style="position: absolute; left: 0px; top: 0px; pointer-events: none; display: none;">&nbsp;</div> <div class="jso-cursor-trail-shape" style="position: absolute; left: 0px; top: 0px; pointer-events: none; display: none;">&nbsp;</div> <div class="jso-cursor-trail-shape" style="position: absolute; left: 0px; top: 0px; pointer-events: none; display: none;">&nbsp;</div> <div class="jso-cursor-trail-shape" style="position: absolute; left: 0px; top: 0px; pointer-events: none; display: none;">&nbsp;</div> <div class="jso-cursor-trail-shape" style="position: absolute; left: 0px; top: 0px; pointer-events: none; display: none;">&nbsp;</div> <div class="jso-cursor-trail-shape" style="position: absolute; left: 0px; top: 0px; pointer-events: none; display: none;">&nbsp;</div> <div class="jso-cursor-trail-shape" style="position: absolute; left: 0px; top: 0px; pointer-events: none; display: none;">&nbsp;</div> <div class="jso-cursor-trail-shape" style="position: absolute; left: 0px; top: 0px; pointer-events: none; display: none;">&nbsp;</div> <div class="jso-cursor-trail-shape" style="position: absolute; left: 0px; top: 0px; pointer-events: none; display: none;">&nbsp;</div> <div class="jso-cursor-trail-shape" style="position: absolute; left: 515px; top: 102px; pointer-events: none; display: none;">&nbsp;</div> <div class="jso-cursor-trail-shape" style="position: absolute; left: 406px; top: 102px; pointer-events: none; display: none;">&nbsp;</div> <div class="jso-cursor-trail-shape" style="position: absolute; left: 410px; top: 113px; pointer-events: none; display: none;">&nbsp;</div> <div class="jso-cursor-trail-shape" style="position: absolute; left: 412px; top: 121px; pointer-events: none; display: none;">&nbsp;</div> <div class="jso-cursor-trail-shape" style="position: absolute; left: 415px; top: 86px; pointer-events: none; display: none;">&nbsp;</div> </div> 2024-03-11T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 International Conference on Tourism Research Applying the Jobs-to-be-done Framework to understand Hoteliers' Needs on Accommodation Platforms 2024-02-20T20:36:28+00:00 Lydia Christine Penkert Marco Cobus Pretorius <p>When building products, it is important to understand the target audience. User-centric design is the process of building products or services based on the wants, needs and challenges of users. Online accommodation platforms such as online travel agencies (OTAs) and accommodation price comparison platforms have hoteliers as users. Through hoteliers, hotel properties and prices are displayed on their platforms. These online accommodation platforms are important business partners for hoteliers and bring advantages such as increased exposure, higher occupancy rates and lower marketing costs. Understanding the needs of hoteliers is important to online accommodation platforms to inform their Business-to-Consumer (B2C) and Business-to-Business (B2B) products. These insights can help create tailored user experiences and solutions that cater to the distinct needs of independent hotels.</p> <p> </p> <p>Increasingly, organisations are including UX research in their software design and development process. UX research is the systematic investigation of users and their requirements, to add context and insight into the process of designing the user experience. One framework to understand why people adopt products and services is the Jobs-to-be-done (JTBD) framework. It defines user needs and what they really seek to accomplish as a job in each circumstance. This study presents the application of the JTBD framework for understanding independent hoteliers needs on accommodation comparison platforms in the context of creating visibility and generating bookings. The framework and its benefits are described, along with a variety of different industry cases where the JTBD framework has successfully been applied. The focus of this study lays on the research methodology, process, challenges and impact of applying the JTBD framework in the B2B area in the online travel industry. A foundational research project was conducted from January to May 2023 where the research goal consisted of identifying a series of needs and pain points from hoteliers that represent business opportunities while also providing a benefit for travellers. Recruited hoteliers consisted of convenience and random sampling of customers and non-customers. To answer those questions, JTBD qualitative interviews with independent hoteliers were conducted to generate insights for creating a comprehensive JTBD Map. A JTBD Map is a visual depiction to clarify the job users are trying to get done in a specific context, including respective process steps, desired outcomes and pain points. The JTBD framework helped the product development team, across different job profiles, to have a shared understanding of hoteliers’ needs. The framework was applied on both B2C and B2B product development areas. The framework also helped to identify areas where deeper UX Research was needed. Stakeholders were able to assess the different jobs and conclude which ones to focus on. The results of this study are specifically of value for practitioners and academia in the travel industry and have implications for Product, UX and Research practitioners.</p> 2024-03-11T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 International Conference on Tourism Research Voluntourism in the Context of Community-Based Tourism, and Regenerative Tourism: A Theoretical Exploration Focusing on Responsibility 2024-01-08T14:29:46+00:00 Rositsa Röntynen Minna Tunkkari-Eskelinen <p>The paper examines the theoretical interconnection between the concepts of voluntourism, community-based tourism, and regenerative tourism. Voluntourism, widely criticized for its implementations unethical towards local environment and community, is re-evaluated in the light of community-based and regenerative tourism principles including unequal power dynamics and questionable long-term benefits to host communities. This paper claims that re-imagining voluntourism within the framework of regenerative tourism offers a new perspective. Regenerative tourism, characterized by its commitment to restoring, revitalizing, and enhancing the wellbeing of both natural environments and local communities, can serve as a guiding principle for voluntourism programs. Community-based tourism is integral to this theoretical exploration, as it emphasizes local participation, cultural and natural preservation, and economic empowerment. When voluntourism aligns with community-based tourism principles, it shifts its focus from short-term, self-serving actions to responsible community-driven initiatives. By channelling the motivation and resources of volunteers towards community-led regenerative initiatives, voluntourism can contribute to positive, lasting impacts. Ethical reflection is done within the actors only. This paper is theoretical; however, its purpose is in the pragmatism of tourism concept development. It concludes to enhance the understanding of voluntourism's potential to transition from a problematic form of tourism to an ethical and responsible force for change. By reconciling voluntourism with the principles of regenerative tourism and community-based tourism, this paper aims to provide a theoretical foundation for the development of more responsible and sustainable tourism practices. In doing so, it strives to contribute to the theoretical knowledge surrounding alternative and socially sustainable tourism concepts.</p> 2024-03-11T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 International Conference on Tourism Research Host Scaling and Revenue Management: Is there a link? 2024-02-20T16:29:43+00:00 Ruggero Sainaghi Graziano Abrate <p>This study explores how a revenue management capability can be created by Airbnb hosts and the role played by their degree of professionalization, defined as the number of listings (apartments) the hosts manage. Considering the explorative nature of this research, a qualitative approach based on interviews has been adopted. The sample includes 55 interviews realized in the Milan destination (Italy). A protocol was created using the four theoretical blocks. These latter identify the main processes of revenue management: i) identifying the required information to establish the revenue management strategy, ii) making strategic and then tactical pricing and revenue management decisions, iii) managing communication with the guests, and iv) making available software dedicated to revenue management. Milan was selected for two reasons: first, is the second leading Italian destination after Rome in terms of overnights. Second, Milan attracts different targets, such as business, leisure, and trade fairs. Therefore, there are continuous changes in off- and on-pick revenue constituting an ideal setting for exploring the creation of a revenue management capability.<br />Three groups of hosts were identified: i) single hosts, ii) hosts managing three to five listings, iii) hosts managing more than 10 listings. Results show strong differences between single hosts and those managing 10 or more listings, explaining why professional hosts are able to extract more value from their listings compared to single hosts. Two theoretical contributions are proposed. First, the research adds to the knowledge about how a revenue management capability (RMC) is created in the context of short-term rentals (STR). The crucial role of professionalization is confirmed, and a complex set of relationships emerge between tangible (such as the presence/absence of a RM software and dedicated staff) and cultural (such as the orientation towards price discrimination and to revenue or price maximization, as well as the approach to guest selection) barriers to RMC. Second, findings can explain why quantitative studies have sometimes shown controversial results on factors affecting price and revenue performance. Interviews with multiple hosts highlighted how they often manage third-party listings based on agreements that include a limit price, reducing the rooms for dynamic and discrimination price, and more generally revenue maximization.</p> 2024-03-11T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 International Conference on Tourism Research Exploring word-of-mouth: The Impact of Social Interaction, Attitudes and Video Ad Design in Tourist Behaviour 2024-03-06T15:59:35+00:00 Sara Santos Maria Vasconcelos Sónia Ferreira Luísa Augusto Pedro Espírito Santo <p>Internet travel advertising shapes and influences consumer behaviour and purchase decisions. The quality and form of the messages conveyed through these advertisements directly impact customer purchasing intent. Considering the information-intensive nature of the tourism industry and the growing significance of online platforms in destination marketing, web-based advertising has emerged as a popular method for promoting travel products to consumers. The initial perception of the destination showcased in the ad, and its presentation can substantially influence social interactions and ultimately affect how information about it is shared among acquaintances, both online and offline. By creating persuasive and captivating ads, marketers have the power to influence consumer behaviour profoundly and arouse their interest in various destinations. Therefore, this study focuses on the interactions between attitude towards the region, advertising design, and social interaction and how these can affect word-of-mouth behaviours in tourism promotional videos. The study collects 906 responses and examines the data using a structural equation model. For this purpose, a quantitative methodology using the SMART-PLS program was used. This study's findings highlight the importance of social interaction in spreading word-of-mouth, emphasising the crucial role of captivating visual design in creating positive associations with the brand. In addition, the mediating role of social interaction has also proved essential in the influence of visual design in ads on the spread of word-of-mouth among video viewers. These results are essential for marketing professionals, providing indispensable guidelines for creating persuasive and impactful content in tourism promotion videos.</p> 2024-03-11T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 International Conference on Tourism Research Tourism Destination Management and Public-Private Partnership Networks: a Literature Review 2024-02-26T16:50:58+00:00 Yesenia Aylen Serruto-Perea <p>The competitiveness of tourist destinations depends on their management and the role played by the actors in this activity. In this aspect, the study proposes, based on the review of research on the management of tourist destinations and public-private institutional collaboration networks, to demonstrate the feasibility of carrying out quantitative studies linking these two variables. The method of descriptive bibliographic review of the main databases was applied to find an approach to the most important research and studies on the subject. In the first place, qualitative inquiries directed to destination management and oriented to public and private networks from 2003 to 2022 were analyzed, observing the linkage between these two categories; where the importance of destination management for competitiveness is led by the different tourism stakeholders of the place, who through public-private networks optimize the performance of the locality. Secondly, quantitative cohort studies are presented where the variables of destination management and private public networks are analyzed from the dimensions and indicators for each one, evidencing that these two constructs lead to a relationship, proposing a model in which the factors of the authors Dwyer framed in the management of tourist destinations and that of Chiappa and Presenza channeled to private public networks are included. It is concluded the existence of a theoretical support on a linkage of these categories oriented to the qualitative and relational approach from the quantitative approach between destination management and private public networks, indicating that their study is relevant for the competitiveness of a tourist destination.</p> 2024-03-11T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 International Conference on Tourism Research Impact of the Pandemic on Event Tourism: The Resilience of Japanese Pop Culture Events 2024-01-13T17:40:20+00:00 Filipe Segurado Severino Francisco Silva <p style="font-weight: 400;">Using a theoretical framework that recognises the pervasive impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on global tourism and events, this study examines the unique complexities of Japanese pop culture events. These events, characterised by their ability to attract large audiences, especially enthusiastic youth, have traditionally flourished through interpersonal interactions. This discrepancy between the interactive nature of events and pandemic-induced measures has necessitated fundamental changes in event management strategies. However, pandemic responses and restrictions contrasted sharply with the nature of these events, posing significant challenges for event organisers. This study analyses qualitative data from seven semi-structured interviews with Japanese theme researchers, journalists, and representatives of the main events on the theme in four countries.&nbsp; The pandemic crisis clearly affected Japanese pop culture events, which were among the most frequently suspended. The interviewees believe that it is easy to return to the normalcy of face-to-face events because the audience for these events is predominantly young and enthusiastic, but this requires adaptations and the care that each country demands. This research sheds light on both the difficulties and setbacks that Japanese pop culture events face, as well as their ability to endure and adjust in response to difficult circumstances. By shedding insight into the complex dynamics and demographic characteristics of these events, it also enables event organisers and policymakers to develop strategies to facilitate the safe and successful recovery of similar events in the future. In addition to connecting with other studies in the event sector, this research contributes to the body of knowledge needed to develop effective responses to unforeseen obstacles by shedding light on exceptional events and their potential resilience pathways.</p> 2024-03-11T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 International Conference on Tourism Research Perceptions and Realities of Lisbon: An Examination of the Image of a Tourist Destination 2024-02-09T12:05:59+00:00 Filipe Segurado Severino Ana Gláucia Roque Margarida Cristina Zélia Raposo Santos Sandra Nunes Teresa Costa <p style="font-weight: 400;">Destination image is related to comprising cognitive, emotional, and conative components and includes an individual's thoughts, ideas, and perceptions of a place. Images consistently coincide with the internalisation of distinct perspectives, demonstrating that people have different perceptions of the destiny. Influences include media, authority figures, music, and movies. Although the experience may not match their initial expectations, these effects form their preconceived beliefs and expectations of a trip. Accordingly, it is important to explore the trustfulness of the positioning of tourist destinations to ascertain its alignment with the expectations of tourists. Given that, Lisbon has been regarded as one of the foremost European cities in recent years, owing to its high level of accessibility and its multifaceted sensory attributes, it was deemed pertinent to investigate the perceptions of the visitors towards the city. The present study used a mixed methods approach, incorporating a multimedia component that showcases various locations in the Lisbon region with open-ended questionnaires to gather the perspectives of the tourists and a closed-ended questionnaire that inquiries about the primary factors that attract visitors to Lisbon. This analysis employed graphical representations, including word clouds and graphics to explore the identified impressions. The research revealed a robust association between cultural, historical, and aesthetic variables and the choice of travel destination. Certain visual representations highlight the imperative of pursuing sustainable and responsible development to mitigate the potential for enduring degradation. This holds significance as certain images are linked to instances of environmental and social irresponsibility. The study also revealed that History and Heritage emerged as the most significant factors that attract individuals, followed by Cultural Attractions, Weather and Climate, Gastronomy, and Panoramic Views and Landscapes. A notable perception exists regarding the insufficiency of sustainability and eco-friendly practices, underscoring the necessity for targeted sustainability endeavours to promote responsible and sustainable development of tourism destinations. Indeed, additional research on the contrast of perception and reality at the location is needed to evaluate the picture provided to visitors. However, understanding tourist-relevant areas like Lisbon is a good foundation for advertising them, allowing various stakeholders to make authentic and valuable marketing decisions.</p> 2024-03-11T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 International Conference on Tourism Research Instagram as a Digital Marketing Tool of a Hotel Brand 2024-02-11T23:10:01+00:00 Cândida Silva Susana Silva Ana Rodrigues <p>Social media marketing is increasingly seen as one of the main ways of communicating with consumers, platforms where visual content is the main form of communication, such as Instagram. The human brain is programmed to not only pay attention to individual resources, but also to the stories that these resources tell. Stories allow humans to relate, inspire, motivate, and often be persuaded, because they mix information with emotion. In marketing, this concept of storytelling focuses mainly on details of a brand's branding. Therefore, although content shared on social networks can reach a large audience, that same content can be abandoned in the same instant, and so marketers must consciously create content that is relevant and interesting to their target audience, that tells the story of the brand and that engage the target audience with the brand. The presence of hotel units on social media, particularly Instagram, is increasingly seen as one of the main tools in the hotel industry's digital strategy. This exploratory study evaluates the role of visual marketing by analyzing how it can impact the performance of Instagram posts from a five-star hotel group brand in the city of Porto, Portugal. 77 Instagram posts were analyzed according to the following categories: day of the week of publication, content creator, engagement dimensions (number of likes, number of comments and number of hashtags), presence of people, topic, visual content analysis method (objects identified and predominant tone), color (description of color and tone) and finally, storytelling (the presence of storytelling in the publication and the type of story). The Google Vision API platform was used to analyze the visual content and color of all the publications collected. This study reveals that hotels should analyze the colors, type of stories, photographic content and topics that have the most positive effect on consumers - making the most of the interaction with consumers, leading them to make a reservation at the hotel. In this sense, the main aspects of visual marketing that are most effective are suggested, in terms of color, topic and storytelling, as well as identifying good visual marketing practices.</p> 2024-03-11T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 International Conference on Tourism Research Tourists’ Luxury Value and Sustainability Perceptions of South African Exotic Leather Products 2024-02-25T20:27:24+00:00 Nadine Sonnenberg Marlien Labuschagne Helena De Klerk <p>Travelling mostly involves expenditure on products beyond daily consumables (i.e. tourism shopping), but sometimes tourists visit a country with the specific intention of acquiring goods unique to that particular context, either for personal or commercial use. This type of “shopping tourism” contributes to the growth of luxury markets such as the exotic leather industry. In stimulating shopping tourism and promoting the local exotic leather industry, it is crucial to understand tourists’ underlying perceptions and sustainable values that influence their luxury shopping behaviour. Using animal skins to create fashion accessories involves several environmental concerns and remains controversial among American and Chinese consumers, who rank among the world’s top luxury goods spenders. This research, therefore, investigated American and Chinese shopping tourists’ luxury value perceptions, sustainability excellence perceptions, and purchase intent for South African exotic leather products. Data was derived from a purposive sample including both American and Chinese tourists, aged 25 years and older, who had either visited South Africa in the past or intended to visit the country soon. A structured online questionnaire consisting of scales adapted from prior empirical research was developed. The English version of the questionnaire was translated into Mandarin and Cantonese for Chinese tourists. Data analysis involved two structural equation models (one based on the American and another on the Chinese tourists’ responses) to test hierarchical relationships among variables. The results confirm that personal luxury value strongly influences sustainability excellence and the purchase intent of exotic leather products for both American and Chinese respondents. These findings highlight the potential of positioning South Africa as a luxury shopping tourism destination for exotic leather products, thus contributing toward economic growth and employment opportunities. However, environmental concerns must be addressed to conform to Eastern and Western tourists' sustainable luxury value perceptions.</p> 2024-03-11T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 International Conference on Tourism Research The Impact of Covid-19 on Consumer Behavior in the Food VS Clothing Sectors 2024-02-05T17:22:12+00:00 Manuel Sousa Pereira António Cardoso Eduarda Graça Ana Leal Alvaro Cairrão <p>The global covid-19 pandemic situation has led to significant changes in consumption habits. Thus, the present work has as its main objective to analyze the impact of the pandemic on consumer behavior at the time of purchase, more precisely in the food and clothing sector. In order to carry out this investigation, we used a quantitative approach methodology, which was materialized in a questionnaire survey, having obtained a sample of 212 individuals. Based on the results, it was possible to identify that the changes that occurred due to the pandemic, indirectly or directly, affected the behavior of consumers at the time of purchase.</p> 2024-03-11T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 International Conference on Tourism Research Tourism and Hospitality Industry Employees' Experiences of Career Shocks and Career Resilience 2024-03-08T15:58:25+00:00 Anne Törn-Laapio Marianne Ekonen Pia Heilmann <p>Employees in the tourism and hospitality industry (THI) have experienced a wide range of sudden changes that have had <br>various impacts on their careers. Career shocks are disruptive and extraordinary events often caused by factors outside the focal <br>individual’s control and that trigger a deliberate thought process concerning one’s career. Although career shocks are usually <br>difficult to predict, we can prepare ourselves in advance by developing career resilience. Career resilience refers to an individual's <br>ability to adapt to new situations, overcome negative ones and recover from changes. Research is exceptionally important, <br>especially from the perspective of the THI, which has suffered from a wide range of crises which have caused a significant decrease <br>in workforce engagement and labour shortages. This research aimed to study the experiences of THI employees in career shock <br>situations and how career resilience has affected these situations. The research questions were: What kind of career shocks have <br>employees experienced during their careers? What kind of consequences have these career shocks had on employees’ careers? <br>How have career shock situations strengthened their career resilience? This study was conducted based on a narrative approach <br>and the data consisted of 30 career narrative writings of the students of the Tourism and Hospitality Management master’s degree <br>programme. A three-phase qualitative inductive content analysis was used as an analysis method. The results suggest that <br>employees have experienced a wide range of career shocks during their careers, partly because the THI and workplaces have been <br>sensitive to change. According to the data, career shocks could be categorised into global, organisational, and individual level <br>shocks. Employees experienced career shocks and their consequences mainly positively. In addition, the experiences of surviving <br>career shock situations strengthened individuals’ career resilience in many ways. This study highlights the importance of <br>understanding individuals' experiences of career shocks and the ways to prevent uncertainty to retain employees in the <br>workplaces and an industry suffering from labour shortages.</p> 2024-03-11T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 International Conference on Tourism Research The Challenges of Tourism Sector Employees in Türkiye: Aegean Region Example 2024-03-08T15:46:51+00:00 Nuray Turan <p>The aim of this study is to reveal the challenges experienced by employees in the tourism sector in Türkiye and to <br>privede suggestions for the remediation of issus.The method of the research is a qualitative research method. Research <br>sample includes 21 tourism employees in the Aegean Region, which is one of the important regions of the tourism sector for <br>Türkiye. A semi-structured interview form has been used for the research. The form contains 6 open-ended questions and 5 <br>demographic variables. Content analysis has been used in the research. According to the results, the most important <br>challenges of employees have become evident as low wage level, long working hours, lack of social-cultural activities, lack of <br>motivation, and insufficient accommodation opportunities in Türkiye. An important point that draws attention here is that <br>the challenges expressed by employees indicate the dimensions of job satisfaction. At this point, it can be said that tourism<br>sector employees have no/insufficient job satisfaction. In this respect, it may be recommended to measure the job <br>satisfaction of tourism sector employees in future research. In order to eliminate or alleviate these challenges, wage policies <br>can be reconsidered and wage increases can be achieved, wage policies specific to the tourism sector can be developed. <br>Regarding the regulation of long working hours, the 4-day working week model is currently implemented in various countries <br>of the world (such as England and Germany). Pilot applications can be made for tourism workers. In addition, social-cultural <br>activities can be organized for employees at regular intervals. Lodgings and houses close to workplaces can be provided by <br>employers to improve accommodation opportunities for their employees. Thus, improving the problems of employees in the <br>tourism sector, which is an important source of income for Türkiye, will increase both the quality of life and job satisfaction <br>of employees.</p> 2024-03-11T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 International Conference on Tourism Research Bleisure Travel Reimagined: Implications for Research 2024-03-08T12:42:51+00:00 Ikechukwu O. Ezeuduji <p>Bleisure (or Business Leisure) travel growth in recent times has meant a greater focus must be placed on the needs of the corporate traveller who wants to indulge in some leisure activities during their trip. For this keynote presentation, the presenter explored current studies on bleisure travel and reimagined business travel as a means to achieve an end, where leisure travel may be the end itself, especially among academics. This notwithstanding, future studies on bleisure travel are needed to not only identify the actual needs or motivations of specific bleisure traveller groups, but also the variables affecting their choices, in a highly dynamic industry. The rise of bleisure travel means travellers who are willing to spend more money and stay longer, which is good news for the travel business.</p> 2024-03-11T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 International Conference on Tourism Research Encouraging Intersectoral Collaboration to Promote Medical Tourism in South Africa 2023-12-16T11:33:40+00:00 Michaelle Deonarain Renitha Ramoersad <p>Rebuilding is a prominent theme in a post pandemic era where economies are looking to attract all opportunities to recover. Tourism has always been a key driver to boost economies particularly in countries which are rich in cultural diversity and natural beauty. South Africa, which already has a thriving tourism industry, has seen an increase in medical tourists who are motivated by the desire to avoid high healthcare costs, long wait times for services and specific procedures that are not offered in their own countries. South Africa's private healthcare system is world-class for medical tourism because it is supported by a thriving medical insurance market. The rise of medical tourism in South Africa has stemmed from synergies formed with the private sector healthcare system because of the growth of tourism. Currently, only private sector hospitals are involved in rendering services related to medical tourism. The current rollout of the National Health Insurance (NHI) poses as an opportunity for the public healthcare sector to also benefit from the revenue generated by medical tourism, however there are challenges that exist that must be alleviated. This paper will begin with an overview of the medical tourism and healthcare sectors in South Africa based on secondary research conducted. Thereafter the empirical data highlighting challenges experienced at selected public central hospitals in South Africa will be presented. The paper will then explore the collaboration potential of the tourism and healthcare industries to overcome the challenges presented. Recommendations will be contributory in highlighting the need for revenue to restore trust in the public healthcare sector and boost medical tourism.&nbsp; The empirical study, through adopting a descriptive exploratory paradigm, emphasises the quantitative method used to gather data from a purposive sample with the use of a questionnaire. Data collected from 322 respondents revealed that the daily challenges, underpinned by a severe lack of funding at the selected public central hospitals in South Africa, inhibit high quality service delivery, making the public healthcare sector an undesirable option for medical tourism.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2024-03-11T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 International Conference on Tourism Research Aspects of Ecosystem Approach in Governing a Tourism Destination 2023-12-12T16:23:02+00:00 Rositsa Röntynen <p>This theoretical study offers an extensive exploration of the ecosystem approach to tourism destination management. Ecosystems have gained prominence in contemporary discourse across various domains, including business and the academic world. The study examines tourism destinations through the lens of a business ecosystem, shedding light on the intricate interplay of elements within such ecosystems. For this purpose, first, the concept of a business ecosystem is defined and delimitated, laying the foundation for its application to the unique context of tourism destinations. Ecosystems, both in biology and in business, are complex and spontaneous structures, which raises profound questions about the feasibility of managing an ecosystem, the responsible entities, and the methods entailed. This paper argues that rather than a traditional management approach, it is plausible to adopt a governance perspective when dealing with the tourism destination ecosystem. By synthesizing existing bibliographical data on the characteristics of the ecosystem, the roles and functions of actors in it, as well as unique attributes of tourism enriching the understanding of the ecosystem approach, the research concludes on the important aspects that could be used for successful governance. This study serves as the initial phase of a broader research endeavor, which overarching goal is to contribute to the socio-economic understanding of tourism management, casting it through the prism of business ecosystems by expanding on these foundational insights and conducting further empirical investigations on particular types of tourism.</p> 2024-03-11T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 International Conference on Tourism Research Bridging the Gap Between Legitimacy and Neutralisation Strategies in Sustainability Reporting 2024-02-02T16:07:52+00:00 Eljas Johansson <p>Amid global sustainability challenges, such as climate change, companies operating in different industries face increasing demands for accountability and transparency. To meet these demands, sustainability reporting (SR) has become a mainstream business practice in communicating companies’ positive and negative sustainability impacts. This short paper aims to increase our understanding of how companies may release negative information while seeking to maintain their legitimacy. For this purpose, the paper bridges the gap between legitimacy strategies, impression management and neutralisation techniques by reviewing their associated literature. The nature of neutralisation techniques and how organisations use them in the SR context is underexplored by scholars. Finally, the paper presents prospective discussions of an ongoing study that examines negative sustainability disclosure in the tourism transportation context, namely the airlines.</p> 2024-03-11T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 International Conference on Tourism Research Indigenous Games as a Catalyst for Sport Tourism Development in South Africa 2024-01-21T10:39:34+00:00 Abenathi Ivy Ntelezi Hilary Kennedy Nji Bama Gift Muresherwa <p>This preliminary study seeks to investigate the role of indigenous games as catalysts for sport tourism development in South Africa. By employing a mixed-methods approach, qualitative data will be gathered through in-depth interviews with key informants, including government officials responsible for cultural affairs, organizers of indigenous games, and various stakeholder groups. Quantitative data on its part will be sourced from residents in host communities and from event participants and spectators. By examining multi-stakeholder perspectives on the phenomenon, the research aims to provide a comprehensive understanding of how indigenous games can be utilised as tools for sport tourism development in South Africa. The anticipated outcomes of the study include insights into the ways indigenous games can enhance South Africa's appeal as a sport tourism destination. Understanding key stakeholders’ perspectives regarding indigenous games could reveal the potential areas of leveraging indigenous games for sport tourism. The implications of this research could be far-reaching, offering guidance to policymakers, tourism boards, and cultural organisations involved in their hosting. By recognizing the value of indigenous games in the broader context of sport tourism, stakeholders could develop strategies to promote sustainable tourism practices, preserve cultural heritage, and foster inclusive economic growth. This study's outcomes should contribute to the ongoing discourse on the intersection of culture, sports, and tourism, emphasising the importance of indigenous games as a unique and underexplored asset in South Africa's sport tourism landscape. Ultimately, the findings could inform initiatives that capitalise on the synergies between cultural heritage and tourism for the benefit of both local communities and the broader South African economy.</p> 2024-03-11T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 International Conference on Tourism Research