International Conference on Tourism Research 2022-05-11T14:29:57+00:00 Louise Remenyi Open Journal Systems <p>5th International Conference on Tourism Research - ICTR 2022<br />19-20 May 2022<br />Vila do Conde, Portugal</p> Editorial, Biographies and Review Committee 2022-05-11T14:16:59+00:00 Cândida Silva Mónica Oliveira Susana Silva <p>Prof. Cândida Silva, Prof. Mónica Oliveira and Prof. Susana Silva</p> 2022-05-11T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 International Conference on Tourism Research Wellness tourism from consumers’ perspective – An exploratory analysis 2022-03-24T16:54:50+00:00 Nasim Hekmat Jorge Marques Joana A. Quintela Makhabbat Ramazanova <p>This paper summarizes the perspectives of health and wellness tourism consumers, to better understand the factors that influence this tourism product. A quantitative approach was adopted to collect primary data through the application of an online survey to effective and potential health and wellness tourism consumers between January and April 2021. Results show that growing number of consumers tend to value health and wellness tourism as a holistic experience, in which not only products specifically related to health and wellness treatments are of particular importance, but also activities related to leisure, recreation and culture. This paper provides a basis of research and analysis for global wellness and tourism industry stakeholders. The aim is to help the industry understand consumer behaviour and preferences in the traveller’s process of choosing a destination for a wellness vacation. This is achieved by predicting wellness tourism trends and developments, by acknowledging the gaps in the research available for understanding wellness tourism and reflecting the experience economy perspective in the sector.</p> 2022-05-13T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 International Conference on Tourism Research Development of a Tourist Information Search Support System that Reflects Interests Based on User's Gaze 2022-03-09T08:01:48+00:00 Taiga Mori Yuko Hoshino Mitsuho Yamada Eriko Ishii <p>In 2014, Tobii Tech and Eye Tribe released the first inexpensive non-contact eye tracking device, and eye tracking technology has been attracting more and more attention. It has long been said that gaze information can be used to infer a person's interests and attention, and the analysis of gaze position by eye tracking technology is also used for Search Engine Optimization (SEO). In addition, with the spread of information and communication technology, the Internet has become the most used media for "obtaining information on hobbies and entertainment," surpassing books, magazines, and television for all age groups except those in their 60s in Japan, The majority of information gathering has shifted to web browsing. As a result, the information gap between those who can use the Internet to collect information and those who cannot use it well, so-called digital divide, has become one of the social problems. Based on these background, we attempted to develop an interaction system that presents search keyword to get related information by using the user's eyes while browsing the web. Based on analysis of user's gaze and accumulation of web pages viewed by each user, this system can provide search keywords that reflect a user's interest, such as Tourism information or history information. We believe that this system can support users' web browsing by assisting them in gathering information on sightseeing and travel, presenting them with unexpected facilities that they did not know about, and making it easy for them to obtain a variety of related information.</p> 2022-05-13T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 International Conference on Tourism Research Pivoting Online: The Case of the Agri-food Sector 2022-04-03T18:06:01+00:00 Ciana Rogers <p>The debate concerning e-Commerce adoption is an evolving one that in the context of the current COVID-19 Pandemic has come centre stage.&nbsp; Although the shift towards e-Commerce platforms has been an increasing trend in recent years, Curtin (2020) states the current pandemic has accelerated consumers’ shifts toward e-Commerce by five years.</p> <p>&nbsp;As store closures and new enforcements became a reality, it forced many companies to pivot their online strategies overnight (Shadler et al, 2020). Since its inception in the late 90’s, e-Commerce adoption and research has championed the rise and the significant benefits of e-Commerce. Industries as diverse as financial, retail, manufacturing, and hospitality (Josanov, 2011; Kremez et al, 2019; Helper and MacDuffie, 2000; Hua, 2016) have embraced e-Commerce. By contrast, research into the use and level of adoption by Agri-food businesses indicates that this sector has not kept pace with this digital revolution. This is surprising given the importance of this sector worldwide. Indeed, it is one of the most important indigenous industries in Ireland in terms of employment, economic output, and export performance. However, there is scarce research found in the case for Irish Agri-food e-Commerce development, with limited industry reports available. Previous research elsewhere called for government support to encourage the move to online territory (Sparkes and Thomas, 2001; Sturiale and Scuderi, 2016), and the onset of COVID-19 furthered this. Numerous support agencies expanded on their current offerings in relation to digital support, although little is known around Agri-food businesses adoption of these.&nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;For this reason, this paper intends to add to the limited studies surrounding this important indigenous industry in Ireland within the widely dynamic topic of e-Commerce platforms. The focus of this paper is directed toward the adoption and integration of these online platforms during COVID-19, the benefits and challenges faced, the role of support agencies and further support suggested by SMEs through survey data. This study has both an academic and industry focus and hence aims to improve our understanding of online activity and digital support within this sector.&nbsp;</p> 2022-05-13T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 International Conference on Tourism Research Developing Tourism–the path out of poverty for Uzbekistan 2022-04-08T12:15:14+00:00 Shahboz Babaev Tony Johnston <p>Ending poverty in all of its forms by 2030 is the top priority goal of the United Nations Sustainable Development Goal (UNSDG). It is well known that the tourism industry can play a vital role in eradicating poverty. While the decline of global poverty is obvious, progress has slowed and even reversed because of COVID-19 and is expected to grow in the coming years. In recent years, tourism development in Uzbekistan has seen unprecedented growth.</p> <p>Modern Uzbekistan history can be divided into two, both with very different political and economical approaches under the presidency of former president Islam Karimov and current leader Shavkat Mirziyoyev. Since 2016, Uzbekistan has begun an unprecedented political, economic and social transformation. The reforms the new president has started have been remarkable and are being seen as an opportunity to unlock the country’s potential. In <em>‘New Uzbekistan’</em>, poverty is a new term following the President’s address to the parliament of Uzbekistan, in which he became the first Uzbek president in history to openly admit the existence of poverty in the country. In Uzbekistan, the population living below the poverty line accounts for about 12 to 15 percent, nearly 4 to 5 million people in the country are living for less than 10 to 13 thousand UZS a month.</p> <p>Considering the challenges the world is facing with climate change, uncertain epidemic situations, countries with conflict (e.g. extremists taking over the government in Afghanistan in 2021), and authoritarian regimes (e.g. Kazakh protests in early 2022), it looks challenging to eradicate poverty by 2030 in Central Asia, particularly in Uzbekistan.</p> <p>This research will initiate an exploration of both the present and potential future impacts of tourism on poverty alleviation in Uzbekistan. The overall aim of the research is to create a model for developing countries to reduce poverty by maximising the benefits of the tourism industry. The academic resources related to the topic of interest are sparse. Most studies seem to focus on tourism only and there is little or almost no evidence on the impacts of tourism on the poor in Uzbekistan. This paper has important implications for academics and proposes practical recommendations which will be beneficial to policymakers and tourism governance.</p> 2022-05-13T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 International Conference on Tourism Research An Examination of the Sustainable and Green Practices of Portuguese Hotels 2022-03-07T16:18:14+00:00 José Ferreira Fernandes Kelly Maguire Luís Lima Santos <p>The concept of sustainability in the hospitality and hotel industry has been the topic of much discussion and debate in tourism and leisure management literature over the last decade. Key industry stakeholders including hospitality and hotel operators, policymakers and DMO’s have been tasked with the challenge of transitioning operations towards more heightened levels of sustainable practice which has stemmed from EU, national and local level policies and guidelines. In Portugal, several strategies and plans have been developed with the aim of improving sustainable practices in hospitality and hotel industry, which focus on developing a more sustainable, competitive, and resilient sector moving into the future. However, there exists a current gap in knowledge in relation to the adoption and utilization of effective tools and models to measure and monitor sustainability performance in the hospitality and hotel industry in Portugal. It has been acknowledged that GDP from tourism in Portugal experienced a 75% drop, with overnight tourist stays in Portugal decreasing to 60% following a period of disproportionate impacts experienced during the COVID-19 pandemic. Such shortfalls have accentuated the need to effectively measure and monitor sustainability performance moving into the future as destinations now begin to re-emerge and re-imagine the way they operate. Through the adoption and utilisation of sustainable approaches and practices, the hospitality and hotel industry in Portugal could save costs in the short and longer term, they could benchmark success year on year and ultimately lead to the development of more sustainable and competitive industries moving forward. This research, while in its early stages, will aim to critically examine what, if any, sustainable and green practices are being adopted and implemented at present by Portuguese hotels. It will also permit an insight into whether or not Portuguese hotels are currently measuring and monitoring sustainability performance and looking to achieve greater levels of sustainability within the industry.</p> 2022-05-13T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 International Conference on Tourism Research Co-creation of experiences at dark tourism festivals 2022-03-07T16:25:00+00:00 Luisa Golz <p>This work-in-progress paper presents a novel area of thanatourism research, dark tourism festivals. These alternative festivals are located at the lighter end of the thanatourism spectrum, focusing on fun, culture and entertainment. This paper focuses in particular on the co-creation of festival experience at dark tourism festivals. Preliminary findings are presented, predominantly based on data gathered at the Whitby Goth Weekend, which will later be supplemented by research at other dark tourism festivals. Preliminary findings indicate that aspects such as emotional involvement, authenticity, performance and embodiment are important elements during the co-creation process. Embodied performances during which participants engage in creative practices, such as dressing up in elaborate costumes whilst having their photographs taken, enable them to escape from the routines of their day-to-day lives. Initial findings also indicate links between the festival experience and the concept of liminality. Also, participants engage in meaningful social bonds and essentially take ownership of the festival experience. Whilst engaging in these activities, participants become part of the co-creation of a performance. Festival spaces are specifically managed to enable co-creation, whereby festival participants form part of a sharing economy and actively co-create the festival experience together with the organisers, who enable this process by providing a safe and inclusive festival space.</p> 2022-05-13T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 International Conference on Tourism Research Implications of the New Balearic Islands Circularity Law for Tourism Practice and Research 2022-04-29T13:35:59+00:00 Dr Christopher J Moon <p>In February 2022 the Balearic Islands government approved a new law to introduce Circular Economy (CE) principles into the Tourism Industry (Decree Law 3/2022, of Urgent Measures for the Sustainability and Circularity of Tourism in the Balearic Islands, Mallorca Daily Bulletin, 2022a) including fines for non-compliance. As a result, the Balearic Islands could be considered as the world’s first circular tourist destination. This paper thus explores the preparedness of the Tourism Industry in the Balearics to implement the circular principles, with planned interviews of a sample of tourism businesses. The paper includes a review of the new CE principles and discusses the implications of them for the tourism industry and potential impact on tourism from a Triple-Bottom-Line perspective i.e. impact on social, environmental and economic criteria.</p> 2022-05-13T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 International Conference on Tourism Research Towards the Development of an Innovative Sustainable Sports Tourism Management Framework for Portugal 2022-05-10T13:00:29+00:00 Diogo Sousa Kelly Maguire <p>Sport tourism assumes an increasingly important role in the world tourism panorama, being seen by several nations as a strategic catalyst for the individual and collective emancipation of territories and their communities. The growing synergy between sports and the tourism sector and its potential as a strategic tourism product for the sustainable development of destinations has long been acknowledged; so much so that it has given rise to the positioning of a highly competitive and complex sector, transcending far beyond the organization of sporting events. In Portugal, Sports Tourism has experienced profound growth over the last decade, now estimated to be worth between 10% and 25% of total international travel and tourism revenues (PwC, 2021). While sports tourism presents valuable opportunities for further destination development and growth driving many positive outcomes in local economies, it can also be viewed as an important factor for the promotion and international recognition of these same territories. As a result, Destination Management Organizations (DMO) and other key stakeholder have begun to place an increased focus on the use of sports to promote and improve Portugal's positioning as a sports tourism destination. This research, while in its early stages, recognises a current gap in knowledge in relation to the development of existing frameworks or strategies implemented and applied by DMO’s or policy makers within destinations to effectively develop and manage a sustainable and competitive sport tourism offering. However, in light of the challenges faced by destinations during the COVID-19 pandemic, it is a necessity that destinations look to develop and plan for sports tourism in a sustainable manner. This research therefore sets forth to contribute to new knowledge in relation to the development of an innovative Sustainable Sports Tourism Management Framework for Portugal with the aim to propose a new comprehensive conceptual framework for the effective sustainable development and management of sports tourism in Portugal.</p> 2022-05-13T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 International Conference on Tourism Research The COVID-19 Pandemic and its Effects on the Future of Study-abroad programmes at Selected Universities in South Africa 2022-04-05T14:24:35+00:00 Elhaam Abrahams Hilary Kennedy Nji Bama <p>This study seeks to explore the early considerations that COVID-19 induced mobility restrictions placed on study-abroad programmes at universities in South Africa. The study considers how, given the negative impacts that were felt with international travel being largely restricted, universities in the Western Cape province approached study-abroad programmes during the restrictions and post restriction considerations. Data for this pilot study were collected via a mixed-method approach targeting international students and key resource persons through the international offices at four universities in the Western Cape. Twenty-three international students and two key resource persons responded to the pilot. Key indications highlight a European dominance in the demographic distribution of participants while illustrating a steady interest in the study-abroad programmes irrespective of the challenges induced by the pandemic. While the anxieties and uncertainties induced by the evolving nature of the pandemic were noted, emerging trends from the data highlighted areas of focus for future resilience strategies to shore up the sector from future crises, the scale and nature of COVID-19. As a pilot to a broader empirical study, it is hoped that the outcomes will contribute towards the development of conceptual tenets for the sustainable development of the study-abroad programme segment within the international higher education nexus while providing context for proposing mitigating actions and strategies which would help higher education institutions move from a crisis management situation to more long-term resilience planning.</p> 2022-05-13T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 International Conference on Tourism Research A Theoretical Reflection on the Importance of Branding to Promote Thermal Destinations 2022-03-16T17:55:34+00:00 Vera Antunes Gisela Gonçalves Cristina Estevão <p>Based on a Systematic Literature Review (SLR), the aim of this article is to present a conceptual approach to the importance of communication in thermal destinations. Through an in-depth analysis of scientific publications, characteristics of thermalism are identified that may be important for the creation of a brand strategy to promote thermal destinations.</p> <p>An SLR was conducted, using the PRISMA Statement method, carried out in May 2021 using the Web of Science and Scopus databases. A total of 133 articles were found, of which only 31 were used for the qualitative analysis. EndNote20 and Nvivo software were used to identify the articles for the study, their analysis and systematisation of the collected information.</p> <p>The results, among others, identified important characteristics of thermalism, presenting a framework of destination attributes in the international context of thermalism. By elaborating a conceptual model contributes to identifying operationalised strategies and guidelines impacting on publications for the strategic creation of a thermal destination brand. The main contribution of this study is to leverage the characteristics of thermalism to generate unique and differentiating brands that reflect the way customers perceive them, providing relevant findings for better understanding of the destination perspective in the international thermal tourism context for future research and the practices of a destination's tourism communication strategy. The analysis highlights the need to develop further knowledge in a sector with great potential for growth, the thermalism.</p> 2022-05-13T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 International Conference on Tourism Research Online Food Delivery: An Overview and Bibliometric Analysis 2022-03-07T16:31:55+00:00 Alberto Badenes-Rocha Enrique Bigne Carla Ruiz <p>Academic works on online food delivery so far have focused on the economic and social aspects of OFD. The economic interest and evolution of this activity sector contrasts with a scarce and fragmented approach from the academic perspective. This work intends to account for the existing literature on online food delivery through a descriptive and bibliometric mapping analysis. A bibliometric analysis was performed using Microsoft Excel and VOSviewer, a platform for analysing bibliometric networks. The results show an increasing interest on the topic, that start booming in 2019. Sources that gather online food delivery articles usually belong to one of two kinds: 1) customer-related variables in tourism and hospitality and 2) business/management publications. Since it is an emerging research area, not many authors hold a distinguished position in terms of articles published, with leading authors holding no more than 4 articles. Analysing keyword co-occurrence we find differentiated thematic approaches: technological support and features of online food delivery, health issues related to food delivery, logistic chain of food delivery and a particular field of interest relating it to COVID-19.</p> <p>This work contributes to literature by outlining the different theoretical basis considered in OFD research, and providing practical implications for a variety of agents (suppliers, restaurants, retailers, etc.). Guidelines for future research are offered in this emerging and relevant field of interest.</p> 2022-05-13T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 International Conference on Tourism Research The use of the Airbnb collaborative platform in Romania: a survey-based research 2022-03-12T15:24:06+00:00 Allina Badulescu Elena Stiubea Ramona Simut Daniel Badulescu <p>Recent years have witnessed a wide and strong development of the sharing economy in various industries. As a result of the wide spread of intelligent mobile devices and customers’ increasing digital skills, the use of collaborative platforms in tourism, in particular for accommodation services, has become an important alternative for many tourists. In this paper we try to investigate relevant aspects of the profile, motivations and habits of the Romanian tourists who are using Airbnb for renting accommodation services. Survey-based research was conducted during the summer of 2021, a period when very few COVID-19-related restrictions were being enforced in Romania regarding people’s mobility and travel. The questionnaire was designed to capture not only the demographic, economic and social profile of the consumers, but also and more importantly the main aspects related to the type of travel (leisure versus business), the motivations of getting involved in the collaborative use of platforms etc., from a demand-side perspective. We have grouped the motivations for using Airbnb taking into account the following main classes of factors: price; comfort; ease of use and functionality; authenticity and local connection. Other investigated issues pertained to analyze the place of Airbnb compared to classical accommodation units, considering factors such as trust and efficacy. We found that there is a certain amount of conformity among the population in making the decision to book accommodation, but there is also an innovative trend, expressing people's desire to try other forms of accommodation that offer authenticity and new experiences, characteristics that are less common in traditional accommodation forms. Indirectly, we can identify several trends in respondents' preferences for tourist accommodation and consumption habits. Trends may include greater availability of accommodation alternatives, including through collaborative platforms and, gradually, the transformation of these alternative experiences into tourism consumption habits.</p> 2022-05-13T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 International Conference on Tourism Research Creating a city image based on foreign visitors’ views retrieved from historical documents 2022-03-28T15:09:05+00:00 José Luís Braga Isabel Borges Catarina Mota Miguel Magalhães Sónia Leite <p>Porto has been a city with a mercantile vocation since at least the 12th century. In fact, in 1353, during the reign of Afonso IV, the Porto merchant Afonso Martins Alho assumed a pioneering role when negotiating the first trade treaty with King Edward III of England. As the commercial cosmopolitanism of this city has been known since ancient times, it will be important to know how foreigners described the landscape of the city once known as <em>Portucale</em> during the Early Modern Age (15th to 18th centuries). In this context, this study will seek to reveal the evolution of the imagery of the city of Porto built by foreigners. Therefore, we will characterize the profile of the first travellers who settled in the village and who poured their experiences into travel book accounts. These precocious travellers were diplomats, nobles, soldiers, scientists, artists, among others. The narratives, in this historical period, still had a biographical bent, where personal considerations and opinions about the places they visited were prominent. These types of reports are useful, if seen as a complementary source to others, as they present testimonies that are far from the reality of Porto, as well as comparative views with the reality of the country from which these travellers come. Therefore, the methodology used will focus on a space delimited by the city of Porto and its term and on a time interval that will begin in the mid-fifteenth century and end in the beginning of the eighteenth century. Through the analysis and documentary interpretation of secondary and primary sources, we will seek to know the specific ways in which outsiders represented the “Porto destination”. With regard to the implications of our investigation, we believe that this will prove useful for the marketing managers of the Porto destination, since, by getting to know the way in which the imagery of the city was constructed by outsiders, during the Early Modern Age, they will be able to promote the Porto destination in a more authentic and differentiated way than the direct competition.</p> 2022-05-13T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 International Conference on Tourism Research The Question of Sustainability 2022-03-08T06:33:44+00:00 Michael Brett <p>The Kruger National Park is the largest protected area in South Africa. The park was opened to tourists in 1927 at a time when private automobiles were becoming a feature of South African cities. Since 1927 there has been a 67,879-fold increase in tourists until 2019. The current number of tourists is 1.8 million exceeds that of any other savannah, wildlife-based national park in Africa by at least four-fold and poses the danger of overtourism. The total number of tourists that can be accommodated by accommodation within the Kruger National Park is 7400, which is high for an African national park. The paper examines historic tourist trends and the regional concentration of tourist facilities within the park. Due to its accessibility, the southern region, which comprises 21.9% of the park, receives 73.9% of tourists and has 32.9% of the 2,562-kilometre road network and 49.8% of tourist beds. A survey of members of a social media group found that 90.9% believe the southern region is overdeveloped. Open Safari Vehicles (OSVs) could be part of an Alternative Transportation Programme (ATP) as they transport an average of 5.9 tourists, compared to an average of 2.4 tourists per private automobile. A survey was conducted on the same social media site to ascertain attitudes towards OSVs, which now account for 16.7% of the park’s tourists.&nbsp; A total of 1,320 responses were recorded and 29.24% believed that OSV drivers have no regard for other park users, while others regarded these vehicles as an important contribution to park conservation and management.</p> 2022-05-13T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 International Conference on Tourism Research Adventure sports and nature-based tourism: Assessment of canyoning spots in the North Region of Portugal 2022-03-07T15:52:07+00:00 alexandra I. correia Goretti Silva Susana Rachão <p>The growing demand for natural areas and outdoor activities in the last decade, even more noticeable in the COVID-19 worldwide pandemic situation, has led to the intensification and diversification of nature-based tourism supply in many regions, including the provision of adventure recreation activities, such as canyoning.&nbsp; However, and despite the increasing interest of companies, destinations, and academia in this specific type of activity, there is limited information on resources, practice conditions, and assessments based on specific, objective criteria. This information is critical for a more competitive development and positioning of regions for this activity, and to meet tourists’ increasingly demanding expectations. Therefore, this paper aims at building upon the identified research gap, by characterizing and evaluating the existing conditions for canyoning activity in the North Region of Portugal, This evaluation of twenty-seven canyoning spots. was done based on an assessment matrix, comprised of specific criteria, grounded on the literature review and semi-structured interviews with companies’ owners/managers and experts. The study concludes that the activity is evolving in the region and there is still potential for development, due to morphological, favourable conditions. Moreover, the region offers different spots, often inserted in protected areas, with unique landscapes and natural diversity, which is attractive for tourism. The presentation of an assessment matrix (that allows the characterization and evaluation of canyoning spots on a systematic approach in different geographic contexts) makes this study a contribution to the literature on nature-based,&nbsp; adventure tourism and recreation activities.</p> 2022-05-13T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 International Conference on Tourism Research Circular Economy in the Portuguese hotel industry – an Empirical Overview 2022-03-13T21:18:40+00:00 Berta Costa berta.jose.costa@gmail <p>The implementation of Circular Economy (CE) in the tourism industry, and more specifically in the hotel industry, is still in its early stages, as the debate on it has focused on the manufacturing sector, undervaluing the service area, namely the travel and tourism one, and their input to the transition to a CE paradigm. Although the hotel industry is one of the essential branches of the travel and tourism sector, there is little relevant scientific and empirical research available on the potential of such an implementation.</p> <p>The Circular Economy construct has recently been gaining prominence as it has the potential to enhance the use of natural resources, in which the tourism and the hotel industry rely, to mitigate the emission of greenhouse gases, and to offer economic, environmental, and social business advantages and opportunities.</p> <p>Making use of the results of a survey applied to the Portuguese hotel industry, this paper offers an analysis of this business’s awareness, attitude, enablers, benefits, challenges, and organisational performance with respect to the implementation of a Circular Economy approach. The results indicate that there is awareness regarding CE and its R-Principles and that some measures that may enhance the implementation of this concept are already being put into practice. There is also evidence that this economic approach is beneficial to companies, but support &nbsp;from all the actors (companies, government, stakeholders) is mandatory. The lack of investment in the CE implementation, policies focused in waste treatment, and the lack of promotion of circular design were identified as challenges. Acquiring new competencies as well as the reduction of the hotels’ carbon footprint were identified as the major predictive positive impacts of CE in the organisational performance of companies.</p> <p>This research is a contribution to the existing literature on Circular Economy and to the conceptualization of CE within the hotel industry. In addition, to the theoretical contribution, the results of this study may also have empirical inputs for all the actors, and may also lead them to question the goals of their businesses and to examine thoroughly the environmental, social, and economic impact of their activities and operations, and ultimately act as catalysts to circularity.</p> 2022-05-13T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 International Conference on Tourism Research Impact of Covid-19 in the VAICTM in the hospitality industry: the Portuguese case 2022-03-31T11:16:40+00:00 Vânia Costa <p>This work aims to identify the efficiency of intellectual capital in companies in the hospitality sector and to analyse the impact that the Covid pandemic has on the efficiency of intellectual capital in Portuguese regions. This study applies the Value Added Intellectual Coefficient (VAIC<sup>TM</sup>) method according to Pulic (1998). The economic and financial data come from the Iberian Balance sheet Analysis System (SABI). The study was conducted with a selection of active companies with turnover in the years 2019 and 2020, resulting in a sample of 4.383 hotels in Portugal in the pre-pandemic period (the year 2019) and in the pandemic period (the year 2020). This study identifies the value added that contributes to value creation in organizations and analyses this value between Portuguese tourism regions because of the impact of the Pandemic Crisis in the sector. The average results for the total sample show that tourism businesses had a significant decrease in VAIC<sup>TM</sup> from 2019 to 2020. The results show that the Lisboa e Vale do Tejo, Açores, and Algarve regions have the largest decrease in the value of VAIC<sup>TM</sup> in the year 2020. The Alentejo region was the region that felt the least the impact of the pandemic crisis. These results reveal that the more mature tourist areas lost the most intellectual added value.</p> 2022-05-13T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 International Conference on Tourism Research Promotion of destinations through interactive digital marketing: collaborative model for smart cities 2022-03-07T14:17:01+00:00 Carlos R. Cunha Vítor Mendonça Márcio Martins Manuela Carneiro <p>Smart cities are, by nature, spaces with a richness and diversity of technologies incorporated in their physical spaces, in such a way that they can be seen as a single intelligent and collaborative space. As technological pillars, two important layers arise – the sensory layer and the actuator layer, both of which are strongly interconnected with each other, emerging as a large Internet of Things network. This scenario reveals an enormous potential for marketing science and for the creation of innovative strategies to promote territories as touristic destinations. Within the multiple opportunities, there is space for the development of an interactive marketing experience, revolutionizing, through creative rethink, the way destinations interact with their visitors, and make known all their potential. Although in the context of tourism, there are three main moments in the visit process – the before, the during and the after, this work focuses on the moment of the destination visit – the during.</p> <p>In order to understand how creative rethink can be carried out to create innovative strategies to promote touristic destinations, an introduction is carried out, substantiating the concepts of digital marketing, smart cities and Internet of Things.</p> <p>Then, the methodology that governed the creation of a collaborative model for smart cities is clearly defined, being contextualized the importance of destinations-communication, the concept of a smart city and some of the major technology that support this concept.</p> <p>After contextualization and methodological aspects, this article presents a conceptual model where its components are described and where it is discussed how the model can take advantage of the variety of technologies that exist in a smart city, in order to allow innovative digital marketing strategies and innovating in the interaction between the city and the visitant, and vice versa – the vision of interactive digital marketing. In the model discussion, some interaction-scenarios and their main benefits are highlighted, which serve as examples for validating the proposed model. Finally, we present the work limitations and mains conclusions.</p> 2022-05-13T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 International Conference on Tourism Research Demand for Domestic Marine and Coastal Tourism Demand for Domestic Marine and Coastal Tourism 2022-03-07T17:18:51+00:00 John Deely <p>Domestic marine and costal tourism has increased in importance over the last number of years due to the impacts of international travel, environmental concerns, associated health benefits and COVID-19 related travel restrictions. Consequently, this paper conceptualizes domestic marine and coastal tourism within an economic framework. Two logit models examine the factors that influence participation in the coastal day trips and overnight stays markets, respectively. Two truncated travel cost models are employed to explore trip duration, one analyzing the number of day trips taken and the other examining the number of nights spent in marine and coastal areas. Although a range of variables predict participation, no one variable had a significant and consistent affect in every model. A division in access to domestic marine and coastal tourism is also observed based on variation in household income. The results also indicate a vibrant day trip market and large consumer surpluses.</p> <p>The decision to use logit participation models and travel cost models applied to day trips and overnight stays is a direct result of the audiences this paper aims to inform. Firstly, by presenting the decision making process for domestic marine and coastal tourism in this depth, evidence based decision makers can gather a better understanding of how domestic tourist decided to participate in marine and coastal tourism, who the larger beneficiary are of the different types of marine and coastal tourism and how policy focused solely on overnight stays can adversely affect particular segment of society, often those less well off financially. Secondly, the academic literature has presented a dearth of information comparing day trip participation to overnight stays in marine and coastal tourism, as such, this paper provides a valuable source of information.</p> 2022-05-13T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 International Conference on Tourism Research Accessibility of national cultural heritage to deaf tourists 2022-03-24T15:14:02+00:00 Paula Escudeiro Maria de Sá Escudeiro Nuno Escudeiro Márcia Campos Bruno Cunha <p>Individuals with hearing impairments face numerous obstacles when engaged in touristic activities or using infrastructure and services in touristic spots. When tourism is considered a social good of first necessity, new concerns arise and pressure for inclusion in the sector stimulates the advance of innovative solutions for inclusive tourism. There are also economic interests in inclusive tourism, an unexplored market niche that might compensate the expected drop on the tourism growth rate in comparison to recent years in Portugal. The ICHT project – Inclusive Cultural Heritage Tourism – aims to promote the accessibility of deaf tourists to cultural heritage by embedding new technology-aids, online and on-site, to raise awareness, to attract deaf tourists, to assist them while visiting us, and to exploit their experience as a new dissemination channel. ICHT is focused on creating digital tools and digital content in sign language to be available online, on mobile devices and on-site at cultural touristic attractions in the North of Portugal through innovative channels like games, holography, and collaborative platforms. ICHT advocates the integration of novel high-tech sign language user interfaces in tourism destinations and stimulates local operators to learn the basics of sign language communication to welcome deaf tourists in Portugal. ICHT brings in R&amp;D world-class results in the field of automatic sign language translation qualifying Portugal to guide Inclusive Tourism worldwide and become a pioneer leading the Tourism of the Future. The full system includes an on-site application using holography, a game to play on a mobile device (before, during, and after visiting the attraction), an online collaborative platform to assist deaf and non-deaf tourists, and a set of International Sign training courses. The ICHT system will be available in five pilot installations at Torre dos Clérigos, Lello bookshop, Maia Zoo, Port wine cellars, and Viseu thermae. ICHT brings a new approach to teach sign language to the professionals in the touristic sector opening new opportunities for a more inclusive society. The sign language training together with the assistive technology tools developed by ICHT generate inclusive environments for the deaf. ICHT has the potential to become a PIN project in the Tourism sector.</p> 2022-05-13T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 International Conference on Tourism Research Big Data, Social Media and Employer Branding: An exploratory study from the hospitality industry 2022-04-07T06:10:11+00:00 Hazal Eser <p><strong>Abstract:&nbsp; Purpose:</strong> “Data Production” and its analysis are becoming increasingly important for the hospitality industry due to wide mobile technology and social media use. “Big Data” has become an important concept for businesses and requires significant management competences in its usage. Within this scope the purpose of this exploratory study is to exemplify best practices from the concept of Big Data and its relation with social media in understanding how employer branding issues are perceived by hospitality operations.</p> <p><strong>Design/methodology: </strong>Both quantitative and qualitative methods have been used in the study. The study consisted of two parts and data were obtained from lodging operations in Ankara, Turkey.&nbsp; The first stage consisted of analyzing content of social media sharings from ten 5-star hotels in Ankara, Turkey.&nbsp; For the second stage, a survey was conducted among 149 employees from the same lodging operations to determine employee’s employer branding perception levels.</p> <p><strong>Findings: </strong>The first part of the study indicated that both international chains and local hotels mostly shared promotional message for employer brand enhancement. Sharings related to motivational messages, social responsibility activities, and events for customers and employees are mostly done by internationals chain hotels. Findings from the second part of the study revealed that international chain hotel employees’ perception of the employer brand is at a higher rate. The study showed that social media usage level of the operations and employees’ perceptions of employer brand concept are consistent.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Originality: </strong>This is an innovative research project. The study integrates the concept of Big Data and social media relations with employer branding issues in hospitality operations. With its quantitative and qualitative nature, the current study shed light to further studies. The sample size and the fact that the study was carried out in 5-star hotels in Ankara are the main limitations of this study.</p> 2022-05-13T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 International Conference on Tourism Research Mobilides, Context Costs and Heritage in Tourism and Leisure Realtions on the Border of Central Portugal with Spain 2022-03-11T10:51:18+00:00 Gonçalo Fernandes <p>The persistence of borders has been based on the fact that they are crucial for the reproduction of territoriality and of national identity narratives. In this context, and considering the border as a line that separates, divides and controls the existence of areas/territories, it implies that the effects (context costs) disappear with distance, in addition to the emergence of new meanings and dynamics depending on their accessibility, resources held, forms of settlement and economic activities. The Luso-Spanish border is the most stable and, at the same time, the one with the most critical development indexes, due to its penalising demographic evolution, productive disarticulation and differentiated administrative policies. Tourism development is seen as an instrument for the diversification of economies in peripheral and often underdeveloped frontier regions. These areas have, through their history and natural heritage, resources of great value, of which the international rivers, the classified natural areas, the castles and fortresses, the historical villages, the traditions and festivities, the gastronomy and the presence of different cultures stand out in the central Iberian border. Facing this panorama and considering formal and informal relations, cooperating or competing, we try to identify dynamics and forms of cooperation in the construction of a resilience space, in the face of existing constraints and heritage values held, capable of generating new attractions and functions in the oldest European border. Under favourable conditions, these territories contribute to tourism development in the framework of neighbourly relations and interests. In the case of Portugal central border with Spain, it is possible to speak of a porosity that is historical, with the territory(ies) coming together, either through public policies (EU, national, regional and local), or through private investments. The study aims to analyse and systematise the factors of tourism promotion, the political developments and the permeability of the border, in the construction of a tourism and leisure destination.</p> 2022-05-13T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 International Conference on Tourism Research Literary routes as a successful tourist offer in Porto 2022-04-07T13:24:29+00:00 Ana Ferreira <p>Nowadays tourist aspires to something differentiated, personalized, focused on quality, culture, and the environment. As this tourist is a more demanding one, it is crucial to provide an innovative offer bearing in mind that this type of tourist aspires to something more specific. This is exactly the case of literary tourists. By using a literary text to invite people to visit a city, which we may call "<em>literary invitation</em>", we intend to provide some real and material knowledge about the city, often in the form of a route to be travelled.</p> <p>Tourist itineraries immerse visitors in the plot of a narrative or in the historical era it refers to and therefore, enhances the experience of a cultural visit assuming an important political and economic significance in today’s tourism destinations. Besides enhancing cultural exchange and cross-border relations, tourists mobilize large economic resources that can promote the socio-economic development of the territories.</p> <p>This paper intends to present an analysis of the motivational attributes of literary routes in the perception of the tourist destination Porto based on information obtained from a sample of 272 tourists/visitors in the city during the summer of 2020.</p> <p>The analysis of the results allows us to state that they represent a reliable basis for tourist agents interested in reevaluating the essence of tourist activity in the city, in the context of literary resources and attractions, and these motivational factors may be incorporated into marketing strategies.</p> 2022-05-13T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 International Conference on Tourism Research Analysis of Oleotourism and Museology: Bibliometric Analysis and Systematic Literature Review 2022-05-10T11:17:40+00:00 Jéssica Ferreira Ana Cristina Silvério Márcia Vaz Má Paula Odete Fernandes <p>Traditional Olive Grove represents about 80% of the awards in the National Olive Oil Competition of Portugal, substantiating the importance and relevance of the sector. The term "oleotourism" is considered as a movement that increasingly aims to know all the features, qualities, and differences in olive oil production. As a dynamic movement, this term uses museology to present and promote its products to the public and tourism. From museology articles, it was understood that the museums should not be limited to the institutionally conceived idea, instead of that, it should be understood as a global science of a distinct, which encompasses the universe and society. Subsequently, the relevance of conducting qualitative research arises, studying the literature on oleotourism associated with museology and analysing their contributions and effects on tourism. After reviewing the existing databases, the SCOPUS database was selected to collect and analyse the bibliographic material. Hence, as the purpose, this study aimed to highlight the scientific publications with the most significant impact of the terms "oleotourism" and "museology", understanding their research trends. In the systematisation process, we considered the final 100 articles with the most citations published in journals between 2005 and 2021. The articles analysed were reviewed using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses for the systematic literature review. For the bibliometric analysis, the Bibliometrix R program was used. As a result, from the bibliometric analysis, it was found that, as research trends, the keywords "olive oil tourism" and "museums" were highlighted, with Italy, Spain and the United Kingdom as the countries with the most citations. In addition, the journals "Sustainability", "Museum Anthropology", and "Museum Management and Curation" in the publications on these themes are highlighted. In comparison, through the systematic literature review, it was understood that the research trends focused on: the conceptualisation of oleotourism; the influence of museology on tourism; and the importance of museum education. Despite the importance of this research in helping future studies, there are some limitations on their analysis, which will be recommended to use specific databases for the themes and increase the number of articles considered.</p> 2022-05-13T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 International Conference on Tourism Research Brand equity and Cleanliness regarding Brand Experience, Consumer Well-being and Customer Satisfaction within the restaurant sector 2022-04-27T16:04:08+00:00 Manuel Luis Lodeiros Alejandra Flores-Silva Erika Tuesta-Panduro <p>This study was conducted with the aim of finding the relationships between the variables Cleanliness (CLL) and Brand Equity (BEQ) in relation to Brand Experience (BE), Customer Well-Being (CWB) and Customer Satisfaction (CS) within the restaurant sector. The study population consisted of people who have eaten on the premises in restaurants in Peru during the last six months of the year 2021. The sample consisted of 416 people. A PLS-SEM analysis was used using SmartPLS 3 software in order to respond to the hypotheses set out in the study. The results allowed all the hypotheses to be tested, highlighting the confirmation of the influence of Cleanliness and Brand Equity on Customer Well-being in building Brand Experience and Customer Satisfaction in the restaurant sector.</p> 2022-05-13T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 International Conference on Tourism Research A study on the positive impact of eWOM in eco-tourism destinations of Vietnam 2022-03-08T04:21:30+00:00 Sinh Hoang Sandeep Dey Vy Nguyen Zuzana Tuckova <p>This research study focuses on the positive impact of eWOM in determining the selection of eco-tourism destinations. A positive review of tourism destinations has significant images, content and experience. Its natural beauty, environment-friendly practices, sustainability, and other factors determine an eco-tourism destination. The paper's findings suggest that tourists research before selecting a destination. An honest review of a previous consumer has more impact on a potential customer. Travellers opt for online and offline media to judge the authenticity of the destination. This research paper also examines how electronic word of mouth (e-WOM) impacts the tourists' decision to select and visit eco-friendly destinations?</p> 2022-05-13T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 International Conference on Tourism Research An Emotional Intelligence Training Program in the Tourism Sector 2022-03-07T19:47:39+00:00 Sofia Kallou Aikaterini Kikilia Michail Kalogiannakis <p><strong>Abstract:</strong> In a competitive and continually changing tourism and hospitality sector the need for high qualified and motivated human resources, which meet the current and future business demands is more than ever imperative. As tourism is expected to thrive in the coming years, it is essential for tourism employees to have intrapersonal and interpersonal abilities that lead to positive interactions with customers, contributing to their memorable emotional experiences and delivering at the same time benefits to the tourism industry. On the other hand, putting emphasis on Emotional Intelligence development, through innovative training programs and educational methods, can lead to qualified personnel, which apart from cognitive abilities can also develop emotional abilities, significant for the tourism sector. In this framework, an education and training program that implements Transformative Learning theory, based on critical reflection, rational discourse, and experience, can motivate tourism employees to get outside of their comfort zones and change their assumptions, their dysfunctional beliefs, their values, and the way of being in the world. In a multicultural environment, such as the tourism field, the implementation of Transformative Learning can lead individuals to be more inclusive, open to new cultures and ideas, re-establishing their perspectives and behaviors to be more functional. Additionally, the utilization of digital learning environments, which are extremely popular in the recent years and characterized by flexibility and ubiquity, can contribute to the effectiveness of the learning process and the improvement of Emotional Intelligence. This research presents a training program that embraces the advantages of digital learning environments utilizing Transformative Learning as a pedagogical tool for the development of Emotional Intelligence in the tourism sector.</p> 2022-05-13T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 International Conference on Tourism Research University-based hospitality centers: popularity and effective advertising models 2022-04-12T10:42:08+00:00 teodora kiryakova-dineva Beatris Vladimirova <p>Hospitality-based centres are not common units within the university’s structures. Nowadays, successful universities must offer a variety of both new educational visions and opportunities for a rich campus life and university’s public value (Sternberg, 2014). In this context, the challenge to combine more attractive possibilities for events hosting is focusing on special appeals. On the other side, and within the academic life, a cultivation of academic imagination (Lugosi, 2016) could be a competitive tool. Hospitality products show significant levels of importance of what an inspiring university should be. It can be so due to the meetings, events, exhibitions and conference tourism. When mixed up with the academic scene, this can become of exceptional advantage. University’s increased popularity can be viewed in regard to the opportunities for rich academic and social experiences along with relaxation in such a form that breaks down walls (López, 2019). For its commercial hospitality space, <em>university-based hospitality centers</em> or university campus hotels (Hay, 2020) should be considered in the overall marketing strategy of the academic organization (Gibbs and Knapp, 2002). Developing <em>effective models of advertising</em> aimed at integrating tourism, events and social being into the university life can extensively contribute to the sense of community (Henry, 2012), thus to the popularity of the university itself. Networking could be easier to achieve, literacies on more different levels can be gained (Spasov, 2021) or secondary profits for academicians, students, guests, and visitors of the university with additional recreational benefits might arise. In this research, the authors show the results of an exploratory survey of the university-based hospitality center of the South-West University “Neofit Rilski” in Bulgaria and discuss possible implications on planning and management through effective advertising models. The emphasis lies on the unique combination between <em>tourism product</em> and <em>university organizational academic culture</em>. Results were utilized for the development of a more <em>holistic understanding</em> of the university activities’ offer under the realm of hospitality.</p> 2022-05-13T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 International Conference on Tourism Research Glamping – an active back to nature trend in the post-pandemic tourism reality 2022-04-12T10:36:34+00:00 teodora kiryakova-dineva Ivanka Vasenska Blagovesta Koyundzhiyska-Davidkova <p>Although that today most people reside in cities, megacities, megapolises or urban agglomerations, they are striving to experience nature more often and in a significantly ways following new forms of tourism. Sustainable going back to nature is one of them and it allows inhabitants of both cities and countryside to find more differentiated ways to be on their own and recharge spirit and soul. A tent in nature is a favourite vacation imagination for many Americans and Western Europeans. Innovations in this type of recreational activities are exciting push stimulus for the experienced and future camping fans. Being still a neologism for the linguists, glamping is not any longer an unknown term for the tourism practice and the admirers of nature and well-being know it. Being a new kind of luxury campsite and having revived the old-fashioned camping life means attracting newcomers especially those who get tired due to the long coronavirus outbreaks and those who desire to give rise to this fresh tourism trend. Glamping is also a kind of a boutique camping living. It is a trend that brings together the comfort of a hotel combined with nature and freedom of camping. The contemporary facilities can go far beyond most usual tents of campers combining new with old experiences. Thus, the purpose of this article is to reveal the potential of glamping in the scope of active life and well-being tourism, whereby a snapshot observation technique has been applied.</p> 2022-05-13T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 International Conference on Tourism Research Creative Tourism in Vila Nova de Foz Côa: 2022-03-07T16:06:40+00:00 Dália Liberato Sandra Vasconcelos Adriana Paulos Pedro Liberato Carla Melo <p>The tourism industry is constantly evolving, mostly due to the development of destinations and ever-changing tourist preferences. As a result, there has been a growing concern with promoting the use of existing resources and increasing profitability, particularly by encouraging diversity and creating local dynamics, moving beyond mass tourism. As tourists show a preference for more personalized and authentic experiences, there is also a growing demand for different experiences, paving the way for creative tourism and co-created activities.</p> <p>Focusing on creative tourism in Vila Nova de Foz Côa, this paper aims to contribute to the understanding of the concept of creative tourism, as well as to identify its potential and impact on this region. Drawing from a literature review crosscutting the concepts of authenticity, creativity, and memorability, and on semi-structured interviews with local stakeholders, authors put forward a comprehensive analysis of the state of the art of local policies and available tourism activities, outlining key-areas for future development.</p> <p>Overall, the main results of this research show that creative tourism in Vila Nova de Foz Côa is still at an early stage, and even though there is a common interest in developing this practice, it is necessary to improve the relationship between the different stakeholders, particularly when it comes to their communication and involvement in shared initiatives. On the other hand, given the potential of the region, it was also possible to identify prospective tourism products and activities, which can leverage future initiatives within this scope.</p> 2022-05-13T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 International Conference on Tourism Research Fostering Accessible Tourism: Stakeholders’ perspective in Vila do Conde and Póvoa de Varzim 2022-03-07T21:02:20+00:00 Fernanda Ferreira Dália Liberato Pedro Liberato Raquel Coentrão <p>Nowadays, tourism is considered an important social phenomenon, stimulating the mobility of millions of tourists around the world. Accessible tourism is becoming increasingly visible and is considered a growing market segment. For this, it is essential to adapt infrastructures, making them fully accessible. This research seeks to raise awareness in the tourism sector for the creation of accessibility conditions necessary and aimed at all types of demand. In this way, it is intended to deepen the knowledge about Accessible Tourism, as well as evaluate, on the supply side, the awareness and consciousness of the importance of this segment and ascertain whether Vila do Conde and Póvoa de Varzim, meet all the necessary conditions to receive these tourists. This study adopts a qualitative approach with the application of interviews to seven entities, representative of the supply in the destinations, dealing daily with mobility impaired people. The main results show that, despite Accessible Tourism being an increasingly important market segment for the tourism industry, the existing tourism offer in the cities of Vila do Conde and Póvoa de Varzim (North of Portugal), is not yet fully aware and adapted to receive and serve people with reduced mobility.</p> 2022-05-13T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 International Conference on Tourism Research Aquatic Event(S) in the Cultural and Nautical Diversity of a Destination 2022-03-26T23:16:52+00:00 Eunice Lopes Manuela Fernandes <p>Events are important drivers of attractiveness for tourist destinations. All types of events represent an opportunity for projection for the territory where they are developed. The holding of events has been a strong strategic bet to boost tourism and local economies. The impacts arising from the events affect not only the local community, but the entire territory. Therefore, the events sector has been playing a fundamental role in terms of the attractiveness and competitiveness of tourist destinations. The contribution is notable above all in the impetus given to the creation and development of new tourist products seen as a necessity for the holding of events and the territory where they are held. The development of events leads to investment in spaces conducive to practices associated with the realization of events and the improvement of infrastructure conditions, ending up being catalysts for a “territorial renewal”. It can also lead to awareness of the protection of heritage resources through the promotion of cultural and tourist activities that design these spaces, contributing to a greater knowledge and attractiveness of these resources. In this sense, we intend to present a case study related to the event –&nbsp;“Wakeboard Open Days”. Event related to nautical tourism and carried out geographically in the Central region of Portugal and in a territorial scope linked to the river Zêzere, Medio Tejo. The main objectives of this study are the approach to wakeboard combined with nautical tourism and the verification of the impacts of this practice in the territory where the event is held. To achieve both objectives, a quantitative analysis was carried out. From the preliminary results, some reluctance on the part of residents about knowledge of the wakeboard modality is identified, with practical implications for verifying social impacts, among others. Therefore, there is a need for greater interaction between all managers of the territory to increase the quality of the nautical tourist offer. This study will contribute to a greater perception of the need to expand knowledge about the impacts of this event on the territory, valuing it through fluvial-nautical practice.</p> 2022-05-13T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 International Conference on Tourism Research Can Volunteer Tourism be a sub-segment of Wellness Tourism? 2022-04-13T16:02:24+00:00 Maria Lopes <p>Wellness tourism is a segment of tourism that has been widely studied, including the motivations that undertake the trip. Throughout the literature review it was possible to observe that the motivations that are the origin of this type of tourism are diverse, highlighting, the achievement of physical and mental well-being, self-development and personal reward, relaxation and escape, exploration and reflection, and enjoyment of a new experience.</p> <p>Smith and Kelly, 2006 approach the concept from a broader perspective, encompassing several segments: new age tourism, nature tourism, adventure tourism, yoga tourism, spiritual and religious tourism, and voluntary tourism. Also, Ali-Knight (2009) and GWI (2018) consider voluntary tourism an integral segment of wellness tourism as well as thermal tourism, spa tourism, nature tourism, retreat tourism, and social tourism. In addition to the fact that the authors mentioned above consider voluntary tourism a sub-segment of wellness tourism, a study by Coghlan (2015) found, through a project of travel experience in the context of volunteering, in which various social activities were carried out, which can achieve a beneficial health outcome, in addition to an improvement in the well-being and mental health of participants.</p> <p>However, throughout the literature review, it was found that studies addressing the motivations of volunteer tourists are scarce, and none are known to address the relationship between the motivations of wellness tourists and volunteer tourists.</p> <p>In order to fill this gap, a qualitative approach was developed based on semi-structured interviews with individuals who have travelled in the field of voluntary tourism. Thus, we were able to compare the motivations recognized in these interviews with those verified in the literature review in the field of wellness tourism, and to realize that, from an altruistic perspective, the motivations of tourists from both segments are coincident. This finding allows us to consider that, from the perspective of motivations, voluntary tourism can comprise one of the sub-segments of wellness tourism.</p> <p>This study will contribute to increase knowledge about the motivations of wellness and voluntary tourism and understand the similarities between these types of tourism.</p> 2022-05-11T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 International Conference on Tourism Research Sustainability and holidays plans in Covid times: an analysis of Portuguese residents' intentions 2022-03-22T16:55:39+00:00 Fernanda Oliveira Sofia Eurico Maria Sofia Lopes <p><strong>Abstract:</strong> This study focuses on micro-environmental factors (Casado-Aranda et al, 2021) related to changes in consumers' travel behaviours, arising from COVID-19. It seeks to understand if risk perception associated with COVID had an impact on travel intentions of residents in Portugal and if there are changes, regarding more sustainable choices, in 2021 summer holiday’s intentions. Data was collected through an online questionnaire between December 2020 and March 2021 (overlapping the first 3 months of the vaccination process, corresponding to 5% of the full vaccination of the Portuguese (Our World in Data, 2021) and reflects short-term effects (Miao et al, 2021) on the travel behaviours of residents in Portugal (n=610). Almost half of the participants (48,5%) responded positively to the probability of going on holidays in 2021. From these, the majority (64,2%) intended to travel only to domestic destinations, mostly justified by the willingness to help the country (54,5% of those who considered likely to go on holidays) and not as much as a risk perception associated to the pandemic (only referred by 26,8%). As for holiday’s consumption intentions, residents expressed concerns that may have a positive impact on the socio economical sustainability of the destinations. In fact, from those who considered likely to travel, 71,6% referred that they will prefer national products, 64,5% will value more than before certified touristic services and 57,4% intends to shop mostly in small traditional business. In terms of environmental sustainability, 59,5% will have an increased concern in reserving touristic services environmentally responsible. Results emphasize the need for reflection on the effective positioning of sustainability issues concerning the tourism sector’s future. COVID-19 has created an opportunity for tourism to review and relaunch itself, based on more responsible and sustainable approaches (Brouder, 2020; Casado-Aranda et al, 2021; Jones and Confort, 2020). It’s important to understand to what extent consumers are willing to assume more sustainable behaviours in their future travel options. These results ask for future research regarding the importance of understanding the difference between tourists’ stated intentions and effective actions when it comes to sustainable travel behaviour.</p> 2022-05-13T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 International Conference on Tourism Research Developing a smart destination. Insights from Slovakia 2022-03-08T11:56:14+00:00 Lenka Dzúriková Vanda Maráková Martin Timko <p>Incorporating smart tourism into development priorities is the key aspect for tourism destinations and therefore, it should be approached accordingly. In theory, smart tourism development is considered as a factor in achieving sustainable competitiveness of tourism destinations. The application of smart destination shifts the destination development; however, the progress is under-researched so far. The efficient destination management requires tools for measuring smart tourism development. For that reason, the aim of this paper is to apply the methodological framework for measuring smart tourism development in a selected Slovak destination (the Banská Bystrica region). We have applied the methodology based on the Valencian Network of Smart Destination Indicators. The methodology was adapted to the availability of the input data at a regional level in Slovakia and tested in the Banská Bystrica region (NUTS 3). The obtained findings reveal that the Banská Bystrica region is aware of the need to implement smart solutions to improve the quality of life in the region for its residents, as well as visitors. The paper provides recommendation on what data needs to be collected and how these data can be obtained at a regional level in order to assess smart tourism development. The research conducted has further applicability in different destinations and on different levels. However, it is limited by the availability of the input data, which can determine the applicability of the indicators in Slovakia.</p> 2022-05-13T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 International Conference on Tourism Research Developing Hospitality Management Core Competencies Framework 2022-03-07T21:34:23+00:00 Stelios Marneros George Papageorgiou Andreas Efstathiades <p>Developing a unique set of Core Competencies should be of primary concern to any business operating in the hospitality industry. This paper presents a framework for competency development, which is based on the views of both educators and industry professionals. By integrating knowledge from a variety of contexts and countries around the world, a set of generic core competencies has been derived via a systematic classification process. Specifically, forty competency statements have been posited taking the form of questions given to both educators and industry professionals. Subsequently, the responses have been analysed and, using taxonomy, a framework of seven core competency categories has been developed. The competency categories involve aspects of Human Resource Management (HRM); Professional Image; Operational Knowledge; Leadership; Communication; Information Management; and People Relationship Management. Specific competency items include essential capabilities for the hospitality industry such as: communicating effectively with clients and customers, identifying and solving problems, making decisions under pressure or in a crisis situation, and understanding the factors that influence the profitability of the hospitality enterprise. The proposed framework is meant to serve as a basis for developing a set of core competencies suitable for creating a sustainable competitive advantage for the hospitality industry. Further, the framework would be useful to educators, professionals and graduate students as a guide for cultivating a set of key competencies for success in the hospitality sector.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2022-05-13T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 International Conference on Tourism Research Remembrance Tourism: Maarjamäe Memorial Versus The Estonian Victims of Communism Memorial 2022-05-10T11:41:02+00:00 Brent McKenzie <p>The people of the Republic of Estonia experienced severe oppression and terror during the latter half of the 20th century following their forced annexation into the Soviet Union. Additionally, the Soviet military can rightfully be credited with decisively driving Nazi Germany out of Estonia, during World War II. These related, but conflicting results, has resulted in two different memorials, and two radically different perspectives, located within 500 meters of each other, in the Estonian capital city of Tallinn. This research examines the impact of such confrontation in ideals and remembrance, through the promotion (or lack of), funding, and maintenance of history, through memorials in public space. This research addresses these questions through a comparison of two Memorials located within sight of each other, the Maarjamäe Memorial and the Estonian Victims of Communism Memorial, in Tallinn, Estonia. The comparison of the two Memorials highlights the challenges involved in the construct of remembrance, as well as the related construct of nostalgia, within markets such as Estonia that has two distinct ethnic groups, Estonian, and Russian, and how their respective views of the constructs shape the success or failure of such tourism attractions. The findings of this research will be of benefit to other regions with a similar past, when it comes to remembrance and reflection through tourism.</p> 2022-05-13T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 International Conference on Tourism Research Shaping the new normal: 2022-03-13T17:25:07+00:00 Carla Melo António Melo Sandra Vasconcelos Daniela Meneses <p>The COVID-19 pandemic has created a worldwide crisis, which has had an impact on all economic sectors, having transformed social and consumption patterns. This crisis has been particularly difficult for the tourism industry, with uncertainty and the emergence of new consumer profiles and demands prompting swift reactions from policymakers and stakeholders.</p> <p>Focussing on two sub-sectors of the Portuguese tourism industry – hospitality and events – this paper aims to identify the most relevant concerns and Crisis Management Strategies adopted in each of these sectors in the early stages of the pandemic, putting forward a multi-layered analysis, juxtaposing the different challenges faced by managers and how they were approached. Based on previous studies and on 14 semi-structured interviews with hotel and event managers, the authors adopted an exploratory qualitative approach as to record and categorize the interviewees’ perceptions, having established the transversal importance of resilience, flexibility, and technology for each sector’s recovery. Moreover, taking into account the singularity of each setting, the authors were also able to identify more specific sectorial categories, which have had an effect on both the decision-making and future outlooks for both the hospitality and events industries. Overall, despite being hopeful, hotel and event managers anticipate different recovery challenges, with the first highlighting the importance of soft skills, and the latter emphasizing the need to regain the public’s confidence, at the same time they will have to rethink their offer as to better address current needs and concerns.</p> 2022-05-13T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 International Conference on Tourism Research Understanding the concept of Industrial Tourism 2022-03-25T11:28:07+00:00 Zulmira Montenegro Jorge Marques Cristina Sousa <p>Industrial Tourism can be seen as a type of tourism that includes visits to industrial sites of the present, past or future, therefore including sites that are no longer active in their industrial function, industrial companies currently in operation, sites of future industrial facilities and places whose theme is related to industry (namely industrial technology centers, museums, industrial tourist routes, schools, and industrial laboratories). Thus, Industrial Tourism can include all kinds of tourist activities whose main reason for the visit is related to industrial knowledge, material and/or immaterial heritage. However, there is still a lack of conceptual clariry in the literature that may preclude the affirmation of this research topic that has received a reduced, but increasing, attention from the tourism studies community. The paper aims to contribut to a better understanding of the concept of Industrial Tourism and how it has evolved over time. For that it performs a systematic literature review considering 86 papers published in journals indexed in the two major bibliographic bases - Scopus and Web of Science, between 1996 and 2021. The analysis shows the heterogeneity of definition and approachs to this type of tourism. It also identifies two main approaches to the study of Industrial Tourism. The first sees the tourism phenomenon through the use of elements from the industrial past; The second, adresses it through the visit to active industries, which will allow tourists to experience firsthand the production processes of the products they consume.</p> 2022-05-13T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 International Conference on Tourism Research Governance Issues in Protected Areas: The Case of Peneda-Gerês National Park 2022-04-05T09:22:05+00:00 Sónia Nogueira Shital Jayantilal Sílvia Ferreira Jorge <p>The increasing attention that protected areas have received from various players ranging from tourists, firms, and government entities, has highlighted the need to promote appropriate governance mechanisms. These are essential to promote and develop those areas enabling an alignment between various stakeholders with diverse agendas. This research draws attention to this key issue, focusing on the classified Peneda-Gerês National Park (PGNP), considered one of the top 10 in Europe. In order to do so, we employ game theory. This methodology is appropriate for strategic decision-making and enables a deeper understanding of the impacts of different governance mechanisms and their outcomes. This paper will contribute, on a theoretical level, to advancing the use of this methodology to study governance decisions in classified areas. In order to do so, diverse settings are modeled to illustrate different governance solutions employed to manage Peneda-Gerês National Park, highlighting the strategic interplay between the key stakeholders and the outcomes attained. Our results demonstrate that the degree of alignment between the various municipalities will have a direct impact in terms of performance, as well, as show the mechanisms which contribute. Additionally, our findings contribute, in practical terms, to showing how important it is for the public entities involved in the management and care of Peneda-Gerês National Park to cooperate and align their interests to ensure success. Moreover, the study refers to Peneda-Gerês National Park, but the results attained are applicable to different contexts in terms of National Park management and promotion.</p> 2022-05-13T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 International Conference on Tourism Research Developing a Destination Management Information System: A Case Study of Ottawa, Canada 2022-03-31T16:28:56+00:00 Michelle Novotny Rachel Dodds <p>Over the last decade, the concept of smart destination management has been gaining momentum (Boes et al, 2016; Buhalis and Amaranggana, 2013, 2015; Del Vecchio et al, 2018a; Gretzel et al, 2015; Ivars-Baidal et al, 2019; Lamsfus and Alzua-Sorzabal, 2013; Xiang et al, 2015). As the tourism industry seeks recovery from the devastations of the COVID-19 pandemic, however, several authors have argued that it is more important than ever for destinations to become “smart” in efforts to build back in a more sustainable and regenerative way (Abbas et al, 2021; Assaf and Scuderi, 2020). Though called on globally to guide destinations through this era of change and adaptation, Destination Marketing Organizations (DMOs) continue to struggle to obtain adequate and reliable data. Specifically, those representing smaller regions often lack the internal capacity to perform the analyses required to become smart destinations (Dodds and Butler, 2019; Dredge, 2016; Gretzel et al, 2006). While the literature has pointed to Destination Management Information Systems (DMISs) as the solution to smart destination management, current applications have been limited and evidence remains primarily anecdotal. Therefore, guided by Höpken et al’s (2011) Knowledge Destination Framework Architecture, this study aimed to develop and empirically test a DMIS for Ottawa Tourism in its capacity to support smart destination management. Findings indicated that while it serves as a valid process in the development of a DMIS, a DMIS’s capacity to support smart destination management is limited by the quality of its inputs. Opportunities for future knowledge generation and knowledge application in the tourism industry are discussed along with areas for future research.</p> 2022-05-13T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 International Conference on Tourism Research Organizational Culture and Group Dynamics in the tourism industry 2022-03-09T09:10:03+00:00 Angelos Ntalakos Dimitrios Belias Athanasios Koustelios Nikolaos Tsigilis <p>The tourism industry is one of the most dominant industries at a global level that affect the world’s economy (Belias et al., 2017), as the tourism industry contributes to a very high percentage of the Gross Domestic Product of many countries (such as United States, China, Japan, Italy, France and Spain) (Statista, 2021). On the other hand, researchers have acknowledged the importance of organizational culture (Cook &amp; Yanow, 1993; Schein, 1993) as well as the importance of group dynamics, (Crossan et al., 1999; Wastell, 1999) on the members of an organization. Over the latest decades, globalization has made cultural diversity a world-wide phenomenon. Tourism and Hospitality is a field where someone can recognize the importance of cultural differences among different cultural groups. In an organization, such as a hotel company, there are a lot of cultural diversities not only among the employees of the hotel but also among the guests of the hotel (Rampley, 2005; Bavik, 2015). So it is essential for a hotel company to establish its organizational culture which will be consist of several values, rules and priorities that everyone who is involved in it (employees and guests) has to follow. The aim of this paper is to examine the current literature concerning the relationship between organizational culture and group dynamics in general, as well as in the tourism industry. The methodology which will be used is literature selection of papers, studies, articles and journals retrieved from online bibliographic databases (such as Science Direct and Google Scholar). Although, there is a significant amount of papers discussing the organizational culture or the group dynamics in an organization there seems to be a research lack in the connection between organizational culture and group dynamics especially in the touristic and hospitality services. With the current paper we try to shed some light in the above field in order to trigger for future theoretical as also empirical research.</p> 2022-05-13T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 International Conference on Tourism Research The Impacts of Covid-19 on Staff Training within the Aviation Sector 2022-04-05T14:04:44+00:00 Teemu Patala <p>Aviation is among those industries that were most heavily impacted and disrupted by the Covid-19 pandemic. The impacts were most severe in passenger traffic where the amount of seats offered dropped by 50% during 2020 causing airline revenue loss of 371bn USD. Air-traffic cuts exceeded 90% in some areas. Covid-19 pandemic had many indirect impacts on air travel services, including how staff training is carried out. Although the pandemic has had massive negative influences in different areas of life, it has opened doors to new innovations and developments as well. A giant leap forward has taken place in online education, which this study focuses on from the specific viewpoint of air travel service providers. Attempts to contain the spread of Covid-19 lead to school closures and by the beginning of April 2020 the pandemic had impacted over 90% of the world’s total enrolled learners. Similarly 188 country-wide school closures took place globally. This led to boost in online education – possibly the greatest growth of all time was seen.</p> <p>In aviation sector the impacts are evident as well, mostly reflected by the ways how staff training is delivered at airports. Organizations in air traffic chain had to adapt to the changed operational landscape, new health and safety risks and learn to comply with new regulations. Staff skills and competences were in the middle of this. This case study examines these developments in international air transport context during 2020 and 2021. We will look at various examples in aviation industry organizations related to staff training, focusing specifically on how training practices have changed due to Covid-19. From the basis of these findings and experiences, the paper attempts to draw a future scenario of digital transformation of training in the industry. Case studies are based on courses developed and provided by Airport College (AC) which is a private online training academy serving the global aviation sector with digitally enhanced training solutions. </p> 2022-05-13T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 International Conference on Tourism Research Tourism Routes Characterisation and Concepts 2022-04-08T11:11:31+00:00 André Pedrosa Filomena Zélia <p>The concept of routes in tourism has a broad understanding that goes from a journey between two or more points to a formal network of stakeholders. This scoping review provides an overview of the literature on tourism routes by analysing their characterisation and conceptualization. The review includes documents from four databases, written in English, published until May 2020, and focusing on tourism routes as organizations of stakeholders. Based on 194 documents, regional scale routes under the food and drink thematic group are identified as the commonest, followed by the pilgrimage and history thematic groups on a transnational scale. There are neither universally accepted concepts nor terms to define routes in the tourism field.</p> 2022-05-13T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 International Conference on Tourism Research Debt of Hotel Companies: The Impact of Company Characteristics and Crisis Periods 2022-03-07T16:55:14+00:00 Jorge Alves <p>This paper studies the financial determinants of debt of Portuguese hotel companies using the main indicators suggested by the Trade-Off and the Pecking Order theories. The main objective of this study was to analyse the determinants that most contribute to the debt of Portuguese companies in the hotel industry. The study also aimed to understand the impact of crisis periods on the debt. Since data collected refers to the period between 2005 and 2020 it also analyses the impact of the 2008 financial crisis and, more recently, the global pandemic COVID-19. The results show that debt is negatively associated with profitability and age, and is positively associated with size, growth opportunities and tangibility. These results are in line with the Pecking Order theory, ranking the choice of financing methods. We can also conclude that the way hotels finance their assets will affect their level of debt. We also evidence that debt of Portuguese hotels companies increases in periods of crisis.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Debt; Hotels companies; Crisis; Capital Structure</p> 2022-05-13T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 International Conference on Tourism Research Factors that affect the perception of the tourist destination of Braga 2022-03-07T20:52:15+00:00 Manuel Pereira Sofia Gomes Sílvia Faria Pedro Ferreira <p>This study aims to understand the tourists’ perception about the city of Braga (Portugal), bearing in mind four explanatory dimensions for choosing a destination – Destination’s Loyalty; Destination’s Identity; Destination’s Competitiveness and Destinations’ Image. This approach introduces a multidimensional concept of a tourist destination as a relationship between tourists and the places they visit. <br>A cross-sectional study was conducted based on the administration of a structured questionnaire to a sample of 220 non-resident tourists in the city of Braga. Hypotheses were tested using Partial Least Squares and confirmed the four explanatory dimensions as variables impacting in the visitors’ perceptions of this tourist destination. Results suggest that some demographic variables have a statistically significant effect on the perception of this touristic destination. This study brought to the discussion four explanatory factors of tourist destinations, focusing on the city of Braga. It provides clear insights on what to consider when strategically planning on how to make or keep Braga as an interesting place for tourists to visit and keep coming back.</p> 2022-05-13T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 International Conference on Tourism Research Internal Control and Risks Mitigation in Tourism Sector in Portugal 2022-03-28T18:47:41+00:00 Cristiana Pereira Helena Costa Oliveira Susana Bastos <p>The Covid-19 pandemic affected the operational risk of organizations, requiring its management through Internal Control Systems (ICS). The tourism sector in Portugal, one of the largest and most competitive, was also one of the most affected by the pandemic, which emerged in March 2020. The main purpose of this paper is to analyse the perception of tourism managers about the relationship between the existence of internal control and risk mitigation in their companies. We present a quantitative study carried out by questionnaire, sent to 830 managers from tourism companies in the region of Porto, Portugal. Most participants consider crucial the implementation of ICS and a competitive advantage in the current pandemic context. They also consider that the implementation of ICS is not accessible to all companies, but its absence does not necessarily make them more fragile. The study also concludes that besides internal control, the role of the Portuguese Government was crucial to overcome the difficulties caused by the pandemic and to ensure companies’ recovery. Financial support from the government allows companies to invest in procedures to overcome the pandemic situation, such as strengthening cleanliness measures, focusing on new technologies and creating products and/or services more attractive to consumers. This study contributes to the perception of tourism managers about internal control, highlight the need to implement risk analysis routines to manage risks that may threaten the company activities and highlight the government´s role in business recovery.</p> 2022-05-11T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 International Conference on Tourism Research Preserving ritual food as intangible cultural heritage through digitisation. The case of Portugal 2022-03-28T16:41:23+00:00 Makhabbat Ramazanova Cristina Lopes Helena Albuquerque Isabel Vaz de Freitas Joana Quintela Patrícia Remelgado <p>Ritual food and gastronomy, as intangible cultural heritage, is important for preserving cultural identity and traditions of a country, as well as a tool for promoting tourism. Due to globalisation and the mixture of different cultures, there is a risk that ritual food and associated traditions may be lost. In this context, the EURICA project aims to contribute to the preservation and safeguarding of European ritual recipes. The present work reflects the perspectives of the project´s target group, represented by cultural organisations and stakeholders on the importance and ways of preserving this intangible cultural heritage, focusing on digital presentation and promotion. The results of the work are intended to raise the awareness of the target group about the process of digitisation of intangible cultural heritage, which in turn leads to the preservation of traditional Portuguese gastronomy in a long-term context.</p> 2022-05-13T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 International Conference on Tourism Research User's Profile of Thermal Establishments: A Literature Review 2022-03-07T20:21:33+00:00 Fernanda Ferreira Cristina Rodrigues Vânia Costa Maria José Alves Paula Odete Fernandes Márcia Vaz Alcina Nunes <p>Contemporary society has an increasingly broad and holistic perspective on health and wellness. It is scientifically proven that thermalism perfectly combines these two aspects. It provides a better quality of life and a complete state of well-being, physically and psychologically. Several studies have been carried out over the years, reflecting a paradigm shift in the conception of thermalism establishments. For this reason, the sector's stakeholders need to be prepared and have the necessary knowledge to respond to the different needs, characteristics, and motivations of both usual and new thermal users to define better action strategies. In this context, the research's main objective is to present a literature review and content analysis on the thermalism topic, through the most recognised databases, exploring the offer, identifying its users’ profiles and pointing out some trends for the market. As a result of the analyses, the growing interest and relevance of thermalism in scientific production stand out, particularly in tourism, as a social science. There are several studies that present a direct link between thermalism and tourism activity. It is notorious that thermal activity has both a recreational and medicinal dimension, all over the world. Literature analysis has also revealed the power of thermal waters for the treatment of a wide range of diseases and health issues, related to different medical specialities. Although the more traditional thermalism is still very present, the most recent studies portray some gradual changes on the demand and supply side, with a constant adjustment of both. Particularly in the user profile, there is evidence of a rejuvenated, healthier and heterogeneous demand, with different motivations to frequent the thermal spas. On the supply side, it can be seen that these establishments are seeking to reinvent themselves in order to complement their basic offer related to medical dimension, also focusing on the leisure, to enrich the experience of their regular users and attract others. Regarding the expected trends, they are mainly related to 1) Increased demand for prevention, leisure and well-being dimension; 2) Changes in the user profile; and 3) High potential for tourism activity.</p> 2022-05-13T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 International Conference on Tourism Research The Potential of Voluntourism in Central Finland 2022-03-08T11:23:18+00:00 Rositsa Röntynen Minna Tunkkari-Eskelinen <p>Voluntourism is a relatively new type of tourism considered to contribute to the sustainability of the industry because of its ties to the local community and the destination. In recent years, with the strong impact of covid-19 crisis on the travel economy new practices and directions of tourism development were driven, and the requirement for sustainability has been emphasized. This research investigates the question: What is the potential for voluntourism in the province of Central Finland? Three studies were conducted. Firstly, existing secondary data was investigated, such as online reviews, blogs and media articles regarding voluntourism in Finland. Secondly, a questionnaire was conducted, which targeted municipality actors, such as mayors, business representatives, as well as regional developers and Leader local action groups, rural entrepreneurs, farm owners, village associations and other parties of interest. Thirdly, theme interviews were conducted with key actors about their current activity and interest in voluntourism to discover examples of existing uncoordinated voluntourism activity in the region. The results, which regard the identification of the voluntourism term, the existing concepts in Finland and the activity in Central Finland, revealed both opportunities and challenges. The term is unknown, and it does not cover all the activity that could be developed in Central Finland. The need is evident for multifaced and complex networking, as well as for the planning and funding of concrete piloting actions of voluntourism in the province. The data gathered could also be applied to the building of a national operating model of voluntourism. This study is a part of “The Value Project: Central Finland as a Leading Province for Volunteer Tourism”, which is implemented in cooperation between Jyväskylä University of Applied Sciences and Central Finland Villages Association, and co-funded by the European Union.</p> 2022-05-13T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 International Conference on Tourism Research COVID-19 Outbreak and Tourism: The State of the Art 2022-03-07T17:27:49+00:00 Ruggero Sainaghi <p>This paper looks at tourism and hospitality pandemic literature and asks two research questions. The first identifies the main topics analyzed, while the second investigates future research avenues. Manual coding of 230 studies using a grounded theory approach identified 11 topics. An empirical research framework was proposed and organized around four blocks: companies, tourists, destinations, and the whole tourism system. Current literature focuses mainly on the business aspect and analyzes the strategies implemented by companies to deal with the coronavirus outbreak. Intention to travel is the main focus for the tourist block, while impact studies attracted the majority of studies at the destination level. The main tourism topic that is analyzed is post-coronavirus tourism. The conclusions of this paper identify possible research avenues for each topic (analytic research agenda) and also consider the framework as a whole (holistic value).</p> 2022-05-13T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 International Conference on Tourism Research The Future of Brand Awareness and Brand Loyalty on Travel Agencies 2022-03-07T16:02:14+00:00 Sara Santos Joana Monteiro Pedro Espírito Santo Luísa Augusto Adriana Oliveira <p>Tourism has emerged as one of the great activities of the 21st century; however, due to globalization and the development of the Internet, travel agencies see some of their business principles being changed by new technologies. Furthermore, the impacts of the pandemic crisis (SARS-COV2) have been highly negative.</p> <p>In the field of tourism, travel agencies have been one of the parts that have undergone the most changes. Countless people have gone to a travel agency to book their trips in the past decade. However, this process is not always carried out in the same way. With the appearance and constant development of new technologies, the first online travel agencies emerged. In addition, the consumer becomes increasingly independent in their travel purchases, and the travel agent's work is limited.</p> <p>Online travel agencies advertise more, offering more attractive prices and other conditions that attract customers to buy their trips without going to a travel agency in a physical space. The relationship between agency and tourist is essentially online.</p> <p>Thus, it is essential to analyze the role of travel agents who have their physical spaces open and intend to increase their business by strengthening customer relationships. It is necessary to focus on consumer trust and loyalty while creating and establishing brand or company value.</p> <p>Thus, the results obtained in this study, through a self-administered questionnaire, from a sample of 512 observations, demonstrate that the perceived quality of the relationship influences the brand's awareness and customer loyalty: consumer satisfaction and trust. In this context, this study highlights the importance of the human relationship in selling tourist products and the tourist's previous experience in loyalty to the travel agency.</p> 2022-05-13T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 International Conference on Tourism Research Winery Word of Mouth: the Role of Brand Prestige, Brand Credibility and Wine Experience 2022-03-07T16:11:21+00:00 Sara Santos Fábio Caldas Pedro Espírito Santo Luísa Augusto Adriana Oliveira <p>Although tourism has been heavily affected by the COVID-19 pandemic crisis, its potential as an economic activity that enables the economic and social development of the regions is recognized. As a result of concerns caused by the COVID-19 pandemic, tourist agents seek to diversify their offers. In this situation, whether because of the knowledge and interest of tourists in the wine sector or because of the credibility and prestige of some brands with greater notoriety in the sector, wine tourism can be an essential stimulus for the attractiveness of tourists and international investors.</p> <p>Wine is a product of a highly differentiated experience, and tourists who visit wineries that produce wine seek to know the wine production process and have a unique experience with wine brands. These tourists who visit wine cellars seek information through specialized websites, blogs or magazines and highlight the role of word-of-mouth recommendations.</p> <p>Thus, this study aimed to investigate the influence of brand prestige, brand credibility, and brand experience on wine and wineries' word of mouth (WOM). It was carried out a cross-sectional study using a quantitative methodology. Data collected from a sample of 207 individuals were analyzed using PLS structural equation modeling using SMART PLS software. The main results obtained confirm that the credibility and prestige of the brands have a crucial role in the word of mouth of wine cellars.</p> 2022-05-13T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 International Conference on Tourism Research Shift work and quality of life on tourism, hospitality and restaurant industry: the Portuguese Context 2022-03-09T12:39:12+00:00 susana Silva Dora Martins <p>This research aims to study the association between shift work and the quality of life of workers. On the one hand quality of life includes several aspects of life (e.g. personal, family, marital or social) and serves as an important aspect in understanding the well-being of individuals in relationship with work life. On the other hand, shift work can be defined as any work organization of working hours that differs from the traditional diurnal work period. Furthermore, they are two factors strongly related, considering the increasing use of shift work in industry and services, especially from tourism, hospitality, and restaurant sectors, where shift work has the potential to disrupt different aspects of quality life.</p> <p>The main objective of this study is to characterize the quality of life of shift workers in the tourism, hospitality, and restaurant industry. More specifically to characterize their workers’ personal life, family life, marital life, and social life.</p> <p>Through an online questionnaire, data were collected from 122 shift workers linked to the tourism, hotel, and restaurant industry in Portugal. Data were analysed with IBM SPSS 27.0.</p> <p>Results showed significant differences between workers from fixed and rotative shifts for the personal life satisfaction level whereas workers from fixed shifts reported higher levels of satisfaction. Workers in the morning shift reported higher levels of personal life and family life satisfaction than workers that are not in the morning shifts. There are no differences between the satisfaction levels for workers from the afternoon, night, or weekend shifts. There are no differences among the marital life satisfaction according to the kind of shift (fixed or rotative; morning, afternoon, night, or weekend shift).</p> <p>This study provides several insights into the shift work theory and practice and contributes to knowledge of how human resource management will be reconfigured some practices to support the quality of life of shift workers in this industry. Limitations and future research suggestions are drawn in the last part of the paper.</p> 2023-01-03T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 International Conference on Tourism Research The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on Portuguese events: the case of Northern Portugal 2022-03-16T19:43:34+00:00 Maria de Fátima Matos Silva Isabel Borges Sofia Oliveira <p>Events, as forms of leisure and tourism, have had an exponential growth, visible in academic studies, but also as a new form of communication. Acting as important tools for territorial dynamization, they are assumed as generators of development opportunities for a region and leverage the positioning of a strong and positive image for tourist destinations.</p> <p>COVID-19 has had an impact on almost all aspects of our life. Many industries have faced significant revenue losses and contracted in terms of their growth and, naturally, one of the worst affected by the pandemic was the events industry. This pandemic crisis has introduced an unparalleled level of doubts regarding the type of events that will take place in the coming years and how they will be produced. Also, with restrictions and a population less willing to be in the physical presence of others, it's important to understand how participants are facing the possibility to attend future events.</p> <p>This research study aims to investigate and understand the impact of the Covid-19 pandemic on the tourism sector, particularly on the events industry, especially in the North of Portugal. It is also analysed how Portuguese were affected by the cancellation and/or postponement of events and also how they anticipate the future of this area. It is also analysed the risk and fear management and its relationship with the pandemic.</p> <p>In methodological terms we present a literature review to support the theoretical basis of the ongoing research work. We also used secondary sources of information, namely studies carried out among entrepreneurs of the sector, to identify supply concerns. In addition, an online survey was applied, via email and social networks, using snowball sampling. The study allowed us to collect data on how the Portuguese have been affected and what their expectations are regarding alternatives and the return to face-to-face events. The results show the importance of managing the risks, the resilience and adaptability of professionals and participants to a new paradigm in the events industry.</p> 2022-05-13T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 International Conference on Tourism Research Describing skills in hotel management syllabi: a view from the field 2022-04-25T23:10:57+00:00 Rosa Silva Gisela Soares Teresa Pataco Mónica Oliveira Susana Silva Cândida Silva <p>Developing a course curricula is a complex and difficult task since it must reflect the fundamental technical competencies and skills, but also the soft skills that students must develop to practice a specific profession. In this sense, Higher Education Institutions have been struggling to find strategies and incorporate methodologies into their course curricula that will promote the balanced development of these technical and transversal competencies and skills. Therefore, this paper describes an exploratory study on how the competencies and skills dynamic is featured in the description of the learning outcomes of a 3-year Bachelor in Hospitality Management degree in Portugal. It analysed the forty learning outcomes of the different subjects of the degree and framed in the Reference Framework by The Council of the European Union. Moreover, it also analysed the application of the taxonomy of Bloom in describing the learning outcomes. The preliminary results show that there are some explicit learning outcomes outlined in the reference framework of the European Union but they still lack those related to soft skills development. Furthermore, the application of the taxonomy of Bloom is adequate and fully present in the learning outcomes. These results highlight the need of reviewing the description of the learning outcomes, mainly its alignment with the content and teaching and assessment methodologies adopted by the different subjects.</p> 2023-01-04T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 International Conference on Tourism Research Measuring social tourism sustainability in Porto municipality: the views of residents 2022-03-28T18:06:49+00:00 Goretti Silva <p>In the previous decade, tourism planning and destination management efforts have focused on sustainability, particularly in its environmental pillar. In the last years though (and especially in destinations with high growth rates and risks of over-tourism) &nbsp;the social dimension has gained importance, also as a consequence of increasing awareness about the need and relevance of governance for the sector.</p> <p>The aim of this paper is thus to address the phenomenon of (over)tourism in the Porto area, and more recently, the zero tourism:&nbsp; how is tourism affecting residents´ life from their own perspective?&nbsp; ETIS -European toolkit for sustainable destination management was the indicator system used to develop this exercise, once it has already been adapted to the country's reality by the national tourism authority (Turismo de Portugal).</p> <p>Results concerning residents´ and local authority representatives’ feelings about tourism and implications to the local community, both from an economic and cultural environment perspective, how these affect the quality of life in the historical centers, are described. The study exposes different perspectives both with regard to advantages and disadvantages, but overall there is evidence that tourist development is widely accepted, considering it does not penalize the well-being of the resident population.&nbsp; Finally, results are discussed considering existing literature focusing on tourism sustainability in Porto, from a&nbsp; pre-covid and post-covid perspective.</p> 2022-05-13T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 International Conference on Tourism Research Pricing Strategies of Porto’s Airbnb New Listings 2022-03-29T20:09:00+00:00 Oana Ruxandra Bode Valentin Toader Rozalia Veronica Rus <p>Airbnb hosts’ pricing decisions are the choices hosts make when setting the daily rate for their listing of properties. Some Airbnb hosts have a long run approach, charging lower prices to attract more customers and achieve higher occupancy rates, while others have a short-run approach, charging higher prices to maximize the short-run opportunities from the market. The pricing strategy of Airbnb hosts is the key to their eventual success and plays an important role, since it influences their relationship with customers. Airbnb listings can be hard to price. Therefore, each Airbnb host faces an important decision when entering the market: What is the perfect daily rate to charge such that to achieve their goal? Major aspects, such as property location, type (private room, entire home, etc.) and amenities, target customers, other Airbnb competitors, thinking like a guest, the safety and beauty of the neighborhood, seasonality, etc., must be considered. Considering Airbnb’s exponential growth since it started in 2007, it is obvious that establishing a suitable pricing strategy is vital for any new host. The present paper uses information from the new listings in 2020 to investigate different hypotheses that explore the pricing strategies of Airbnb hosts for their new listings on the market. This study highlights, on one hand, the great need for Airbnb to encourage dynamic pricing among its new hosts and, on the other hand, the challenges faced by these hosts when they establish the price. An important characteristic of this article is the set of theoretical and methodological implications for the pricing strategy for the new Airbnb new hosts. Furthermore, this document reinforces the idea that the pricing strategy differs between cities and countries, emphasizing the strategy in the case of the new Airbnb new hosts.</p> 2022-05-11T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 International Conference on Tourism Research Taxation of Accommodation Services Provided in the Framework of the Collaborative Economy in the Slovak Republic 2022-03-07T15:49:23+00:00 Anna Vartašová Karolína Červená Cecília Olexová <p>The collaborative economy is currently experiencing a re-comeback in an innovated form given the development of digital platforms. This model of the economy was further supported by the period of the Covid-19 pandemic, when as a result of the introduced lock-downs, traditional forms of the economy have so far been dampened by states, especially in tourism (accommodation and gastronomic services). From the states' point of view, the collaborative economy is an area of interest in terms of legal regulation, including tax policy settings, and in the context of its expansion, its non-taxation may represent a tax revenue gap (especially for local governments in the context of local taxes). In the paper, the authors analyse the existing legal regulation of taxation in the field of tourism, focusing on the provision of accommodation services in the Slovak Republic, in connection with its possible application to the model of the collaborative economy. The authors aim to answer the research question of whether the existing tax legislation in the Slovak Republic is applicable to economic activities in the field of accommodation services carried out under the collaborative economy model. For this purpose, using the method of legal analysis, analysis of secondary data from available databases (Eurostat), partial comparisons with other EU countries and using induction, deduction and scientific synthesis, the authors conclude in terms of a formulated scientific question.</p> 2022-05-13T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 International Conference on Tourism Research Learning by doing: 2022-03-13T17:12:50+00:00 Sandra Vasconcelos Carla Melo António Melo Dália Liberato <p>Having a strong affinity and interdependence with a wide range of sectors and industries, tourism is, by nature, an interdisciplinary field. However, despite this realization, there are still different barriers to the development of interdisciplinary research and active collaborative projects within Tourism Higher Education. In addition to these barriers, there is also a disarticulation between tourism curricula and what practitioners perceive as being key skills within the industry. Hence, as the context in which the tourist activity takes place becomes more competitive, resulting in a pressing need for skilled and multifaceted professionals, educational institutions and tourism educators are increasingly being challenged to overcome these barriers and come up with creative projects that can help bridge the gap between academia and the labour market.</p> <p>Aiming to describe an interdisciplinary project focusing on soft skills within different tourism subsectors, this paper will draw on a literature review, project outputs and two questionnaires, as to describe its implementation and overall results. Mostly based on students’ perceptions and determining whether they are aligned with the industry’s current demands and expectations, in addition to a general description, it will crosscut different perspectives, analysing the importance attributed to soft skills by students and prospective employers. Deriving from this analysis and the project’s scope, the authors will also put forward a reflection regarding the impact of the project on not only student’s perceptions regarding soft skills, but also on the affordances of the project to develop transversal competences, making a case for other innovative initiatives. As a result, the final section of the paper will include references to lessons learnt and future research directions.</p> 2022-05-13T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 International Conference on Tourism Research User's Profile of a Portuguese Thermal Establishment: Empirical Study 2022-03-07T22:50:53+00:00 Márcia Vaz Maria José Alves Fernanda Ferreira Vânia Costa Cristina Rodrigues Paula Odete Fernandes Alcina Nunes <p>The thermal tradition plays an important role for society by naturally promoting and improving individuals' well-being. Thermal treatments help cure diseases and prevent pathologies, including mental and social ones, providing users with a better quality of life. At the same time, such a wellness activity introduces leisure components resulting from a more holistic perspective on health and well-being. Given the importance of this topic, which just recently started to be the object of empirical studies in Portugal, the present study aims to identify the profile of those who attend a thermal spa. For this purpose, a self-administrated questionnaire was applied to the Termas de Chaves' users during the 2021 thermal season, i.e., between August and November. A convenience method of non-probability sampling allowed to obtain a sample of 220 thermal users. This establishment, located in the sub-region of Alto Tâmega, North of Portugal, has 300 years of history and vast experience in providing thermal services for different audiences. To better understand and identify the features of the thermal spa user, sociodemographic data were analysed and identified the characteristics, motivations, behaviours, preferences, and perceptions of the thermal spa users under study. The data collected was submitted to treatment through an exploratory quantitative analysis. The distribution data analysis was elaborated using frequencies, centrality and variability descriptive measures complemented by TwoStep cluster analysis. The results showed that most of the participants in Chaves thermal spa are women, with an average age of 69 years (SD=12.556), married, retired, and living in the northern region of Portugal. They seek these services in the season between summer and autumn, for medical advice, mainly for therapeutic reasons, and stay in the thermal spa, on average, for 14 days (SD=2.667). Moreover, the cluster analysis identifies three different groups of users to which thermal stakeholders should consider different policy approaches. By defining the users' profile, this empirical research presents a practical contribution since it provides a strategic orientation for the thermal establishments' stakeholders aiming, essentially, at the (re)qualification of supply and the increase of demand, thus contributing to the sectoral and regional competitiveness.</p> 2022-05-13T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 International Conference on Tourism Research Traditional Wine Landscape as a Rural Heritage: 2022-03-28T13:40:41+00:00 Isabel Vaz de Freitas Makhabbat Ramazanova Helena Albuquerque Plínio Soares <p>Verde wine has a traditional and unique range of patterns and processes of cultivation that result from the interactions between communities and environments. The result of this interaction characterizes the local wine culture and rural landscape and creates diversity of characteristics developed through times. In this context, vineyard historical landscape assures the range of differentiation of rural places and contributes to the image of wine as a cultural asset based on the cultural heritage accumulation and the slow transformation of the landscapes. Safeguard this historical resilient landscape could reinforce the local character in his own unicity, authenticity, significance, diversity as a testimony of identity. Safeguard the historical wine landscape promotes the preservation of old techniques and fragile tangible and intangible heritage condemned to disappearance with the new standardized exploitations.</p> <p>In this context, this study identifies the values of Verde wine landscape as a unique heritage in the world, aiming to safeguard this traditional landscape in the perspective of local communities with a tourism approach.</p> <p>The methodological approach is to analyse, reflect and open the debate about Verde wine landscape elements and characteristics, to evaluate its importance and residents´ satisfaction, and to compare aesthetic perceptions with other elements of Verde wine landscape. Quantitative approach with survey questionnaires was applied to residents of the Verde wine region.</p> <p>The results identify local wine culture and rural landscape and find the diversity of characteristics developed through times in different places. The residents find Verde wine landscape beautiful and attractive, and they are attached to the traditional Verde wine vineyards, quality of wine and quality of gastronomy.</p> <p>The study reinforces the safeguard of this historical resilient landscape and the local character in his own unicity, authenticity, significance, diversity as a testimony of identity. It promotes the preservation of traditional and ancient techniques and fragile tangible and intangible heritage of Verde wine.</p> 2022-05-13T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 International Conference on Tourism Research Co-creation & design- “Living heritage routes” project: memory itineraries for the city of Lamego 2022-04-12T10:39:42+00:00 Didiana Fernandes Isabel Vieira Paula Santos <p>The “Living heritage routes” project aims to interpret a given geographical area for tourism - the city of Lamego - based on the visual/oral perceptions and memories of the residents, so that it is possible to create tourist proposals, based on co-creation, that involve the local community, students and cultural agents through the contemporary interpretation of the space. The project has three distinct phases: 1st survey of the material and immaterial cultural heritage; 2nd elaboration of tourist itineraries and 3rd realization of an event that promotes and divulges the project - through a historical recreation of the space. The main objectives of this study were to involve the local population in projects that aim to recover and promote the local tangible and intangible cultural heritage. We believe that it is possible to create new cultural and artistic products, such as thematic itineraries, based on the image, perceptions and memories of the resident population, which can attract more visitors, improving the development of sustainable tourism aimed at local culture promoting.</p> <p>The methodology of this project, as far as its 1st phase is concerned, went through a qualitative approach, using mental maps, accompanied by interview, as a method of enquiry, in order to understand the local community's perception of their urban space. The analysis and interpretation of the mental maps will follow the methodology presented by Kozel (2007). The results obtained through a first analysis of the interviews and the mental maps, applied to 40 residents of the city of Lamego from four different age groups allowed, in a first preliminary analysis, the identification of new natural and cultural tangible and intangible heritage resources, as well as the identification of several points connected to the singularity and identity of the city and its districts. It was also clear that the connection of residents to their districts influences the way they perceive the city, as well as its symbolic and representational icons.</p> <p>The results reinforce the importance of involving residents, in the co-creation of heritage tourism products, allowing the construction and renewal of the tourism offer in small historical towns.</p> 2022-05-13T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 International Conference on Tourism Research The evaluation of Tourist Routes in Portugal – a case of social policy 2022-04-12T15:15:10+00:00 Eduardo Tomé Carlos Vilela da Mota <p>This paper analyses the Tourist Routes in Portugal from a point of view of social policy, specifically focusing in the evaluation procedures and from there deriving conclusions about the management of those routes. The methodology has two parts – first the basic framework of evaluating programs in social policy is defined; secondly the Tourist routes in Portugal are described. After that, the routes are analysed according the evaluation methodology. We find out that the routes are evaluated, when this happens, by very basic results methods, which suggests that the routes are made by political or administrative or even marketing considerations and not by economic reasons. We also found that most of the routes are managed by municipal councils, on a shared basis, and their enjoyment is mostly free. The evaluation of results of the routes is made in an unreliable way. Signaled routes are in the minority, and route promotion is done using information technologies, but leaflets are not dispensed with. These findings question the relevance of the investment in the routes. Further studies should be done to further analyse the importance of the routes in the country.</p> <p>The paper is composed by the following sections: 1. Introduction 2. Literature review on social policy and tourism routes 3. Methodology and Data collection. 4. Results. 5. Discussion 6. Conclusions.</p> 2022-05-13T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 International Conference on Tourism Research Culture Consumption Shift to Mitigate the Climate Emergency 2022-05-09T18:06:39+00:00 Tlhologello Sesana Luthando Thomas Francine van Tonder <p>The built form of the South African post-apartheid city continues to perpetuate the paradigm that only one culture is available for consumption. Culture is consumed by South Africans who form part of a nation diverse in culture, and by an international tourist market, seeking the provision of diverse cultural experiences. Yet, most African cultural artifacts are found encased in colonial architecture museums, where the narrative is restricted to the observed, and where the cultures are entombed and thereby unable to reach out and affect the city around it. This places these cultures as either historical records and artifacts, or something foreign to the city, belonging to the fringes of the post-apartheid city, and not as an existing way of living that is held by city dwellers that lacks places that allow them to bear fruit and serve. In this paper, the authors argue that there is an opportunity to provide built form interventions that will accommodate the many cultures alive and active within South Africa. These cultures may be represented in built form, as a facilitator for first-hand experience, and may then further establish a market for cultural consumption and contemporary tourism that is more authentic. To do so, secondary data is presented on the current social and economic melee of how culture is consumed as a value-add good product in the post-apartheid city. Furthermore, two cultural architectural interventions are presented as case studies. A conceptual framework is constructed, showcasing the lessons learned, as well as expanding the conversation around culture, consumption, and climate – as well as how responsible tourism may support positive responses to each. By introducing the climate emergency, architecture’s complicity in driving consumption is further exposed. An argument is presented whereby existing architectural interventions in the post-apartheid city are shown to fall short in their attempts to transform the city away from the colonial capitalist linear economy consumption practices that degrade the environment. The paper concludes with a vision for future architectural interventions that better succeed in providing space and place for diverse cultural inclusion, thoughtful consumption patterns and climate change mitigation. There is a market for the consumption of culture as an experience. An indigenous circular economy of locally produced, and locally consumed culture is an alternative to current human consumption patterns that damage the environment.</p> 2022-05-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 International Conference on Tourism Research Customer Engagement with VR-enabled Tourism Activities at Cultural Heritage Sites 2022-03-07T16:14:37+00:00 Ahmet Hacikara Tingting (Christina) Zhang Jeff Weinland <p>Despite the tremendous amount of academic interest in virtual reality (VR), the existing conceptual models that presented VR attributes as antecedents of users’ acceptance and attitudes, failed to examine the power of VR technologies in promoting the alternative attractiveness of virtual tourism compared to traditional onsite visitation. This is of great significance to the solution of over-tourism issues frequently seen in the today’s tourism destinations, especially world-famous cultural heritage sites. Therefore, the present study fills the literature gap and empirically validates a conceptual framework that shows how visitors’ engagement with VR-enabled tourism activities could lead to an enhanced alternative attractiveness of virtual tourism, and their pro-cultural behaviors. A total of 571 valid responses from US visitors that have adopted VR-enabled tourism activities were collected to confirm the role of four VR attributes, i.e., immersion, vividness, presence, and enjoyment, in motivating users’ engagement behaviors with VR tourism activities. The study findings also testified that visitors who engaged with VR tourism activities are likely to adopt pro-cultural behaviors in the future and assessed the alternative attractiveness of VR tourism against the traditional onsite visitation. The findings will provide valuable implications for policymakers who aspire to preserve the cultural heritage sites while promoting cultural heritage destinations through advanced VR technologies.</p> 2022-05-13T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 International Conference on Tourism Research An Analysis of Sustainability Reporting Practices of the Global Airline Industry 2022-03-24T23:17:31+00:00 Eljas Johansson <p>Sustainability reporting (SR) has become a standard practice for many organisations worldwide. The purpose of this paper is to explore and develop our understanding of the global airline industry’s SR practices. Content analysis was employed to map which reporting frameworks the global commercial airline industry has recently used to report their non-financial impacts. Additionally, comparisons were made in the application of SR between geographical regions. The results indicate that two-thirds of the global airline companies had not published sustainability reports online (reporting period 2019). The Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) was the most widely used reporting instrument from the five major non-financial reporting organisations’ frameworks. Also, over two-thirds of the reports had used the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) as a reference framework or referenced SDGs in other ways. This paper provides one of the broadest overviews of global airline SR practices. It is expected that the results will be of interest to practitioners and scholars in aviation SR.</p> 2022-05-13T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 International Conference on Tourism Research Sustainable Management of Tourism: Insights from Portugal 2022-04-01T15:51:10+00:00 Fátima Mendonça Kelly Maguire Nuno Almeida <p>The importance of achieving effective sustainability performance in destinations worldwide has long been renowned (Cohen, 2002; UNEP and UNWTO, 2005; Castellani and Sala, 2010; Franzoni, 2015; McLoughlin and Hanrahan, 2019). Destination policy makers and planners have been working towards a continual and ongoing transition towards the development of sustainable industries for the past three decades. This has subsequently been influenced through the development, provision and implementation of sustainable tourism plans, policies and strategies at International, European, National and local levels. Such plans and strategies are aimed at promoting balanced development that ensures “tourism takes full account of its current and future economic, social and environmental impacts, while at the same time addressing the needs of visitors, the industry, the environment and host communities” (UNEP and UNWTO, 2005). However, sustainability is a transition and learning process (Miller and Twining-Ward, 2006) and managing tourism growth together with addressing the needs of the industry, society and the environment as a whole has become a challenge for policy makers and DMO’s alike. Nevertheless, it is incremental that destinations look to develop new ways of planning and seek to achieve new strategic positions to ensure the long-term sustainability, competitiveness and resilience of destinations moving into the future.</p> <p>In Portugal, tourism growth has been exponential with tourist activity accounting for €18.4 billion in tourism revenue and responsible for employing over 416,000 people (Instituto Nacional de Estatística, 2020).Although, the industry has been impacted significantly by the COVID-19 pandemic, there are positive signs that tourism numbers are beginning to increase once again and are expected to rise to pre-covid figures by the end of 2022, according to the European Commission (Costa, 2021). With this in mind, there is a fundamental need to make sustainability the “new normal” for destinations when planning for and managing tourism in both the short and longer term. Thus, for the purpose of this research, it is essential to understand the various impacts, both positive and negative, that can be generated by tourism activity to the economic, socio-cultural and environmental resource base in order to permit an examination into the current level of sustainable management of tourism in Portugal.</p> 2022-05-13T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 International Conference on Tourism Research Research on the Applications of Blockchain Technology Within Tourism Industry Ii Vietnam: Proposed Model in Phu Quoc Island 2022-04-05T12:18:34+00:00 Thuyen ngo <p>In recent years, blockchain technology has garnered interest from a diverse range of industries and areas, mostly due to its enormous possibilities for transforming the way data is stored and utilized, enhancing security and transparency, and facilitating transactions.&nbsp; In light of the rapid advancement of blockchain technology and the trend toward increasing the awareness of its benefits in the tourism sector, the Vietnamese government, particularly Ministry of Culture- Sports&nbsp;and Tourism, has made significant efforts and played a pivotal role in trying to establish an ecosystem, facilitating blockchain technology to gradually integrate into tourism activities. This contemporary study was conducted to ascertain the level of government interest in fostering an environment conducive to the adoption of blockchain technology in Vietnam. To begin, the author collected secondary data on the number of seminars held and sanctioned by local governments in Vietnam about the use of blockchain technology in tourism since 2018. Second, fifteen tourism specialists who work in resorts, travel agencies, and tourism-related enterprises on Phu Quoc Island were chosen to collect primary data using a mix of open- and closed-ended questionnaires. The Delphi technique was used to evaluate the data collected in order to estimate the outcome of a future scenario involving the establishment of a blockchain system on Phu Quoc Island. The findings indicate that local governments are likely to be interested in expanding the legal framework for access to blockchain technology, and tourism organizations are willing to incorporate blockchain technology into their current operations if the legal framework allows for this new technology. According to the findings, there are two distinct views on which business scope should be prioritized first. For example, hotel and resort representatives prefer to integrate booking and luggage checking first, while travel agencies prefer automatic commission allocation for travel parties involved in the entire tourism procedure.</p> 2022-05-13T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 International Conference on Tourism Research Sustainable Tourism in the Pandemic Era: A Case Study of Japan 2022-03-12T16:00:49+00:00 Olesia Silanteva <p>The sustainable tourism concept has been evolving continually and respectively with modern society’s views on sustainability. The tourism industry constantly faces new challenges showing weak points and providing opportunities for further concept development. With the focus on Japan as a case study, this empirical research discusses the insights of key stakeholders about managing sustainable tourism development during the crisis. This research takes the COVID-19 pandemic as an example of a crisis, which provides an opportunity for the sustainable tourism concept for further evolution. The results indicated that public and private sector stakeholders have different visions of sustainable tourism development. Japan’s current public sector approach to it implies resolving the issue of overtourism in main tourism destinations and providing comfortable living for local communities. However, it does not have any implications for making tourism more resilient to external crises. The proposals of stakeholders for response measures for future sustainable tourism development and related policies included the establishment of a crisis management system in the tourism sphere, focus on the development of domestic tourism, creation of proper guidelines for the tourism industry for actions in case of crisis, revision of traditional tourism techniques, the establishment of “new lifestyle”/adaptation to “with Corona” era, focusing on online business/ tourism experience, focus on the development of small groups tours and individual tours, development of flexibility and adaptivity to changes in social conditions, incorporation of public health-related issues, non-contact content expansion, individual approach to different areas, and regional cooperation incorporation.</p> 2022-05-13T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 International Conference on Tourism Research Critical success factors for developing and managing agri-tourism: A South African approach 2022-03-21T08:58:58+00:00 Christelle Charlien Van Zyl Peet Van der Merwe <p>While the agri-tourism sector is constantly growing, academic research on the development and management of this sector is limited in South Africa. The agri-tourism sector includes over thirty different activities and attractions. These can be categorised as outdoor recreation, educational experiences, entertainment, hospitality services or on-farm direct sales. &nbsp;It can be challenging to identify a single method for sustainability and success. Although many farmers develop agri-tourism products/services on their farms to generate additional income, several fail because of a lack of planning and management. Part of this planning is to identify the critical success factors needed to successfully manage an agri-tourism business. Research on the critical success factors of agri-tourism has been conducted in several countries, including India, the USA, Europe and Taiwan; however, a South African approach has not yet been investigated.</p> <p>This study aims to identify critical success factors needed to develop and manage agri-tourism within South Africa, based on various agri-tourism activities and attractions. By following a qualitative research method, these factors were identified through semi-structured in-depth interviews with farmers already managing a successful agri-tourism business. The findings indicated themes such as market research and marketing, customer satisfaction, staff including the need for employees to be happy, financial and business planning, employees’ and employer’s personalities, location and having a unique concept. These themes include elements such as a constant offering of quality products and services, being enthusiastic about your product/service, and understanding what your client wants. Many of these findings are consistent with the success factors identified in other countries, such as customer satisfaction, providing a quality product, good marketing methods and good customer service. As many respondents indicated a lack of prior planning and business analysis when developing their agri-tourism business, these success factors may be used as guidelines for South African farmers who do not know where to start when considering agri-tourism their farms.</p> 2022-05-13T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 International Conference on Tourism Research Tourism and Big Data in a post-COVID-19 world: the utopian and dystopian rhetoric 2022-03-07T19:22:12+00:00 Maria João Vaz Helena Machado <p>The tourism sector has been significantly impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic, making it one of the most affected economic areas worldwide. Simultaneously, the pandemic created contexts for the expansion and consolidation of trends already experienced in the recent past, namely the increasing adaptation of tourism to the digital society. One prominent example is the use of techniques known as “Big Data”, which carry out a massive mining of data from different sources, in order to define “profiles” of tourist consumption. This paper aims to map the social and ethical controversies associated with the use of Big Data by addressing the “technological optimism” that tends to surround the use of these techniques in the tourism sector.</p> <p>Through a review of literature about Big Data in tourism, we conclude that the rhetoric surrounding the use of Big Data techniques is both utopian and dystopian. On the one hand, according to literature in disciplinary areas related to the development of technology, Big Data is considered an indispensable tool for improving competitiveness in the tourism sector and for helping to understand the tourist more effectively. On the other hand, however, social sciences tend to frame Big Data as an astute representation of Big Brother, challenging the protection of personal privacy in tourism consumption and highlighting the lack of awareness and legal regulations, as well as the possibility of decontextualisation and false correlations that may jeopardize the touristic experience. For this reason, it has become urgent to develop a critical reflection on the ethical challenges posed by the uses of Big Data in tourism and consider routes of an anticipatory governance of these technologies.</p> 2022-05-13T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 International Conference on Tourism Research ‘Different Strokes for Different Folks’: Segmenting Drag Cabaret Audiences in South Africa 2022-03-09T08:15:12+00:00 Chris Hattingh Ashley Niekerk <p>In a competitive post-modern society, traditional theatre genres (e.g. satire, dance, drama, ballet, opera, classical music concerts and West End/Broadway hits) battle to attract audiences. This is especially the case considering the myriad of more popular entertainment- and leisure activities these offerings compete with. One such activity appears to be that of drag cabarets; which only became an accepted part of mainstream arts and culture during the last decade. Considering the nascent nature of drag cabarets, it is probable that its appeal among audiences has been empirically overlooked by researchers. To investigate the appeal of this increasingly popular leisure activity, a web-based electronic survey was completed by 670 drag cabaret audience members in three South African cities, namely Cape Town, Johannesburg and Pretoria. This study aimed to plug the gap in existing literature through sharing insights on the dynamics of human and social behaviour in a post-modern society through determining the motives of attending drag cabarets. Moreover, drag cabaret audience members were segmented through ‘benefit segmentation’ by applying a hierarchical cluster-analysis using Ward’s procedure with Euclidean distances. The findings revealed four distinct audience clusters, namely <em>the avid drag fan, the comedy enthusiast, the brotherhood tribe </em>and<em> the sisterhood tribe</em>. The identified audience clusters differed partially on some demographical- and consumption behavioural variables, but mostly on motivational factors. Moreover, this study found that drag cabaret audience members should not be regarded as homogeneous. To sustain interest in this developing leisure activity, recommendations were made on how to attract the right audience members, with the right message to ensure that products and services are specifically designed for and/or promoted to these audience members while meeting their particular needs.</p> 2022-05-13T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 International Conference on Tourism Research