International Conference on Tourism Research <p>The International Conference on Tourism Research has been run on an annual basis since 2018. Conference Proceedings have been published each year and authors have been encouraged to upload their papers to university repositories. In addition the proceedings are indexed by a number of indexing bodies.</p> <p>From 2022 the publishers have decided to make all conference proceedings fully open access. Individual papers and full proceedings can be accessed via this system.</p> <p><strong>PLEASE NOTE THAT IF YOU WISH TO SUBMIT A PAPER TO THIS CONFERENCE YOU SHOULD VISIT THE CONFERENCE WEBSITE AT<a href=""></a> THIS PORTAL IS FOR AUTHORS OF ACCEPTED PAPERS ONLY.</strong></p> en-US (Louise Remenyi) (Sue Nugus) Fri, 26 May 2023 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 60 Editorial, Biographies and Review Committee <p>edited by Dr Eirini Vlassi and Dr Despina Konstantinides</p> Dr Eirini Vlassi Copyright (c) 2023 International Conference on Tourism Research Thu, 01 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0000 An Inclusive Community of Practice for Cultural Heritage Tourism <p>Tourist activity has grown to be of extreme importance for a country’s economy, notably in several countries like Portugal, where the tourism sector accounts for over 15% of the national GDP. As of this moment, ensuring that our country has conditions to welcome and assist every tourist interested in our cultural heritage tourism while offering equal opportunities in the access information and use of infrastructures, is a priority. The Inclusive Cultural Heritage Tourism project uses assistive technologies, as well as inclusive and educative tools, to enhance inclusive tourism and to raise awareness of the lack of inclusion and accessibility of the deaf community, through regular interaction between deaf and non-deaf communities promoted by a Community of Practice developed for this purpose. One of its major purposes is to inform and educate about sign language. Also, this forum allows both communities to share their difficulties, thoughts, and ideas on matters of inclusion and tourism. This is accomplished through social networks, where a structure of interaction is built to enable the discussion and engagement of all participants in numerous activities. By developing a Community of Practice where everyone can communicate without barriers, we are contributing to the overall goal of the project: to create an environment where deaf and non-deaf individuals have the same opportunities to understand and be understood. The focus is to make cultural heritage venues inclusive and accessible, aiming for the easy access of deaf individuals to information and infrastructures. This, along with our community of practice, developed to assist and welcome every deaf individual, has the potential to offer better conditions to the deaf community, in their right to equal opportunities. Thus, the aim is to ensure that Portugal is able to position itself as a pioneer in inclusive tourism, as well as an up-to-date technological, inclusive, and accessible country for any tourist, local or foreigner, wishing to visit national cultural heritage venues.</p> Paula Escudeiro, Márcia Campos Gouveia, Emilly Oliveira, Nuno Escudeiro Copyright (c) 2023 International Conference on Tourism Research Fri, 26 May 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Sustainable Tourism Labelling – Greenwashing or sustainable impact? <p>There are a bewildering number of sustainable tourism labels to choose from. This working paper reviews the different offerings and develops a dynamic framework to increase understanding of the certification and labelling process from a circular economy perspective. The framework can be used as a basis for improving practice i.e., for tour operators and tourism agencies to communicate to tourists more effectively, for tourist destinations including tourism providers to make more effective decisions on how to progress with 2030 targets, and for tourism students to increase awareness of sustainable tourism certification and labelling and more effectively promote sustainable tourism to those working in the tourism industry.</p> Dr Christopher J Moon Copyright (c) 2023 International Conference on Tourism Research Fri, 26 May 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Patenting Behaviour of Hotel Firms <p>The characteristics of the hotel industry have led to the belief that hotel innovation happens through incremental service improvement, which is hardly patentable. In addition, there is a belief that technological development occurs only by incorporating innovation from other industries. Therefore, most research on innovation in the industry excludes the patenting behaviour of hotel companies, which might be a significant gap in the literature.. This paper is set up to address this gap using secondary data regarding the patents registered by hotel firms and variables concerning the characteristics and performance of those firms. Two hundred twenty-two patents (222) from 72 hotel firms in 14 countries were analysed and categorised using a mixed approach, qualitative and quantitative. A cluster analysis generated two profiles of firms according to their characteristics and patenting behaviour. The results suggest that hotel firms tend to patent inventions useful for innovating their processes or products and applicable in other industries (e.g., types of beds; flavoured beers; baskets for dishwashers). This result questions the approach of hotel firms as exclusive innovation adopters. Some hotel firms have an impressive track record of patent applications, with firms that have submitted dozens of applications each. The study has relevant implications for theory and practice, bringing a fresh approach to the study of innovation in the industry and revealing that patenting has been a growing industry trend.</p> Victor Alves Afonso, Maria de Lurdes Calisto Copyright (c) 2023 International Conference on Tourism Research Fri, 26 May 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Visitors' Satisfaction in Natural Areas: The Case of Vinhais Biological Park <p>Satisfaction is a widely studied issue in tourism as it provides an understanding of the performance of a tourism destination's offer, highlighting the most important features considered by tourists. The growth in tourism demand in natural areas also makes it an important factor in identifying visitor satisfaction, as sustainable planning of these areas may also rely on knowing the opinion of their visitors. In this context, this study aimed to determine the visitors´ satisfaction with <em>Vinhais</em> Biological Park, located in the northeast of Portugal, during the summer of 2022. A questionnaire consisting of 8 closed-ended questions to identify the socio-demographic profile and overall satisfaction was applied during July and August 2022. Therefore, 251 valid questionnaires were considered for the quantitative data analysis and a final sampling error of 6.13% was assumed. A descriptive statistical analysis was performed to identify the socio-demographic profile and the satisfaction with the resources offered. Four hypotheses were formulated to test the association between socio-demographic profile (age group, gender, nationality, and education level) and overall satisfaction. The c<sup>2</sup> test was used to test the hypotheses assuming a 5% significance level. The main findings showed that the socio-demographic profile of the sample is predominantly male (54.6%), aged between 11 and 40 years (77.6%), of Portuguese nationality (71.3%) and with higher education level (48.6%). Concerning the visit motivation, 61.4% went to the park after visiting the city of <em>Vinhais</em> or the region and nearly half (47%) of the respondents were satisfied. The results of c<sup>2</sup> test revealed no significant association between the socio-demographic profile and overall satisfaction, &nbsp;meaning that none of the hypotheses was supported. Considering the number of visitors received in the park annually, this study's sample can be regarded as a limitation, making the understanding of satisfaction limited to the period of analysis and at a period when the impact of COVID-19 is noticeable. Finally, for future studies, a comparative analysis with other natural parks, both Portuguese and Spanish, is suggested for better monitoring of visitor satisfaction.</p> Diana Alves, Elaine Scalabrini, Márcia Vaz, João Paulo Teixeira, Carlos Jesus Rivas Rojo, David Muriel Alonso, Lúcia Garrote Mestre, Paula Odete Fernandes Copyright (c) 2023 International Conference on Tourism Research Fri, 26 May 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Attitudes toward Reproductive Tourism and Cross border reproductive care (CBRC): Legal, Economic, Ethical issues and dilemmas, possibilities and limitations <p>The goal of the present study is to discuss the issue of Cross-Border Reproductive Care known as CBRC and Reproductive Tourism. The subject is of great interest as this type of tourism has been flourishing in recent years, without, however, being thoroughly researched, regarding the very important, health, quality of medical care, financial, ethics, legality and transparency or illegality, aspects concerning the processes that are carried out for the desired result of human reproduction. In addition, one of the sharpest-increasing types of Cross-Border Reproductive Care is international surrogacy.&nbsp; Thousands of interested people travel abroad for IVF and ICSI treatment, or with the aim to employ the paid services of foreign surrogates. The search for solutions has made CBRC a global industry. It is a multibillion-euro international industry introducing unique legal, financial, ethical, and risk-management challenges and disputes.</p> <p>The current study addressed this gap by examining Greek citizens’ attitudes toward Reproductive Tourism and Cross border reproductive and their legal, financial, ethical, consequences. To test the research hypotheses, a survey was conducted on 652 Greek citizens, who answered a questionnaire, which was distributed electronically in the format of a Google form. For the data analysis the study used the multiple correspondence analysis – MCA of sphere of multivariate data analysis.</p> <p>The results discuss, as far as the legal dimensions are concerned, the restriction on specific reproductive treatments in the country of residence. IVF and ICSI are allowed in almost all countries but there are legal restrictions regarding the age of the woman or the couple, unmarried couples, single woman, gay, transgender and same-sex couples. As far as the financial dimension of the CBRC is concerned, the study discusses the lack of financial data that is a natural consequence of the lack of both national and global registers. The cost of infertility treatment seems to be one of the most basic reasons for those interested to seek assisted reproductive services outside the borders of their country of origin and residence, and the commercialization of health is an ethical issue that deserves further study in relation to the country of destination. In addition, the study discusses main ethical issues regarding donors and surrogate mothers, among others, which have to do with their exploitation, their moral and physical harm, possible child abuse, parental rights and the sale of babies which are considered of a major importance. Donor or surrogate mothers may suffer from serious and even life-threatening complications. Donor or surrogate mothers from low and economic backgrounds do not have the possibility of legal support and coverage and cannot claim parental rights. Additionally, the study debates the high cost of treatments, health and care benefits, the economic exploitation of women from countries with weak economies, the instrumentalization of women, the legal issues and rights of descendants born in destination countries and in terms of their repatriation, the correct information and informed consent for the medical procedures to be performed, as well as many others because the list is long.</p> <p>According to the study the need that is obvious, due to the great impact of the CBRC, concerns the creation of a universal protocol through the European Council and the College of Obstetrics and Gynaecology (EBCOG) as well as the American College of Obstetrics and Gynaecology (ACOG) to remove all the above mentioned issues , issues and moral dilemmas that above all will guarantee the good of health, justice, non-harm, the good of justice, autonomy and self-determination and finally, human rights.</p> Sofia Anastasiadou, Andreas Masouras, Christos Papademetriou Copyright (c) 2023 International Conference on Tourism Research Fri, 26 May 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Perceptions and Attitudes of Domestic Tourists toward Ecotourism <p>Although authorities are aware of the economic benefits of ecotourism, domestic tourism in Oman often fails to prioritise environmentally conscious visits to natural areas that incorporate observation and education. Without greater awareness, the preservation of these destinations will remain a mere aspiration. This study aimed to collect data on the perceptions and attitudes of local tourists towards ecotourism in Oman, focusing on three popular nature destinations from different governorates. To address the research problem, a mixed approach, along with the descriptive correlational design, was used. Over a month-long survey, primary data was collected from fifty respondents, revealing an overwhelmingly positive attitude towards ecotourism in Oman. The potential for ecotourism in the country was rated as ‘High,' reflecting optimism about the future of the tourism sector. However, respondents also acknowledged that ecotourism can have a ‘High’ detrimental impact on the ecosystem. Economic and sociocultural implications were considered to be of ‘Very High’ importance. The positive perceptions and attitudes towards ecotourism in Oman were mainly driven by the economic and sociocultural benefits it offers. The results of this study indicate a promising outlook for ecotourism in Oman, as long as sustainable regulations are in place. Planning is crucial for every aspect of ecotourism, particularly regarding management, operation, and development. All goals related to preservation and conservation, as well as marketing and promotion, must be effectively communicated among stakeholders. The way in which Omani visitors perceive ecotourism is heavily influenced by economic considerations. Although ecotourism is viewed positively for its financial advantages for the nation and communities, concerns remain regarding the negative impacts of tourism development on the environment. It is therefore essential to focus on promoting sustainable growth in these areas without compromising the environment.</p> Don Anton Balida Copyright (c) 2023 International Conference on Tourism Research Fri, 26 May 2023 00:00:00 +0000 The effect of goal motivation on the integration and the success of an organizational change in the hospitality sector <p>The purpose of this research is to examine the relationship between the motivation to accomplish set goals and its effect on the integration and the success of change on four and five star hotels in Greece. The research aims to answer on two research hypotheses. These are the following: a) Η<sub>1</sub> Hypothesis: Motivation to accomplish set goals is a significant positive predictor of Integration of change and b) Η<sub>2 </sub>Hypothesis: Motivation to accomplish set goals is a significant positive predictor of Success of change. For this reason, a quantitative research was conducted. The sample of this research consisted of 513 employees who work in Greek four and five star hotels. The results of the research indicated that the hotel employees feel that they are moderate motivated to accomplish the set goals of an organizational change which occurs in a hotel company. Furthermore, the current research indicated that motivation is an important element for the potential integration and success of changes in the hospitality sector. Hence, both hypotheses were confirmed</p> Dimitrios Belias, Nikoloas Trihas, Irini Dimou, Markos Kourgiantakis Copyright (c) 2023 International Conference on Tourism Research Fri, 26 May 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Circular City Tourism: Defining Local Policies for Sustainable Tourism in Cities <p>Circular Economy is gaining momentum as a new economic paradigm able to couple economic development and environmental preservation. It reconceptualises the traditional take-make-waste production chain closing the loop to reduce a consumption of virgin raw materials and waste production and pollution. At the territorial level, cities are especially involved in the shifting from the linear to the circular paradigm, supporting the transition towards a circular economy. In defining their circular strategies, cities should consider the tourism sector and define ad hoc policies and tools to facilitate the transition towards circular tourism. Circular tourism is an emerging topic; at present, few scientific papers are available addressing this topic. Even fewer papers are available in the scientific literature about the circular city tourism, that is, the implementation of circular tourism in cities as part of a larger circular urban strategy. The present paper investigates the evolution of the circular tourism topic, considering the implementation of circular tourism local strategies at the urban level. Crossing scientific papers from three research fields – circular economy, circular city, and circular tourism –, the paper defines a framework for analysing urban policies for circular tourism integrated in larger circular city strategies.</p> Clara Benevolo, Renata Paola Dameri Copyright (c) 2023 International Conference on Tourism Research Fri, 26 May 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Impact of gastronomic events on the reactivation of MICE Tourism in Bogotá <p>Bogotá is one of the best MICE (Meetings, Incentives, Conferences, and Exhibitions) destinations in Latin America due to advantages in air connectivity, financial stability, industries, institutions, hotel infrastructure, and spaces for the development of large events. The city receives more than half of the foreign tourists who visit Colombia, traveling for professional reasons or to participate in congresses and conventions. Likewise, it is characterized by its cultural richness and varied gastronomic offer in products, flavours, preparation techniques, and presentations, with gastronomy being one of the most popular activities for tourists visiting the city for business or events, who take gastronomic tours, visit emblematic cafes and traditional markets. With the COVID-19 pandemic, tourism activity in the city decreased by 60%, affecting different sectors. Since the second semester of 2021, the reactivation of massive events and meetings has been promoted, with the reduction of restrictions and the execution of initiatives by public and private entities. Among the initiatives are events that promote the gastronomic sector. This is how the need arises to identify the gastronomic events that take place in Bogotá and describe the impact they have had on the reactivation of MICE tourism during the year 2022. The research is formulated based on a qualitative descriptive methodology, a matrix is built to consolidate the agenda of gastronomic events, the impact on attendees, exhibitors, and sales; Interviews were also conducted with experts who collaborate with public and private entities to create strategies to reactivate the sector. This achieved the identification of a program that includes gastronomic fairs and festivals distributed throughout the year with important figures in sales, attendees, local and foreign exhibitors, demonstrating the impact on the reactivation of the gastronomic sector, which presents itself as an attractive option for the development of the MICE industry in the city.</p> Anyi Gabriela Cárdenas Gómez, Gisell Alejandra Ovalle Carrillo Copyright (c) 2023 International Conference on Tourism Research Fri, 26 May 2023 00:00:00 +0000 The Perception Of Host Communities On The Impact Of Tourism In The Jericoacoara Region (Brazil) <p>The present study aims to analyze how the natives and ancient residents of the small locality of Jericoacoara, located in the Northeast of Brazil, and recognized as being a spot of an intense tourist movement, evaluate and experience the socioeconomic, cultural and environmental indicators resulting from the tourist activity and what are the impacts for the community and on the life of each resident. It is also intended to evaluate the acuity of the community perception towards the tourism in comparison with the opinions of scholars. Therefore we undertake a detailed presentation of the different theoretical positions regarding tourism and its positive and negative impacts on the host communities, taking in consideration the most varied segments interfering on population's everyday life. To better situate the issue, some of the most significant historical moments of Tourism in the World, in Brazil and in Ceará are highlighted. In relation to Brazil and Ceará, the study was also concerned with describing the main indicators related to tourism, as well as identifying the profile of workers in there´s activity, labor situation, schooling, income, living conditions, public policies of tourism and institutions related to this sector, either in the preservation of the environment or in the protection and defense of the historical and natural heritage, as well as to verify the transformations in the main basic infrastructures: health, education, transport and sanitation. In conclusion, the residents' perceptions about the impacts of the activity are presented. The recognition of the positive effects of tourism on the life of community, its social and economic aspects, are evaluated as well as some negatives effects in their cultural and environmental aspects. Also, a criticism and synthesis of everything that has been discussed is outlined and the key concepts of tourism such as development, quality of life and the encounter of cultures. Some suggestions of action</p> António Cardoso, Sandro BIAU, Manuel Pereira, Jorge Figueiredo, Isabel Oliveira Copyright (c) 2023 International Conference on Tourism Research Fri, 26 May 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Classification and Conceptualization of Health and Reproductive Tourism Concepts: Greece as an example <p>The purpose of this article is to study Health Tourism and in particular Medical Tourism in Greece, which is growing rapidly on a global scale. Medical Assisted Reproduction, as Health Tourism, is a pillar of development of the countries where it is practiced, contributing dynamically to the gross domestic product. The methodology of the research was based on the review of the provisions of the Greek legal rules and the most recent international literature. Through the results of the study, the actual dimensions of the definitions of the science of tourism are given and these dimensions are delineated based on contemporary literature and Greek legislation.</p> Sofia Anastasiadou, Christos Christoforidis , Andreas Masouras , Christos Papademetriou Copyright (c) 2023 International Conference on Tourism Research Fri, 26 May 2023 00:00:00 +0000 The Macro Context for Entrepreneurship in Tourism: A Review of Emerging Trends <p>Tourism has an enormous economic and employment potential, which, at least until 2019, encouraged many countries to develop their tourism offer and attract more tourists. Then the COVID-19 pandemic happened, and nowadays, Europe, the most important tourism destination in the world, faces a new war and refugee crisis. Tourism is an activity that propels the economy and job creation internationally; nevertheless, the activity is vulnerable to macro environment events. Both aspects are crucial issues for tourism entrepreneurs. Therefore, it is relevant to understand the emerging trends that entrepreneurs may face. Based on a systematic literature review, this paper aims to identify the major macro-environmental factors that impact tourism activity by answering the following research question: What contextual factors should entrepreneurs expect to impact their businesses? A systematic literature review was conducted in three steps: 1) selection of the relevant sources (on WoS and Scopus-indexed journals) using appropriate selection criteria that fitted the research questions; 2) assessment of the selected articles according to exclusion criteria to reach a final sample of articles; 3) full analysis of the base of final articles to identify emerging trends associated to relevant contextual factors. Results suggest that political-legal, technological, sociocultural, and sustainability-related factors have been the most relevant ones. This study has relevant contributions to practice since it highlights what entrepreneurs should expect from the macro environment. It also contributes to tourism literature by opening new lines of research and synthesising the trends impacting tourism activity.</p> Maria Teresa Costa, Maria Lurdes Calisto, Ana Teresa Machado, Zélia Santos, Sandra Nunes, Filipe Severino Copyright (c) 2023 International Conference on Tourism Research Fri, 26 May 2023 00:00:00 +0000 The impact of literary festivals on boosting tourist activity: the case of Escritaria <p>The growing awareness towards literary tourism has given it a gradual popularity, strengthening its role in the tourist offer in Portugal. Aware of this fact, we discuss, in this paper, the main initiatives of literary festivals in the country in the city of Penafiel. Experiences, images, and texts are increasingly important to achieve tourist realities. And it is through literary festivals that they are enhanced. Although event tourism has an increasingly interdisciplinary approach, the analysis of the literary experience is still scarce. The main goal of this article is to understand the experience provided by the literary festival ESCRITARIA which took place in 2022, holding its 15th edition. Therefore, a thorough literature review was done, as well as an exploratory and quantitative investigation. In addition, a data collection was carried out with a questionnaire designed to be answered online by the national and international participants in Escritaria. To understand Escritaria as a literary event proposal, one surveyed a sample of national and foreign participants in the festival; since it took place during the event, it allowed one to gauge the importance of literary events as an enhancing offer of the tourist activity. Starting from the sociodemographic profile of the participants, this study aims to understand the forms of participation, involvement and satisfaction. The results of the analysis highlight the growing importance of this type of events and this one, in particular, a festival that has been building loyalty and expanding its audience, an audience of national and international scope. This festival not only increases the number of tourists/visitors, but also enhances the destination promotion and marketing activities.</p> Ana Ferreira, Marta Villares Copyright (c) 2023 International Conference on Tourism Research Fri, 26 May 2023 00:00:00 +0000 The Contradiction Between Culinary Innovation Research and Gastro Tourism Practice <p>This historical review explores a descriptive-informative overview of cuisine as a component of gastro-tourism and travel. The paper reports on contemporary culinary innovation offerings in a South African context, analysing the links – or absence thereof – between academia and the gastro-tourism industry, to illustrate the ambiguity between research and practice in culinary innovation and its effects on the gastro-tourism industry. The qualitative methodology employed was informed by the historically oriented systematic literature review process.&nbsp; This was guided by a structured approach to determine relevant source material that would be useful for the historical literature review purpose. Evidence searches for literature from various sources such as scholarly journals and professional magazines, grey literature and personal reviews within the industry were undertaken. The examples in this paper highlight the potential unstructured innovation taking place within the South African food service environment without supported evidence from academic research. Role-players in both research and the gastro-tourism fields could apply properly researched food heritage and gastro-nationalism interventions to draw tourists and allow them to experience innovative use of local indigenous produce and food heritage innovations. Examples include Wild Peach (<em>Landolphia kirkii</em>) or Sand Apricot Vine (<em>Umkuzi</em> in Zulu) fruit leather disk covering a cheese and fruit plate, or swirls of fruit leather used to decorate a carrot and <em>Marula</em> Bundt cake, made from bright <em>Umnumbela</em> or Transvaal Milk-plum purée, and <em>Marula</em> (<em>Sclerocarya birrea</em>) pulp in the carrot cake batter. The research highlights the limited available data, to establish a viable link between academia and the gastro-tourism industry. Despite this limitation, the paper foregrounds the efforts being made towards culinary innovation within the South African culinary industry. Simultaneously it also illustrates the originality of this research and the importance of improved collaboration.</p> Hennie Fisher, Gerrie Copyright (c) 2023 International Conference on Tourism Research Fri, 26 May 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Emotional elements as part of the digital tourism experience <p>Digital tools and platforms are often considered to improve customer experiences. Especially during the pandemic, businesses engaged with digital tools, e.g., marketing, sales, communication and experience creation. However, using digital solutions is often considered to solve all the challenges and problems, and the emotional and human touch needs to be remembered. With the requirements of multi-channelled communication, customer encounters are becoming more and more challenging. Technical excellence is not enough, but understanding customer behaviour and emotions is crucial. The age of the customer challenges companies to create experiential digital services instead of mere efficiency. Digital customer experience includes value proposition, human-centred innovation, and experiences (Tussyadiah 2014) along all the touch points of the digital customer journey (Zomerdijk &amp; Voss 2010). These can be analysed with the sensorial, emotional and behavioural dimensions of Gentile et al. (2007) to understand the elements that create a customer experience. Gentile et al. (2007) also noticed that customer involvement and commitment were more substantial if several dimensions were present in the service. This paper studies the emotional customer responses to one webpage to determine the triggers creating emotions and thus resulting in actions. Laboratory experiments and thematic interviews were used as a method to help to form digital tourism experiences better. As a result, it can be stated that there is much to do to create positive emotional effects instead of frustration and anger. The study showed that even the pragmatic dimension failed in customer experience, and the sensorial dimension settled with vision. Even though this study functioned as a pilot for future research, it provided insights to the companies and increased the understanding of applying Gentile's dimensions of customer experience. While the tourism and hospitality industry is considered an experienced business, adding all the customer experience dimensions to the online channels and communication is recommended to increase customer involvement and, thus, customer loyalty.</p> Johanna Heinonen, Maria Murto Copyright (c) 2023 International Conference on Tourism Research Fri, 26 May 2023 00:00:00 +0000 A Systematic Literature Review on Career Commitment, Job Insecurity, and Turnover Intentions in the Tourism Industry <p>The tourism industry is well-known in the services sector. However, unstable jobs and insecure careers have impacts on career commitment, which are major concerns for the relevant stakeholders. The recent experience of the global pandemic COVID-19 has also exacerbated the jobs situation and reiterated the prevailing uncertainty in the tourism industry. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to carry out a systematic literature review (SLR) for exploring and analyzing the published scientific studies on the specific issue and highlight areas for further research. The systematic literature review based on PRISMA framework was follows, considering criteria of identification, screening, eligibility, and inclusion. Initially, 200 records were identified, ended with 32 included records for detailed review. Results indicates the use of unethical pro-organization behavior (UPoB), anti-social activities, working conditions, relationship between worker and supervisor, and some controllable and uncontrollable factors significantly impact turnover intentions of employees, requires mitigation through certain staff retention policies, particularly under uncertain and crises driven situations. The study provides further research directions for researchers, related to the theoretical and practical aspects. Limitations of the study are discussed in the concluding part of the article.</p> Mohsin Javed, Zuzana Vaculčiková, Zuzana Tučková Copyright (c) 2023 International Conference on Tourism Research Fri, 26 May 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Customer Loyalty in Spa Tourism: A Case Study <p>In today's business world, acquiring and retaining customers in the tourism industry is becoming increasingly challenging. High competition, constantly changing markets, and growing customer demands require constant adaptation to new trends and marketing innovations. It is crucial to cultivate customer loyalty, as it leads to repeat business and positive word-of-mouth promotion. Achieving this goal is an increasingly difficult task that requires innovative approaches to service marketing. Tourism includes very specific sub-sectors that are significantly different from the mainstream of the industry and serve not only well-being but also other needs. An example of a sub-sector that combines well-being and health is spa tourism. Existing studies suggest that factors influencing the loyalty of health spa visitors may vary depending on the region and cultural factors and may also change over time. Further research is therefore needed to precisely identify which factors are currently most important for promoting the loyalty of spa customers. This article presents a case study of increasing customer loyalty, with a special focus on the Czech Republic. The study identifies the current needs, preferences, and requirements of customers in the selected tourism industry. The article aims to complement a model of visitor loyalty for the needs of spa tourism and introduce marketing tools that currently influence customer loyalty in spa tourism. The complementation of the model is based on the generally accepted model of customer satisfaction in tourism. The proposed suggestions can inspire tourism businesses to fulfil the needs of health, active living, and well-being by effectively acquiring and retaining customers in a highly competitive environment. The study provides theoretical and managerial recommendations for increasing customer loyalty. The study is based on a questionnaire survey conducted in 2022 among spa visitors throughout the Czech Republic. The motivation was to identify key factors that support customer loyalty. The results show that specific treatment effects and procedures, information and personal experience, a pleasant environment and ambience of the spa contribute more to loyalty than satisfaction with accommodation or the offer of complementary services. The paper also provides a set of practical recommendations for setting up marketing programs and improving marketing communication for owners and managers of spa tourism.</p> Kateřina Kantorová, Martin Mlázovský, Ondřej Svoboda Copyright (c) 2023 International Conference on Tourism Research Fri, 26 May 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Border function and tourism relations in the divided cities on the Polish-German border. <p>The paper concerns the issue of impact the state border function on cross-border tourist relations in the divided cities on the Polish-German border (i.e. Zgorzelec (Pl)-Goerlitz (G), Gubin (Pl)-Guben (G); Słubice (Pl)-Frankfurt (Oder)(G)). Divided cities have always been a kind of laboratory of cross-border relations, due to their history and functional proximity. The main purpose of the study is to identify stages in the cross-border tourism relation process, taking exogenus (political factors) and endogenous (cross-border cooperation) factors into account and investigate whether these stages refer to theoretical concepts applied in the study (Martinez (1994) and the concept of the bordering- debordering- rebordering process). The analysis concerns the period 1945-2021. The research methods used in the study are analysis of the literature on the subject and direct observations carried out at border crossings in the divided cities during the period 1-4 June 2021. Conclusions: The most important external factor shaping cross-border tourist relations is the political factor and the permeability of the border as its consequence. On this basis, it is possible to distinguish periods for the formation of cross-border tourist relations that relate to Martinez's (1994) types of borderland interaction. However, the conditions for intensification of tourism relations between the parties emerge in the intedependent borderlands and integrated borderlands types of regions, when there is an opportunity to create cross-border tourism relations and cross-border tourism destinations. In the process-oriented terms, all elements of the bordering- debordering- rebordering concept and their reference and consequences to cross-border tourism relations can be described. Using the example of divided cities, it is shown that this is a continuous process, variable over time and highly sensitive to the political factor. Practical implications for local and regional authorities and DMO (Destination Management Organisations) have been formulated regarding the creation of cross-border tourist attractions using the state border as a distinguishing element (e.g. the rich and sometimes difficult German-Polish history, the culture of a Lusatian minority, border smuggling phenomena). The research conducted is regarded as a preliminary stage for further in-depth quantitative research, operationalisation of the model and its empirical confirmation.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> Małgorzata Leśniak-Johann Copyright (c) 2023 International Conference on Tourism Research Fri, 26 May 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Key Event Analysis of Customer Behaviour Using Clickstream Data in Airline Market <p>COVID-19 travel restrictions have significantly affected airline markets. A behavioural analysis is presented of 1 million customers of a major airline company over 3 years, using clickstream data, combined with COVID-19 Government Response Tracker (OxCGRT) data. The main results are that pre-pandemic, the variations in traffic volumes were seasonal and there was a consistent ratio of search (76%), buy (5%) and e-service (19%) activities across the year. The start of the pandemic caused a sharp drop in website traffic, which minimised at 1/3 of normal levels and then gradually increased so that post-covid volumes are now 20% higher, which reflects pent-up demand and consumer confidence.&nbsp;At the start of the pandemic, e-service increased sharply and then dropped to below pre-pandemic levels. The proportion of buyers decreased significantly at the start of the pandemic and then returned to just below pre-pandemic levels. The proportion of searchers remained high throughout the pandemic. Comparing post-pandemic with pre-pandemic, the proportion of searchers remains higher, buyers has dropped, and e-service remains the same. These results show the importance of distinguishing between different types of online activity, defined by three broad phases in the customer lifecycle: search, buy and e-service, which can only be achieved by using raw, clickstream data. Typically, web server analytics software employ aggregate data and it is much more difficult to uncover nuanced changes that are apparent at the granular level of individual clickstream data. The contribution of the research is to demonstrate a novel analytical methodology that exploits detailed clickstream data to characterize the dynamic changes in customer behaviour, which gives important insights into how online markets change in response to exogenous shocks by enabling key event analysis. Using the approaches outlined in this paper, airlines and e-commerce companies can anticipate, measure behavioural changes and be pro-active in their strategic responses to significant external events in the competitive environment that are likely to affect customer behaviour.&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Jihao Lin, Christopher Holland, Nikolaos Argyris, Laura Hornbake Copyright (c) 2023 International Conference on Tourism Research Fri, 26 May 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Wellness tourism in an active life system and promotion of social cohesion: the case of senior university(s) <p>Recognition of the potential of wellness and quality of life for tourism was manifested by deepening knowledge of this market in the face of the cultural and tourist dynamics developed, but also through the creation of new tourism products specific to this sector and an active lifestyle system. Senior universities, for example, have been playing an increasingly important role in this dynamic of well-being and active life. It has not only promoted activities aimed at the cultural and tourist practice of an active life of well-being but also contributed to the social cohesion of the territory. In this study, carried out geographically in the Centre of Portugal, the aim is to present a case study related to the practice of well-being and active life through the senior university in its relationship with tourism education and the enhancement of the cultural experience. The main objectives of this study are, therefore, the approach to wellness tourism in an active life system and the promotion of social cohesion and by verifying the importance of guaranteeing a healthy life in tourist places that lead people to experience aspects of a healthy lifestyle committed to growing cultural and tourist knowledge. To achieve both objectives, a quantitative analysis was carried out, and from the preliminary results, it is identified that senior universities should, therefore, be understood as social intervention devices. Innovative didactic approaches to teaching end up accompanying the availability of information that facilitates access to knowledge, not least because the new reality contributed by the aging of the population, associated with the process of globalization and the economic and social situation, poses new challenges to the present-day education of well-being, being and quality of life. &nbsp;The conclusions point to favoring the quality of life and social inclusion of those who actively participate in the activities provided by the senior university(s), as active life strategies linked to cultural, wellness, and tourism quality of life, reinforcing the role of social cohesion in the territory in which it operates.</p> Eunice Lopes, Jorge Simões, Eunice Duarte, José Rodrigues Copyright (c) 2023 International Conference on Tourism Research Fri, 26 May 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Tourism Promotion Using Social Networks: A Systematic Review <p>Social networks function as a strategy for the promotion and dissemination of tourism destinations. The objective of this systematic review is to determine what is known about the use of social networks as a tool for tourism promotion, in the scientific literature between 2012 and 2022. The Prisma methodology (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta - Analyses) was used, the databases were Science direct, Taylor and Francis, Dialnet, Redalyc and Scielo, with a total of 49 systematized articles, the inclusion criteria were those that are published between 2012 and 2022, are in Spanish, English or Portuguese language, and that have free access. The results obtained determine that, 78 % of the articles are current as of 2017, with a significant decrease during 2020 due to the global health crisis. It is concluded that the use of social networks by tourists allows them to publicize a destination indirectly, and they do so by posting photos and videos, accompanied by texts, either with information about the destination or with inspirational phrases. Finally, it is mentioned that there is a wide variety of social networks that could be used to promote a destination; but, among the most relevant we have Instagram, Facebook and Twitter, which have been observed in most of the articles, regardless of the category, are used as the main social networks for the dissemination and promotion of destinations. Tiktok could also be included as a social network with a lot of diffusion power; however, there are still not many studies that support this information.</p> Duberlyn Mayly Lopez-Ortiz, Isela Fernanda Rosas-Ybañes, Franklin Cordova-Buiza, Wilver Auccahuasi Copyright (c) 2023 International Conference on Tourism Research Fri, 26 May 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Developing the destination management organization of the 3rd generation. Insights from Slovakia <p>Destinations are traditionally created based on the administrative division of the territory. However, fragmented territorial structures can represent an obstacle to the implementation of effective development processes within destination management organizations. The activities of third-generation destination management organisations go beyond territorial divisions and instead focus on tourism flows and functional service chains in destinations. Even though the need to remove the administrative division of destinations is apparent and third-generation management organizations are being created, research in this area is not extensive. The aim of the study is therefore to present a methodology that leads to the efficiency of the activities of destination management organisations based on the monitoring of tourism flows and ecosytem of services in selected destinations in Slovakia (Dolný Zemplín and Horný Zemplín). Through a quantitative survey of visitors and tourism stakeholders in selected destinations, the authors found that the interested parties perceive the monitored destinations as a whole - not divided and the activity of existing destination management organisations as insufficient. The study provides recommendations for the implementation of efficient development processes within destination management organisations by connecting them based on the monitoring of tourism flows. The presented methodology can serve as a starting point for the restructuring of destination management organisations for other destinations in Slovakia and abroad.</p> Vanda Maráková, Lenka Dzúriková Copyright (c) 2023 International Conference on Tourism Research Fri, 26 May 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Evaluating Strategies for Sustainability and Business Performance in the Hotel Industry of Cyprus <p>Several studies have been carried out on the topic of sustainability management. However, little has been done to evaluate the actual effects of environmental and energy management as applied to the hotel industry. This paper provides an assessment of sustainability aspects and the prospects of proactive environmental management in the hotel industry. For this purpose, interviews have been conducted to a representative sample of four- and five-star hotels in Cyprus. Hotels were chosen based on geographical stratification. Data was collected based on the responses of general managers of the selected hotel enterprises. The results of the study showed that proactive environmental management, and specifically life-cycle and conservation of water resources bring multiple benefits in the hotel industry. It is noteworthy that these benefits create a win-win situation for business and society.</p> Stelios Marneros, George Papageorgiou, Andreas Efstathiades Copyright (c) 2023 International Conference on Tourism Research Fri, 26 May 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Factors of job satisfaction that influence organisational behavior: A correlational analysis in event companies <p>Organising an event is a process that integrates agents from various tourism sectors such as restaurants, hotels, travel agencies and transportation companies; and as in any organisation, it requires an adequate management of its human resources. Organisational behavior defines the way in which people act in the organisation and the impacts it generates; the key to a company's success is to generate a solid organisational culture that allows a positive organisational behavior within the company and that achieves that the collaborators provide greater productivity and profitability to the company. The purpose of this research is to determine the relationship between organisational behaviour and job satisfaction in a company that organises events in Lima, capital of Peru. The research has a correlational, cross-sectional and non-experimental design; the sample consisted of 20 employees, the type of sampling was census and the technique used was the survey. The data was processed and analysed by the SPSS program, using descriptive and inferential statistics. The results show that 55% of the collaborators indicate that there is a good organisational climate in the company, which is reflected in the behaviour of the workers; also, 50% have a high level of job satisfaction in the organisation where they work. A correlation level of 0.976 and sig = 0.00 &lt; 0.05 were obtained as a result, showing the correlation between the variables. It is concluded that organisational behaviour maintains a direct and significant relationship with job satisfaction in the study group.</p> Elizabeth Mayuri-Ramos, Angel Gabriel Melendez-Villanueva, Yuri Vanessa Conde-Beltran, Woendy Peralta-Ugaz, Franklin Cordova-Buiza Copyright (c) 2023 International Conference on Tourism Research Fri, 26 May 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Eating at a Peruvian Themed Restaurant: Consumer Profile and Behavior <p>The tourism sector has shown great interest in the development of gastronomy as it contributes to sustainable development and is a key attraction for visitors. Gastronomy has proven to be one of the main sources of income for different countries in the world, starting from the interest in the different culinary characteristics of each country: traditional dishes and drinks of the region or city, thus generating a first approach to the culture, tradition, customs and local characteristics of the destination, better known as tourism activity. Studying consumer profile and behaviour involves analysing the factors that influence an individual's decision making when making a purchase. This research sought to identify the consumer profile of theme restaurants, taking as reference the Rustica restaurant, located in Lima, the capital of Peru. It is a descriptive research of non-experimental design, constituted by a sample of 385 consumers, which applied the survey technique and the questionnaire was composed of 20 items. The results showed that the profile of consumers is made up of university students and young adults, living in districts near the restaurants; between 18 to 25 years old, where they highlight the importance of service quality and price, also, they surf the Internet, having Facebook and Instagram as their favourite social networks. It is concluded that knowing the profile and behaviour of the consumer allows to generate more successful marketing strategies in search of customer satisfaction. The importance of the study lies in obtaining reliable information regarding the characteristics of consumers of themed restaurants. In the future, it will serve as a source of information for studies on the consumer profile and for new entrepreneurs in making decisions to develop strategies focused on the target public.</p> Elizabeth Mayuri-Ramos, Mayra Ruth Sifuentes-Salcedo, Franklin Cordova-Buiza, Jackelin Briggite Rojas-Rosales, Geraldine Toribio-Tamayo, Yuri Vanessa Conde-Beltran, Wilver Auccahuasi Copyright (c) 2023 International Conference on Tourism Research Fri, 26 May 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Digital transformation: a study of the actions taken by museums during the pandemic. <p>The Covid-19 pandemic impacted the world economies. Among the most affected sectors is the service sector, with the tourism segment standing out. Museums, parks, theatres, and tourist monuments had a great challenge with the period of social detachment. Digital transformation was the way adopted by companies to connect with their audiences and, consequently, contribute to the different segments of the value chain such as accommodation, transport and leisure and recreation. Thus, the managers of tourist attractions bet on entrepreneurial actions supported by digital transformation to change the business model in the face of the new pandemic scenario. The literature is still scarce to explore these actions adopted by museums worldwide. Thus, the research aims to identify the actions related to digital transformation adopted by museums in Ouro Preto during the pandemic period and compare them with the actions adopted by other museums around the world.&nbsp; Ouro Preto is a historical city of Brazil, conferred by Unesco. These museums are one of the main attractions of the city, whose economy is anchored in this segment of the service sector. This research comprises a Systematic Literature Review, using the PRISMA method. The literature served as a basis for the preparation of the protocol for collecting information from museums in Ouro Preto, guiding the comparative study of the actions practiced by them and compared with actions in the world. The study identifies the digital presence of museums on social platforms and verifies the reaction of these organisations to the pandemic.&nbsp; The information was collected in 12 museums. The protocol was answered through secondary data published on Facebook, Twitter, Instagram and digital platforms used by the museums. The results show differences between the strategies of Ouro Preto museums and other museums. It was observed that Ouro Preto museums adopted a more passive strategy when compared to the strategies adopted by other museums in the world. This result demonstrates the lack of an improvement agenda of adopting advanced technologies to increase the added value of museums.</p> Rodolfo Perigolo Menezes, June Marques Fernandes, André Luis Silva, Luciana Paula Reis Copyright (c) 2023 International Conference on Tourism Research Fri, 26 May 2023 00:00:00 +0000 The Pilgrim Consumer Behaviour along the Way of St. James <p>The purpose of this study is contributing to increase the knowledge about Pilgrim’s behaviour during their journey. It focuses mainly on food consumption expenses and habits. The study aims to describe the behavior of pilgrims along the Santiago route.</p> <p>A cross-sectional quantitative study was performed to achieve our objectives. 225 pilgrims fulfilled a survey to characterise their profile and their consumption pattern during the pilgrimage.</p> <p>Our results showed that most of the pilgrims describe themselves as tourist or mystical and transcendental. The pilgrimage lasts 13 days performing 23,6 kilometers for 6,5 hours per day. Regarding differences in the amount of money spent according to the pilgrim profile or the pilgrimage we only observe significant differences for the tourist profile intending to spend more money per day. In the same way, pilgrims performing less than 6 hours of walking per day intend to spend more money.</p> <p>In conclusion, it seems that the Saint James Way seems to attract more people to the local community increasing their availability to spend money locally</p> Rafael Monteiro, susana Silva, Daniel Azevedo Copyright (c) 2023 International Conference on Tourism Research Fri, 26 May 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Creative tourism based on handicrafts in the municipality of Ráquira, Boyacá <p>This research allows to know the symbolic value and the representations that tourists give to the traditional utilitarian and artistic handicraft work in pottery and ceramics, to identify the criteria of inclusion and exclusion at the time of purchase in Ráquira Boyacá, considered as the handicraft capital of Colombia. The objective of this research is to identify the potential of creative tourism based on utilitarian and artistic crafts as a strategy for economic revitalization and cultural dissemination in the municipality of Ráquira Boyacá. In addition, it is based on the main categories which identifies having a support or information on a participatory scenario involving artisans, tourists, merchants and the community. Likewise, the type of research handled in this project is qualitative where the analysis is interpretative and reflexive. In this way, ethnographic interviews are carried out to obtain decisive information from the artisans in relation to the techniques, know-how and traditional knowledge associated with their artisan work in which tourism contributes to the dissemination, valuation and conservation of artisan work, privileging the principles of sustainability, quality and responsibility of cultural and creative tourism. Therefore, as a result, relevant information from tourists who visit Ráquira was evidenced, with the purpose of knowing the symbolic value and the representations they give to artisan work. Equally important, concluding this research, there is a great potential to strengthen creative tourism products based on handicrafts in Ráquira.</p> Jorge Alexander Mora Forero, Alvelayis Nieto Mejía Copyright (c) 2023 International Conference on Tourism Research Fri, 26 May 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Organizational Climate and The Achievement of Objectives in a Governmental Tourism Management Institution <p>Communication is an essential part to achieve the goals of any organization. Thus, nowadays, many organizations are committed to have an appropriate communication flow, being of total obligation to provide their collaborators with the necessary tools for an assertive communication; therefore, if the collaborators perceive that the institution offers them value, they will show great commitment to the achievement of the goals, based on internal communication. The government institution under study, which manages tourism in a region of Peru, presents several problems related to the organizational climate and its factors, such as lack of cooperation, poor relations between employees, conflicts and poor communication, which causes low productivity by the institution. The general objective is to determine the relationship between the organizational climate of the Regional Management of Foreign Trade and Tourism of Lambayeque and the impact on the achievement of the institution's objectives. Its variables seek to know if there is a relationship between organizational climate and the impact on the achievement of goals. Likewise, in relation to the methodology, it was a quantitative study, the method used was inductive and deductive, with a non-experimental design of correlational cross-sectional cut.&nbsp; Its population consisted of 35 workers of the Regional Management of Foreign Trade and Tourism of Lambayeque, and its sample was a census, since it worked with the entire population and had a non-probabilistic sampling, of these correspond to 19 males and 16 females. Likewise, in terms of techniques and instruments, a survey was used, and a questionnaire was used as an instrument for both variables. As the main result, when applying Spearman's Rho, a value of 0.872 was obtained, which indicates that there is a strong and positive relationship between organizational climate and goal fulfillment. In view of the above, it has been concluded that there is a significant relationship between organizational climate and goal achievement.</p> Franklin Cordova-Buiza, Heber Luis Olavarria-Benavides, Veronica Elizabeth de Jesus Jimenez-Tavara, Percy Ronald Ventura-Suclupe Copyright (c) 2023 International Conference on Tourism Research Fri, 26 May 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Increasing the User Experience Research Maturity of a Global Accommodation Comparison Platform <p>The COVID-19 pandemic drastically impacted the travel industry. Additionally, the recent combination of a sociopolitical crisis, natural disasters and an economic crisis resulted in increased price sensitivity and consciousness in consumer spending. However, the travel industry continues to recover as more countries ease travel restrictions. As travel volumes gradually increase in many parts of the world, product development teams focusing on the User Experience (UX) of travel websites are critical for user satisfaction and business success. User-centric design is the process of building a product or service based on the wants, needs and challenges of the users. However, being truly user-centric requires an active means of listening to users through UX research methods. When implementing such methods, organisations typically transition through different stages of UX research maturity; namely, from the beginning stages where there is a lack of resources and ad-hoc implementation, to a mature state where user research informs business strategy. This case study focuses on practice-based insights of methods used to increase the UX research maturity of an online accommodation comparison platform in the travel industry. The study covers a period of two years, analysing the outcome of the methods introduced to increase the UX research maturity. The case study aimed to achieve the following to increase the maturity: creating awareness of UX Research and the user; exposing UX Research to the wider team; and extending research ownership to product teams. The methods used included: diary study; jobs-to-be-done framework; organisational structural changes; involving product team members in research activities; increasing the frequency of interviews with users; and enabling the product team to conduct small research activities. The results included an increase in the UX Research maturity of the organisation. The product development approach increased its user-centric focus. Non-UX roles within the product team grew closer to the user by doing small research activities. User-centricity was introduced as a company value in the organisation. The results of this study are specifically of value for practitioners and academia in the travel industry and have implications for Product, UX and Research practitioners.</p> Marco Pretorius, Lydia Christine Penkert Copyright (c) 2023 International Conference on Tourism Research Fri, 26 May 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Health, Wellness, and Happiness: A Demand Analysis <p>Wellness Tourism is one of the most promising niche markets within the tourism field worldwide, assuming a recognized role in the global tourist scenario. In socio-demographic terms, it is related to some of the major contemporary international trends and is intrinsically related to population ageing and the increase in life expectancy. That has a set of consequences to tourist phenomena, based on the demand for unique and true experiences and products, that include health services, mainly in tourist destinations with more accessible costs, with infrastructure and natural conditions conducive to well-being. This paper analyses the contribution of Health and Wellness Tourism in the improvement of Happiness levels of the ones who experience these kinds of services. In this research, the analysis is focused on the demand side, considering health and wellness users and tourists in Portugal, providing a sociodemographic characterization, observing their travel behaviour, assessing their satisfaction with the health and wellness experience, and the levels of happiness obtained. The results demonstrate the potential of health and wellness tourism on the contribution to the happiness of users, according to their different profiles. It also evidences the impact of the frequency of use of this type of service on the improvement of happiness levels. Theoretical and practical implications for the development of health and wellness tourism from a marketing perspective are provided, complemented with a set of proposals for future research.</p> Joana Quintela, Carlos Costa, Anabela Correia Copyright (c) 2023 International Conference on Tourism Research Fri, 26 May 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Well-being Human Resource Model In The Collaborative Economy: The Keystone of ESG Strategy In The Tourism Sector <p>Sharing Economy is widely used in recent years and describes the commercial activity through online platforms, where third parties transact with each other and provides access to available resources or to resources that they do not use enough, with mainly financial motivations. Furthermore, Sharing Economy in collaboration with ESG archetypes can contribute to the sustainability of tourism and enables to the social well-being and economic growth of the sector. Thus, the aim of this study is threefold: (i) to investigate the role of the Sharing Economy and ESG practices in the well-being of Human Resources Management (HRM) in the tourism sector, (ii) to illustrate the research trends in the topic and (iii) to build a pillar framework for a culture well-being for businesses in the sector, which will be based on the principles of both Sharing Economy and ESG archetypes. To approach the research topic a five-step bibliometric analysis with R package has been applied. The bibliometric tools of Biblioshiny and VOSviewer have been applied for the analysis and the visualization of the results that come from the consideration of 593 original articles. The data were retrieved from Scopus database. The analysis indicates the role of gig economy, as the most important in the improvement of the well-being of the workforce in the tourism sector. The rapid growth of the gig economy is changing the future of employment, while can reconsider the work-life experience by allowing the workforce to select where, when and with whom they want to work. Today, businesses have the comfort of recruiting highly qualified, on-demand staffing talent day-to-day or as seasonal needs arise. Therefore, findings of this study present that tourism industry can not only survive but thrive through gig economy and offer to its human resource a work environment that will be characterized by agility, safety, balance, and sustainability.</p> Konstantina Ragazou, Alexandros Garefalakis, Christos Papademetriou, Ioannis Passas Copyright (c) 2023 International Conference on Tourism Research Fri, 26 May 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Circular Economy in Tourism: A System-Level Approach <p>Tourism is a sector where circular economy unfolds extensive opportunities. Despite being classified as a service sector, tourism depends on significant quantities and flows of exhaustible natural resources. As a result, circular economy in tourism has become an emerging field of study. This can also be ascribed to the fact that the topic of circular economy is currently high on the political agenda, especially in Europe. Because circular economy is receiving exponential attention from policy makers, it has also received more interest among tourism scholars.</p> <p>The aim of this paper is to increase understanding of circular economy in tourism research considering its systemic nature. The paper is based on a review of the scientific articles published in the years 2015-2022. The research question is: What are the recent developments and trends in the research on CE in tourism from a system-level approach?</p> <p>The findings indicate that the previous studies have mainly focused on the micro level from the environmental and business management perspectives in the hospitality sector. However, there are many emerging research themes, for example circular consumption behaviour, circular economy and smart tourism. In addition, other types of tourism companies should be considered, e.g., spas, events, and programme service providers.&nbsp; It is evident that more research is required on the meso and macro levels. In all levels, more attention should be paid on the social and cultural aspects of circular economy in tourism.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> Sanna-Mari Renfors Copyright (c) 2023 International Conference on Tourism Research Fri, 26 May 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Sustainability and social responsibility guide: good practices applied to Municipalities of Portugal <p>The aim of this study is to examine and present the good strategies and practices of sustainability and social responsibility of municipalities in Portugal. The development of Tourism has gained expressiveness over time, being considered a multidimensional sector, involving many products, services, and strongly contributing to local and national growth. This strong expansion has forced companies to develop a sustainable Tourism policy, articulating natural, cultural, and economic resources in the development of Tourism activities.</p> <p>The purpose of this research is to present the procedures and processes that lead to sustainability and social responsibility at its best performance that contribute to the brand image of the destination. The main purpose is to create a guide with good practices and new actions that are linked to the conservation and enhancement of the territory. In addition, ensure the protection of animal life, the development of sustainable Tourism, and the creation of innovative institutions that respect the environment, people, and cultures.</p> <p>In a first stage the good practices that are applied will be identified to integrate these systems into their day-to-day business. The research presented contributes to the growing Knowledge on this topic, and the findings propose a straightforward guide for the public institutions in the Tourism Sector. Further research is endorsed to reinforce the sustainability and social responsibility of municipalities in Portugal and other public sectors.</p> Ana Roriz, Mónica Oliveira Copyright (c) 2023 International Conference on Tourism Research Fri, 26 May 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Revenue Management Capability and Host Professionalization Degree <p>This study explores how a revenue management capability can be created by Airbnb hosts and the role played by the professionalization degree, defined as the number of listings managed by a host. The theoretical lenses used by this study is the resource-based. Based on previous studies on revenue management in the field of hospitality, a wide list of routines, skills, know-how and coordination mechanisms are considered to explain how the revenue management capability can be created by a host. In particular, the revenue management process can be segmented into four major components: i) identifying the required information to set the revenue management strategy, ii) taking strategic and then tactical pricing and revenue management decisions, iii) managing the communication and interaction with the guests, and iv) the availability of a software dedicated to revenue management.</p> <p>The study is based on qualitative data collected through interviews in the Milan destination. In line with previous studies, three different groups of hosts where identified: i) single hosts (also called group one), ii) hosts managing 3-5 listings (group two), iii) hosts managing more than 10 listings (group 3). The interviews were recorded, transcribed and coded using the software NVIVO. Results reports strong differences between the three groups of hosts and especially between single and big hosts (those managing ten or more listings). The goals itself are different: while single hosts prefer to select guest and maximize price, big hosts, supporting higher fixed costs, are strongly focused on revenue. All the four blocks are therefore managed in a different way. Small hosts are widely involved in the operating processes (check-in, cleaning, guest interaction) and in many cases the short-term rental is only an additional activity (the main work in another). Therefore, the time dedicated to data collection and revenue management strategy is limited. The opposite is for big hosts that are usually organized as a company with employees specialized per function and with a strong focus on revenue maximization. The paper is supportive for the emerging idea of professionalization degree. The study traces theoretical as well as practical conclusions. The main study limitations are listed.</p> Ruggero Sainaghi Copyright (c) 2023 International Conference on Tourism Research Fri, 26 May 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Tourists’ Engagement on Tourism Organizations' Facebook Pages: The Role of User-Generated Content <p>Tourism industry prospects are presented by digital marketing and consumer travel behaviour changes. Given this fact, digital content marketing (DCM) assumes greater significance for enhancing social media user engagement. Providing valuable and relevant information that differentiates the company and catches the consumers' attention has been one of the current challenges in this area. The wide availability of information on the Internet changes how consumers engage with it. Therefore, creating and disseminating educational and pertinent content is now mandatory. To ensure the effectiveness of the process, it is crucial to understand with whom, how, when, and where communication will be carried out. Thus, tourism organisations must offer targeted, tailored, and appealing information to interest customers more about the destinations. Social media is a commonly used strategy for tourism promotion initiatives, where User Generated Content (UGC) has emerged as one of the most popular means to achieve this goal. “Turismo Centro de Portugal” is responsible for publicizing the Centre region of Portugal, including cities such as Coimbra, Aveiro, Viseu, and Leiria. Turismo Centro de Portugal has won several communication-related awards, having already been recognized internationally for its advertising campaigns. Numerous studies analyzing user-generated content and digital content are available, but they invariably look at businesses rather than tourism-related institutions. Hence, conducting a study to identify follower engagement and involvement in digital content marketing posts versus user-generated content posts applied to the Turismo Centro de Portugal was considered pertinent. For this purpose, a qualitative analysis of the existing content and its results on Turismo Centro de Portugal's Facebook page was developed based on a social media content analysis framework adapted from other authors. The results revealed the importance of using user-generated content in a social media communication strategy for tourism organisations.</p> Sara Santos Copyright (c) 2023 International Conference on Tourism Research Fri, 26 May 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Gender Bias in the Hospitality Sector: Female and Male Jobs <p>The hospitality sector is still very traditional and male-dominated in terms of values, it is segregating and discriminatory according to gender, not only horizontally but also vertically, the wage differences between men and women are critical, and many of the jobs are stigmatized. Indeed, despite women representing most of the workforce in hospitality, such numerical dominance is not reflected in the leadership positions they occupy. Traditionally, men and women occupy different roles in the hospitality industry: women are more often assigned functions that are in line with their social roles and that represents an extension of their domestic tasks so that it is easier to find women in-room service or cleaning. Men, on the other hand, are more easily assigned physically demanding tasks, administrative and management functions, which require more skills and are therefore better paid.</p> <p>This study aims to examine the female and male social representation associated with the performance of certain roles in the hospitality sector, as perceived by tourism and hospitality students, to explore gender representations associated with different hierarchical positions and departments, and to understand some of the (in)equalities that continue to persist between men and women in hospitality.</p> <p>A quantitative cross-sectional study was performed to achieve the study goals. Our sample consists of 200 higher education students in tourism and hospitality. Based on Bem Sex Role Inventory short-form traits questionnaire, we applied an online questionnaire with the purpose of knowing the students’ gender representations of different professional activities in the hospitality industry.</p> <p>Within our results, we expect to describe the gender bias of the professional functions in the hospitality sector. On the other hand, we expect to understand possible gender differences between operational and leadership positions, and from different departments.</p> <p>The findings of this study will help the hotels to analyse their gender practices and policies. By giving voice to the stereotypes that foster gender inequalities in the hospitality sector, hotels can become aware of their gendered practices and policies that impact the recruitment process and the various roles and functions that are assigned to men and women.</p> susana Silva, Maria João Couto Copyright (c) 2023 International Conference on Tourism Research Fri, 26 May 2023 00:00:00 +0000 The employer branding practices in the attraction and retention of employees: the case of the Portuguese hotel industry <p>Employer branding is a concept that has become progressively a vital factor for the success of organisations and has captured significant attention in recent years, it is used to appeal to potential employees and at the same while engaging an organisation's current employees. It is a current and relevant tool for organisations that want to position themselves and gain name and prominence in the market. Employer Branding benefits organisations by making them attractive, reliable, and trustworthy and, subsequently, it contributes to talent attraction and retention.</p> <p>Therefore, this study aims to understand how the hotel sector uses Employer Branding practices in their working style, in order to provide greater attraction and retention of employees. With the lockdown, associated with the pandemic period, the hotel industry is facing unprecedented obstacles. As one of the sectors most affected by the pandemic crisis, the survival of hotel units depends on their ability to adapt to new challenges, namely in the human resources field.</p> <p>This study used a qualitative methodology, where semi-structured interviews were conducted with eleven human resources managers from hotel units, two were males and eight were females, with an average age of thirty-eight years, from eleven hotel units or hotel groups. Data were analysed according to thematic analysis procedures.</p> <p>The main results suggest that hotel units are increasingly beginning to give more importance to employees and human resource management has been making progress regarding the existing concern for employees. Furthermore, it was possible to conclude that, in the hotels under study, and in order to face the problems and challenges in their daily management, these organisations are increasingly investing in attraction and retention practices. Finally, it was also possible to understand the changes that have occurred in the hotel units, both arising from the day-to-day management and those related to the changes required by the pandemic.</p> <p>Therefore, we can conclude that hotels need to reposition themselves in order to redefine strategies/practices to support their employees in becoming more attractive to work.</p> susana Silva, Claudia Pires Copyright (c) 2023 International Conference on Tourism Research Fri, 26 May 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Designing a Framework for Rural Community-Based Collaborative Cultural Mapping: The Fontoura Project <p>The tourism sector has faced many challenges in recent years, and technology, more specifically through digital approaches, is becoming a valuable ally. This paper aims to understand how the use of digital tools in rural territories may empower local communities in activities such as cultural mapping with the aid of open-access platforms and in close connection with current trends in e-tourism. The research conducted and presented debates the challenge of drawing a collaborative and participative framework to engage and promote the tourism supply and demand ecosystem in these rural territories. Fontoura, situated in the Minho region of the Northwest of Portugal, is studied to understand how its historical, traditional, and cultural patrimony may promote the territory as a tourist destination. The research presented, which is still underway, resorts to a participative and collaborative design approach involving the rural community and is further supported by an extensive literature review. This comparative study includes the analysis of a small sample of similar projects conducted with rural communities, quantitative and qualitative data collection, and the development of participative and collaborative activities with the local community. Results achieved so far indicate that enabling the community members to participate in the process – through surveys (for tourists, visitors, and residents), interviews and focus groups (with the senior segment) – contributed to the building of a sense of community, unity, and a sense of belonging. These feelings drive the community members to provide the project with content for Fontoura’s cultural mapping and the other project’s expected results, such as the proposal of a framework for promoting collaborative design with a concern with InfoVis approaches when dealing with georeferenced tangible and intangible heritage and other tourism-related resources. Results also suggest that the proposed framework may contribute to similar actions in other rural territories seeking to discover and fuel their potential as tourism destinations. The work presented is in tune with current debates regarding the design of guidelines and recommendations suitable for rural communities in their quest for sustainability, digital transformation, and cultural and natural mapping.</p> Mónica Silva, Rui Raposo Copyright (c) 2023 International Conference on Tourism Research Fri, 26 May 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Social media in hotel crisis communication: a case study <p>The evolution of social media has transformed the way people communicate, share experiences and search for information before and after a trip. These platforms can bring countless benefits to businesses but implementing them effectively brings countless challenges.</p> <p>In the hotel industry, the use of social media as a digital marketing strategy has become fundamental to promote brands and services, as well as to create a closer relationship with the customer. It then becomes essential to understand how hotels can use these platforms effectively. Moreover, defining communication strategies, especially in periods of global crisis, with customers and public that include social networks are fundamental and a great challenge.</p> <p>In this sense, in this paper a case study of a hotel in a period including the global pandemic crisis of COVID-19 was conducted where good practices for social media management in hospitality are proposed, supported by the literature review and the practical learning provided in the fieldwork. These good practices also take into consideration the application of successful social media strategies in a hotel during times of crisis.</p> Cândida Silva, Susana Silva, Bruna Rodrigues Copyright (c) 2023 International Conference on Tourism Research Fri, 26 May 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Development of Greece as a Sustainable Destination: The Case of Mykonos Island <p>Mykonos Island is one of the most well-known tourist summer destinations. Every year, especially during the summer period, Mykonos hosts a plethora of tourists that arrive from different countries, such as Italy, France, the United Kingdom, Germany, Spain, and the United Arab Emirates. More specifically, according to Fraport Greece Traffic Data Management, in 2022, there have been 1,668,538 domestic and international arrivals at Mykonos Airport. Mykonos attracts, every year, several types of tourists due to the provided facilities, such as Greek traditional restaurants as well as fancy restaurants with international gastronomy, bars-cafeterias and glamorous clubs and beach clubs, 4 and 5 star hotels, beautiful beaches and beach bars and last but not least a wonderful climate and magnificent scenery. The aim of this paper is to examine the touristic profile of Mykonos Island over the past decade. The tourism industry has been seriously “injured” over the past years (financial crisis, Covid-19 pandemic). This paper will investigate the development of Mykonos Island over the past decade, through data which will be collected by statistical institutes (for instance SETE Institute) and Greek-authorized organizations (such as the Greek Ministry of Tourism). Also, the purpose of the current paper is to examine the case of Mykonos Island as a sustainable destination. Apart from the fact that Mykonos is globally famous for its luxurious image for summer vacations, the island of Mykonos has amazing geographical treasures and a unique environment. Thus, sustainable development needs to be implemented for Mykonos Island, in order to protect the unique environment, improve the existing infrastructure and create a better quality of life for residents and visitors. Hence, this study will focus on the opportunities and the obstacles which could arise from the development of Mykonos as a sustainable destination.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Dimitrios Belias, Konstantinos Skagias, Ioannis Rossidis, Angelos Ntalakos, Nikolaos Trihas Copyright (c) 2023 International Conference on Tourism Research Fri, 26 May 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Knowledge relevant for the implementation of sustainable tourism development – attitudes of local inhabitants and students <p>The purpose of this paper is to explore the attitudes and level of knowledge towards sustainable tourism development among the locals and the students. The research was conducted in Primorsko-Goranska County in Croatia. The results between the two groups were compared in order to get a clearer picture on possible similarities or differences in attitudes and knowledge levels because both of them are very important stakeholders for sustainable tourism development and need to be involved in this process. The methodology used in the paper consists of two levels of analysis. The theoretical part is based on secondary sources in the field of sustainable tourism development while the research one is presented through results from quantitative research through a questionnaire among local inhabitants and students of tourism in the Primorsko-Goranska County. A survey was distributed online, with questions related to sustainable development in tourism, its relevant elements and the knowledge connected to it. The data was then collected and analysed using independent-samples t-test, correlation analysis and other methods relevant for this research. The stakeholders assessed elements and perception of knowledge related to sustainable development in tourism. The paper emphasizes potential differences in the level of knowledge and attitude between the students and the local population. The attitudes of the stakeholders towards the topic are mostly positive, but they also underline the need for further education in the field of sustainable development, both in theoretical terms and in terms of acquiring skills and habits needed to thrive in the era of sustainability. The contribution of the paper is in identifying the necessary knowledge for the implementation of sustainable development of tourism among the local population and students of tourism. In addition, the self-evaluation of the current level of knowledge was examined. This should be the basis for the further development of educational programs and other programs for the whole local population in the field of sustainable tourism development.</p> Dora Smolčić Jurdana, Romina Agbaba Copyright (c) 2023 International Conference on Tourism Research Fri, 26 May 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Brazilian consumer behavior in restaurants during the pandemic: practical implications <p>The Covid-19 pandemic situation brought several challenges to Brazilian consumers, especially in the food and catering sector. For greater control of the pandemic, the Brazilian government has implemented a set of laws and regulations with the aim of containing the spread of the virus. The closure of restaurants, as well as the ban on the sale of food and beverages, led consumers to change their buying habits, as well as the emergence of innovative ways of selling these products to customers. This study aims to identify changes in consumer behavior during the pandemic period in restaurants located in the state of Bahia, Brazil. As for the methodology, quantitative research was used, with the application of an online questionnaire, made available on google forms; we get a final sample of 123 consumers of food and beverages, residents in the state of Bahia. The data obtained by applying the questionnaire revealed some changes in consumer behavior during the pandemic: adaptations in the way of buying and consuming food, as well as a reduction in trips to restaurants due to the increased use of mobile applications in shopping habits and a greater concern with hygiene habits.</p> Manuel Pereira, António Cardoso, Alvaro Cairrão, Taise Silva, Sílvia Faria Copyright (c) 2023 International Conference on Tourism Research Fri, 26 May 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Co-creating Experiences in Cultural Events: The Case of Three Portuguese Festivals <p>Experience co-creation has received much attention in tourism, events, and festivals literature. Often shared and consumed collectively, those experiences positively affect visitors’ satisfaction, the volume of expenditure, and levels of happiness, being essential for businesses, attractions, and destinations. As add-ons, co-creation experiences can play a significant role in diversifying and differentiating the supply of cultural events while contributing to fostering events and festivals as tools of territorial development. Within this context, this exploratory research aims to analyse the characteristics of co-creation experiences developed in three cultural events. Considering participation and personalisation as two relevant dimensions of experience co-creation, this paper analyses how they can be applied in the context of cultural events. The study follows a comparative approach, describing three cases of cultural events on the central coast of Portugal (Aveiro region). The methodology was based on participant observation and documental analysis of secondary data, namely the events and festivals characteristics, cultural programs, websites, and promotional materials. Major results indicate that two of the three events analysed have better conditions for the participation of visitors and the local communities, mainly due to the considerable number of activities that provide active participation and learning. On the other hand, one of the festivals fosters better conditions for the personalisation of services and experiences compared to the others, mainly due to the venue's characteristics and the way the program is designed. In that sense, the paper highlights the potential for the inclusion of co-creation experiences in events and festivals, providing a set of good practices for events and festival organisers and other tourism agents such as tourism businesses, tourism professionals, and local communities.</p> Paulo Teixeira Costa, Rui Carvalho, Medéia Veríssimo, Carlos Costa Copyright (c) 2023 International Conference on Tourism Research Fri, 26 May 2023 00:00:00 +0000 An Assessment of Cultural Places of Interest in Tshwane to Inform a Tourism Shift From Colonial to Indigenous Towards Decolonisation <p>This paper continues from the premise that the built form of the South African post-apartheid city continues to perpetuate the paradigm that only the colonial culture is available for tourist consumption. South Africa is a culturally diverse country that provides tourism to an international tourist market that seeks diverse cultural experiences. However, with most African cultural artefacts found encased in colonial architecture museums, questions arise regarding the authenticity of the cultural experience and the appropriate cultural representation in built form. This paper provides recommendations towards the transformation of the post-apartheid city following an assessment of the current tourist attractions that host cultural artefacts and serve as tourist attractions. Most of this data exists, and this paper investigates, collates and assesses the data based on these criteria: colonial and indigenous, restricted, and accessible, and static or transformative. The collated data is presented in urban mapping and architectural illustrations. The study is focused on the City of Tshwane in South Africa. Selected case studies are presented. The findings indicate a substantial under-representation in the City of Tshwane of what this paper argues to be culturally appropriate tourist attractions. This paper argues that there is a market for the consumption of culture as an experience away from colonial towards indigenous.</p> Luthando Thomas, Tlhologello Sesana, Francine van Tonder Copyright (c) 2023 International Conference on Tourism Research Fri, 26 May 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Performance Indicators in the Tourism Sector: Comparative Analysis of the Visegrad Group <p>Dynamic shifts in society accelerate the need to measure performance and use the data to identify promising areas for continuous improvement and eliminate potential risk factors. The process of measuring and analysing performance isn't anymore an essential task of strategic management only from the perspective of individual enterprises but also from the perspective of other subjects. Countries evaluate the performance of various sectors to track and record the economic benefits of industries and calculate shares of industries in the country's gross domestic product and other macroeconomic results. Considering the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic and digital transformation on global economics, the stakeholders understand the need to be aware of potential risks and opportunities in the future. Detailed measuring of industry performance is a driving force for identifying critical factors in economic systems and effective strategic planning. Countries should design and use the correct metrics and performance measurements to achieve desired outcomes. In the tourism sector, the most important performance indicators and results at the country level are presented as a part of Tourism Satellite Accounts. In this paper, we compare the current use of performance indicators in the tourism sector in Visegrad Group countries based on information from national statistical offices and other relevant sources. We investigate the processes of collecting data from economic subjects used to evaluate industry performance. The findings of this research confirm slight differences in using tourism performance indicators among analysed countries and tools used for obtaining required data. Although we identify several shortcomings in the existing conditions in Slovakia, we also formulate practical recommendations based on examples from other analysed countries to improve the current state of measuring industry performance. This paper contributes to a better understanding of the correct use and visual presentation of performance indicators. Our findings can also be applied in other countries to identify the possibilities of better monitoring for taking appropriate strategic actions and measuring the impact of activities to support tourism at the level of individual destinations or regions.</p> Dominik Trubač, Dávid Paculík, Katarína Ághová Copyright (c) 2023 International Conference on Tourism Research Fri, 26 May 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Profile of the Professional in Tourism and Hotel Business Administration in Colombia Post Pandemic <p>This article presents a process of inquiry to describe the professional profile of the tourism sector, demanded by Colombian companies in the post-pandemic period. The objective of this article is to validate that what students are learning through Higher Education Institutions that train professionals in hospitality and tourism in Colombia at the professional level, corresponds to the needs of the sector. The categories covered in this article are tourism and education. The approach is qualitative where the analysis is interpretative and reflective, seeking to understand the experience of the professional profile of the tourism sector. Likewise, the instruments used were interviews with different actors of the sector to present and analyse the professional profile, knowing what is critical point of knowledge and the soft skills required to positively impact the sector through its management contributing to the competitiveness of Colombian tourism recognizing the professional demand of the sector; as a result of this exercise, it was evidenced that the level of education in tourism is a relevant factor that can directly affect the competitiveness of the tourism sector and the economy of the countries.</p> Leidy Marcela Velásquez Moreno, Jorge Alexander Mora Forero, Angie Lorena Salgado Moreno Copyright (c) 2023 International Conference on Tourism Research Fri, 26 May 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Coastal tourism entrepreneurship during COVID-19 in Estonia, Finland and Latvia <p>The comparative study focuses on the resilience of small tourism enterprises in coastal and marine tourism in three Baltic Sea countries - Estonia, Finland and Latvia. The research aim is to explore the response of the micro and small-scale tourism enterprises in Estonia, Finland and Latvia to COVID-19&nbsp;and their development plans in the context of the pandemic. These countries share common strengths and weaknesses in tourism as well as their main tourism resources (e.g., the significance of natural resources), partially overlapping target markets. Data were collected in coastal regions in all three countries by using semi-structured interviews (Estonia N=12, Latvia N=12, Finland N= 5). Additionally, a quantitative data collection tool - a survey (N=51) was used in Finland. The content analysis generated several themes: (1) The ability of an enterprise to adapt to changes; (2) future expectations; (3) educational needs; (4) mind-set changes of entrepreneurs as a result of corona-pandemic and motivation to learn. Results suggest that more than before, coastal entrepreneurs estimate the rationality of decisions and the feasibility of investments. They report the ability to transform the design of tourism services to move towards touchless, digitized solutions as well as present an ability to produce unique service ideas under the pressure of the pandemic. Future expectations are related to the need for intensified cooperation among public and private sectors and different sectors of the economy to ensure entrepreneurial resilience and/or development. Entrepreneurs also stress their expectations regarding public (e.g. in nature areas) infrastructure development.&nbsp; COVID-19 pandemic has contributed to the emergence of business shrinkage strategies and vigilance toward development. The pandemic aggravated the deficit of employees and is directly linked to human resource motivation programs and the lack of resources needed to maintain that. Educational needs reveal several categories of topics entrepreneurs would like to learn about such as marketing, tourism product, and service design, management, and cooperation. The results in the three countries show a lot of similarities, the biggest differences can be seen in the various educational needs, also not in all countries the pandemic increased awareness of the role of cooperation or need to improve the quality of service when facing falling demand.</p> Linda Veliverronena, Ilze Grinfelde, Sanna-Mari Renfors , Marit Piirman, Margrit Kärp, Tiina Viin Copyright (c) 2023 International Conference on Tourism Research Fri, 26 May 2023 00:00:00 +0000 The Real Effectiveness of VR: the tourism and cultural organization managers' point of view <p><strong>Abstract: </strong>Virtual reality (VR) has become an important field of academic research investigation, firstly and obviously in relation to its technological aspects. Then, as a marketing tool for promotion and communication purposes. In this context, researchers have mainly focused on analyzing the behavior and appreciation of tourists with respect to this new technology. This article proposes an alternative approach, focusing on the company’s decision-makers, mainly tourism and cultural organizations, who use this technology. This approach seeks to understand how and why VR is integrated into a company's strategy.&nbsp;<strong>Methodology: </strong>Firstly, we did a literature review and studied a systematic collection of virtual tour offers in Switzerland, which led to the analysis of characteristics of these virtual reality offers. These characteristics consider the different virtual reality systems according to the level of immersion, interactivity, and presence, which made it possible to construct a classification of virtual tour offers in Switzerland. Secondly, a qualitative method was used to conduct twelve semi-structured interviews with companies offering virtual tours of Swiss regions, in order to understand the managerial vision of VR usage and to deepen understanding of the various applications of virtual reality in the context of Swiss tourism.&nbsp;<strong>Findings: </strong>The analysis revealed that there is a distinction between the different virtual reality systems used in the Swiss tourism sector. Research has shown that non-immersive 360° videos as a marketing tool are no longer of great benefit to tourist destinations. Conversely, immersive virtual tours for promotional purposes at trade fairs and with travel partners are still of interest however are no longer considered a competitive advantage. It is the integration of VR into the in-situ tourism experience which has received a more enthusiastic response but creating fears among tourism stakeholders. <strong>Originality/Value: </strong>The main argument of this article is that it analyzes the use of VR tools from the point of view of managers of cultural and tourist institutions, and not from the point of view of customers. Furthermore, the article proposes a new structural classification of VR projects in Switzerland and offers practical implications for tourism and cultural organizations, as well as new directions for future studies.</p> Julia Wirth, Nina Racine Copyright (c) 2023 International Conference on Tourism Research Fri, 26 May 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Antecedents of entrepreneurial intention: A study on students from the tourism management department <p>Undoubtedly, deciding to enter the business world is a challenging decision that is influenced by several factors. Some of them are cultural since they deal with widespread beliefs about entrepreneurial activity in a community at a certain time. Other factors are related to the entrepreneur’s personal characteristics. As young people in Greece are interested in starting their own businesses they interact with their peers around the world, mainly in Europe, for exchanging ideas, information and good practices, despite the cultural differences between the North and the South of Europe. This paper will address the issue of shaping an entrepreneur in Greece and the role of factors such as entrepreneurship education, personal characteristics, and social norms in his/her entrepreneurial intention. A sample of 143 students in the tourism department of a Greek University answered an online questionnaire at the end of the semester. Findings show that Personal Attitude (PA), Social Norms (SN) and Self-efficacy (SE) had a significant impact on the Entrepreneurial Intention (EI) of tourism students. The characteristics of those starting up businesses in the tourism sector will also be reviewed, and the consequences for policy makers will be examined to encourage new start-ups and increase the survival chances of the existing ones.</p> Panagiota Xanthopoulou, Alexandros Sahinidis Copyright (c) 2023 International Conference on Tourism Research Fri, 26 May 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Chi nese Middle-class Travelers’ Characteristics and Their Perceptions of Japan's National Image <p>Prior to the COVID-19 pandemic, China was the largest source country in Japan’s inbound tourism market. The middle class, with its high consumption desire, was the main contributor of Chinese tourists to Japan, an important force driving the Japanese economy and influencing the spread of Japan’s national image in China through the Internet. For this study, I collected 4,785 text data from Japan travelogues on two major Chinese travel websites between January 2016 and March 2022, conducted data mining and content analysis, and combined the texts to reveal the basic characteristics of Chinese middle-class tourists to Japan, as well as their perceptions and evaluations of Japan’s national image. The results show a change in the travel needs of the Chinese middle class from shopping, etc., to diverse, specific, and individual travel experiences and an obvious willingness to revisit. Regarding their perceptions and evaluations of Japan's macro national image, Japan’s national capacity is mainly reflected in its culture and economic technology, while its national characteristics are mainly reflected in hospitability. Although most impressed with Japan’s environmental management, mainly its infrastructure and natural resources, the macro sentiment of the tourists is influenced by historical Sino-Japanese relations and reveals reservations about Japan. Japan’s micro national image, as perceived by the tourists through tourist attractions, mainly relates to activities, while their perceptions of the tourist environment are the richest, focusing on popular attractions and landscapes. Their perceptions of tourism facilities cover various aspects such as catering, accommodation, transportation, entertainment, and services. Furthermore, their micro-emotions are mainly reflected in their satisfaction and praise of the destination environment. These results have several implications for tourism marketing and national image promotion in the post-pandemic era, when outbound tourism has fully recovered.</p> Abigail Qian Zhou Copyright (c) 2023 International Conference on Tourism Research Fri, 26 May 2023 00:00:00 +0000 The use of the EUROHIS-QOL-8 to Assess The Perception of Quality of Life at Termas de Chaves <p>Quality of life is a person's perception of life in the context they belong in. It compresses multiple dimensions that need to be assessed. The EUROHIS-QOL-8 scale is an instrument that measures the subjective well-being of individuals and the impact of different health issues. It is a brief tool to measure the quality of life that includes eight items. The higher the results shown in this scale, the better the quality of life of individuals. The EUROHIS-QOL-8 has been proven to have good internal consistency and an excellent index for measuring the quality of life. It has been validated and reliable in many different contexts of application. This paper uses EUROHIS-QOL-8 to evaluate thermalists' perception of quality of life before and after attending a thermal spa. It intends to identify if there are differences between the state of quality of life before and after using thermal spa services. For this purpose, a self-administrated questionnaire was applied to the Termas de Chaves' users during the 2021 thermal season, i.e., between 09 August and 20 December. A convenience method of non-probability sampling allowed to obtain a sample of 213 thermal users. The data were analysed through statistical techniques of exploratory descriptive and inferential analysis. The results showed statistically significant differences in customers' perception of quality of life before and after 14 days of treatment. In addition, the study of five sociodemographic variables showed that the categories: female, up to 35 years old, single, without academic qualifications, and housekeeper were the most benefited from the thermal treatments. Regarding the analysis of pathologies, the participants guided by their family doctor to attend the Chaves thermal springs for respiratory problems showed the most significant improvement. The paper's results dissemination becomes an added value for verifying the benefits of thermal spas on the individuals' quality of life. It also allows for better development of thermal spa products to improve the quality of life perceived by individuals.</p> Alcina Nunes, Márcia Vaz, Isabel Sofia Loureiro, Maria José Alves, Fernanda A. Ferreira, Vânia Costa, Paula Odete Fernandes Copyright (c) 2023 International Conference on Tourism Research Wed, 31 May 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Designing a Model of Commercial Voluntourism Services <p>Travelers nowadays increasingly seek destinations and activities through which they can immerse themselves in the local culture as a contrary to mass tourism and inauthentic tourist attractions. This has led to the reconsideration of tourism types and other activity involving travelling, such as voluntourism or volunteering away from home, which has earlier been predominantly seen as volunteering rather than tourism. Digitalization has brought opportunities for new actors to provide such services. Apart from the non-commercial activity, volunteering travellers are often willing to pay to enter the authentic scene and act together with and in benefit of the locals. Previous research has already established that Finland has the potential to provide a variety of experiences desired by voluntourists, and spontaneously emerging, uncoordinated voluntourism activity exists in the country. This activity, however, differs from voluntourism in other parts of the world and attracts different tourists. To be able to systematically design voluntourism activity as commercial tourism products, the influence of multiple factors defining visitor’s choice needs to be taken into consideration and understood. This paper aims at identifying the major factors and producing a model of conceptualizing commercial voluntourism services. The paper uses qualitative research data which consists of 70 global actors’ websites in total. Content analysis and quantifying is used. The most typical elements of commercial concepts are identified, and the model for designing a concept is created. The found elements are as follows: destination, significance and amount of voluntary work, traveller’s motives, duration of trip, need of qualification. The model shows that these elements work as dichotomy indicators. The element could be considered as “either – or” type of choice, but some activity could also be situated in between the extremes. For example, the duration of a trip can vary from one day to one year, but some trips’ duration can be less than the maximum and more than the minimum. The model promotes further voluntourism development in the Nordic countries such as Finland but could potentially be used even more broadly. The results reveal the importance of understanding the customer insight, and further steps should include testing of products designed according to the suggested model and studying customer reviews from destinations in the Nordic countries.</p> Minna Tunkkari-Eskelinen, Rositsa Röntynen Copyright (c) 2023 International Conference on Tourism Research Wed, 31 May 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Hotel Activities’ Development by Non-Residents: Portuguese Taxation and Accounting Framework <p>Purpose: Portugal has been recognized as an election destination in the tourism dimension. Several awards have been assigned to Portugal and Portuguese cities as the best places to have holidays worldwide. On the other hand, like other countries, Portugal has developed tax policies to catch foreign investment, and the tourism area is not an exception. The paper's primary goal is to understand the tax framework for the local lodging activities developed by non-residents in Portugal. Method: The research uses the legal research method to evaluate Portuguese legal data sources, in particular, it studies the personal income tax law and accounting standards. Results: The results show that the activity's development is framed in the Portuguese personal income tax category B scope. As a non-resident, the local housing income beneficiary is taxed to the income obtained in Portuguese jurisdiction through the hotel unit. The building is recognized as a fixed installation that will be recognized as a permanent establishment where the activity is developed. The gross income will be taxed under the simplified regime of the personal income tax, and it is applied a coefficient of 0.35 to determine the taxable base of the personal tax. Over the taxable base, the non-resident pays an effective tax of 25% of personal tax. All the expenses supported by the investor are not recognized in this process. The procedure is different whether the non-resident opts to be taxed under the organized accounting regime.</p> Susana Aldeia Copyright (c) 2023 International Conference on Tourism Research Wed, 31 May 2023 00:00:00 +0000 The Main Strategies of Restaurant Revenue Management and its Applicability in the F&B Department <p>Over the past years, Revenue Management has been used in various sectors, starting in the airlines, passing through the hotel and restaurant sectors, with a focus on the creation and maximization of revenue. In this sense, Restaurant Revenue Management becomes a useful tool for incomes, making establishments more competitive and contributing to business growth and sustainability in catering and restaurants context. The main objective of this study is to research the development and application of Restaurant Revenue Management, through the study of its systems and strategies, to understand how restaurant and catering establishments can optimize revenue through the creation and implementation of RRM systems. This research begins with a literature review where we aim to understand the principles and characteristics of Restaurant Revenue Management as a whole, to know the RRM strategies and how to apply them in the hospitality and catering sector. The methodology chosen was quantitative, where questionnaires were prepared and distributed to hotels and restaurants in Portugal. The results demonstrate that major part of the respondents is not familiar with the concept of Restaurant Revenue Management. Most respondents believe that the application of the RRM concept is important for the company's results and for those who are familiar with the concept, they consider that it allows the ideal customer to be defined based on their characteristics and enables decisions to be taken based on knowledge, creating a structure of fixed and variable costs. Purpose: Thus, the general and specific research objectives inherent to the study are: To assess how Restaurant Revenue Management is applied in Portugal in the restaurant and hotel contexts. To recognize what are its characteristics and practices. To understand how Restaurant Revenue Management influences revenues. To realize the advantages and disadvantages identified by the application of restaurant revenue management. Methodology: This research focuses on a quantitative methodology, using the questionnaire as a data collection tool. A deductive research approach was used in the scientific research process. The technical procedure used in the investigation phase was bibliographic research, having been collected information in several scientific articles and books on the subject. On a first moment, the collection of relevant documents for the research was made. The script was validated by six academic professionals and five professionals from the sector. After validation, an online questionnaire was conducted using the Google Forms platform. To achieve the maximum possible number of answers, the distribution channel used, to collect the results, was the e-mail. An initial telephone contact was made to confirm availability to answer the questionnaire. After this contact, the questionnaire was sent via e-mail. The questionnaires were conducted in Portuguese, as the study was only intended for entities located in Portugal. During the investigation, 880 questionnaires were sent out and 131 responses were received all completed, in a period between June and August. The instrument used to analyze and process the data collected was Excel. Results: The concept of Restaurant Revenue Management generally is not known among F&amp;B departments, as demonstrated in the answers collected during the distribution of the questionnaire, in which 58.8% do not know the concept and only 41.2% of the respondents are familiar with the subject. Those who know and apply the concept of RRM consider the application of the concept and its respective impact important and crucial for the business. In the answers to the questionnaire about 57.4% consider its application important, while 24.1% considers it very important and 14.8% extremely important. Only 3.7% states that the RRM is not very important. Of the 131 respondents, only 41.2% are familiar with the concept of Restaurant Revenue Management, making a total of 54 responses. Originality: This is original research with the authors perspective constructed based in arguments from other research work to back up the investigation.</p> Pedro Maia, António Melo, Mónica Oliveira Copyright (c) 2023 International Conference on Tourism Research Wed, 31 May 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Inventorying tourist resources: Assessment of the tourist potential of Vieira do Minho <p>This research aims to give an account of the process of inventorying tourist resources of the municipality of Vieira do Minho, located in the district of Braga, in the northwest of Portugal. Specifically, the natural, gastronomic, folkloric, handicraft resources, as well as events were analysed. The justification underlying this study lies in the absence perceived in the municipality, with regard to a complete and detailed cataloguing of all tourist resources. This entailed the creation of an inventory, where it was possible to make a “radiograph” of the existing tourist resources. Thus, some research questions guide our study: (1) How attractive are the tourist resources in Vieira do Minho? (2) What singularity do these resources present? (3) How can we classify Vieira do Minho’s tourist resources according to their notoriety? The potential of a tourist destination is defined by the importance and characteristics of the tourist resources, so its identification is essential for its development process. Each tourist resource examined in this inventory was evaluated, ensuring the most truthful and authentic assessment possible, so that, in this way, some gaps in terms of conservation and preservation of these resources can be filled. This inventory is a tool to make it possible to design and outline plans to boost tourism in the municipality of Vieira do Minho. The survey of resources was based on bibliographical research and empirical research, embodied in the stocktaking of all possible resources according to the following classification: attractiveness (international, national, regional, local and null), uniqueness (good, average and common), notoriety (high, average and low), as well as the quality of accessibility. The results presented in this work allow both the visitor and the Municipality of Vieira do Minho to enjoy detailed information and knowledge of the various tourist resources available in this destination. The present study, by carrying out an inventory and classification of tourist resources in Vieira do Minho, will contribute to transforming the local tourist heritage into resources and products likely to meet the needs of the market segments that choose Vieira do Minho as a destination for their holidays.</p> José Luís Braga, Isabel Borges, Sandra Brás, Catarina Mota, Fernando Costa Copyright (c) 2023 International Conference on Tourism Research Wed, 21 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Strategies to improve destination accessibility: The Case of Vieira do Minho <p>This paper makes a critical analysis of the accessibility, especially for people with reduced mobility, of the most relevant tourist resources in the town of Vieira do Minho, a municipality belonging to the district of Braga, located in the Northwest of the Iberian Peninsula. The research presented here aims to increase the quality of local tourist attractions, presenting strategies aimed at improving the accessibility of these attractions by people with reduced mobility. It is also intended to answer the following research questions: (1) how accessible are the tourist resources in Vieira do Minho? (2) What are the conditions offered by the various points of tourist interest in the village of Vieira do Minho? (3) What are the barriers that prevent people with reduced mobility from enjoying tourism in this destination? (4) What strategies can be implemented in the various points of tourist interest to enhance accessibility for all people? The methodology used was the structured observation of accessibility conditions in the main cultural spaces, green spaces, gardens, accommodation and restaurants in Vieira do Minho. It is therefore a matter of systematically observing and recording a set of previously established categories. The results of the investigation make it clear that the municipality of Vieira do Minho is on the right path to become, in the near future, a fully accessible destination for people with reduced mobility. Nevertheless, the present investigation detected some gaps, namely in leisure parks, accommodation units, municipal swimming pools, exhibition houses, among others. In order to become a destination of excellence, in terms of accessible tourism, Vieira do Minho will still have to make some improvements to the tourist offer it has, such as installing ramps and elevators, but also improving the quality of the floors in the tourist resources mentioned in this project.</p> José Luís Braga, Catarina Mota, Sandra Brás, Isabel Borges, Manuel Barbosa Copyright (c) 2023 International Conference on Tourism Research Wed, 21 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Bibliometric analysis of virtual reality in tourism and hospitality <p>It is experienced that the tourism and hospitality industry has been changing dramatically year by year, not only the crisis of the pandemic outbreak related to the restriction of travelling but also due to novel of technology evolution, including applications of virtual reality. In fact, applying virtual world into business operation to increase customer intention have been paid more attention from practitioners, scholars, and stakeholders. Yet, it is necessary to comprehend this field's trend and its impact on business strategies and the future perspective of applying virtual reality experiences in tourism and the hospitality industry. This study mainly aims to examine the current state of research and trends of virtual reality related-tourism and hospitality studies from the beginning to the outbreak of the pandemic and post-pandemic and discuss them over the period time towards the future perspective of this research. By proposing a bibliometric approach to analyse 1441 studies from Scopus data published over three last decades related to virtual reality experience in tourism and hospitality sector to generalize information associated with research opportunity for future in this area. This study uses a combination of RStudio 2022 and VOSViewer 1.6.18 software to analyse databases that were retrieved from reliable resources and the most signification impact so as to provide a whole picture of virtual reality connecting with the relevant context. With regard to offering information in terms of the volume document of studies, citations, authors, countries, authorship networks, keyword networks and keyword co-occurrences, the relevant research direction in this field as well as the top journals and conferences that have most published in this field by over years. By using bibliometric analysis, this study's result gives an understanding of value information and suggestions by visual overview for future virtual reality studies on the tourism and hospitality context.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Nga Ha Copyright (c) 2023 International Conference on Tourism Research Fri, 26 May 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Luxury ecotourism: The beneficial of the social media platform <p>Tourism is one of the biggest industries that has ever growth in the past few decades. Within the industry, ecotourism stands out to be a new norm of tourism, where tourists visit the wildlife, and nature habitat without damaging the environment and being within the area. Therefore, ecotourism become popular and well-known within the industry and with tourists around the world. However, the concept of luxury ecotourism is still new to many people. The idea of luxury ecotourism is to give the consumer the satisfaction of visiting wildlife, communities, and space, where remaining the luxury of the trip. The approach is applying ethical to luxury tourism, making the customer feel comfortable about not damaging the area they visit. The idea is fascinating but the popularity of this still needs work. That is where the benefit of technology comes in. The paper is focusing on the factor that can help spread luxury ecotourism to more customers, and in this case, is social media. Social media uphold the wide range and spreading speed that no other platform has, which might be beneficial to promote any kind of product or service. The paper is using secondary data from past research and paper, to form an idea of how social media can benefit the growth of luxury ecotourism.</p> Anh Dao Kim Copyright (c) 2023 International Conference on Tourism Research Fri, 26 May 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Fear of Travelling after Covid-19, the Moderation Effect of Social Distancing <p>COVID-19 has caused unparalleled public dread, which will most certainly impede tourist business recovery once the epidemic is gone. This research investigates the causes of the general public's epidemic travel anxiety, as well as how individuals impose self-protection, coping, and resilience with travel. The study blends theories such as protection motive theory, coping theory, and resilience theory to achieve the research goal. The primary data came from an online poll of 322 Southeast Asian travelers. According to the findings, the magnitude and vulnerability of the danger might induce "travel dread," which leads to protection motivation and precautionary travel behaviors during the pandemic. The findings also demonstrate that social distancing has memory consequences. In other words, individuals who willingly engaged in social separation during the pandemic are more likely to continue doing so in the post-COVID period since their long-term behavior has been influenced.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Dao Anh Kim, Hung Phi Truong, Sinh Duc Hoang Copyright (c) 2023 International Conference on Tourism Research Fri, 26 May 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Tourism and Marginalization in the Alps. The Case of Media-Alta Valtellina Region <p style="font-weight: 400;">Tourism and marginalization are broadly considered different trajectories in the Alpine region's development. On the one hand, tourism is one of the main economic drivers in the Alps. However, many areas still depend on a mass tourism economy that produces relevant ecological, sociocultural and economic impacts. At the same time, marginalization identifies those contexts excluded by mass tourism development affected by shrinkage, abandonment and economic decline.&nbsp;Within this framework, the paper points out that these processes often overlap and coexist, producing complex and layered spatial geographies.&nbsp;The Media-Alta Valtellina Region, located in the Lombard Italian Alps, is provided as a case study to investigate the relationship between mass tourism and marginalization through two sets of indicators. Tourism indicators measure the impact of mass tourism development, while territorial capital indicators assess marginalization processes and the potential expressed by environmental, productive, demographic, infrastructural, settlement, and cultural resources.&nbsp;As a result, besides popular mass tourism poles and non-touristic marginalized areas, several mature tourism destinations emerge where marginalization effects and mass tourism issues overlap. Furthermore, territorial capital broadly appears as the intrinsic potential that must be activated and valorized to build new development trajectories.&nbsp;In conclusion, according to the different potentials expressed by territorial capital, the paper provides preliminary suggestions and guidelines for achieving the territorial rebalance between the multiple processes investigated.</p> Francesca Mazza Copyright (c) 2023 International Conference on Tourism Research Fri, 26 May 2023 00:00:00 +0000 The Influence of the Heath Literacy on Tourist Health and Wellbeing Choices <p>Currently, there is a growing tendency for tourists to look for new experiences during their leisure or vacation trips. Increasingly, these experiences are echoed in pleasant places of relaxation. However, a classic tourist activity continues to be in high demand – hydrotherapy – which no longer offers only the usual and traditional treatments with water, but also other alternatives, bringing together a complex of proposals for all tastes and all budgets. Travel, stay, gastronomy, enjoy the landscapes and historical and cultural sites are today added to places where health and well-being complement tourists who seek it in a very rewarding way. However, choosing where to sleep, what to eat and what to visit is different from deciding which health and wellness treatments you can and should get and which ones will be beneficial and not harmful to your needs. The research question is, therefore, to understand if the health and wellness tourist influences his choices of health and wellbeing. By carrying out an empirical study, based on a questionnaire survey, some answers were obtained to the questions raised by the work and the conclusion shows that some results in terms of Health Literacy, differ slightly from previous studies.</p> José Rafael Coelho, Teresa Costa, Sandra Nunes Copyright (c) 2023 International Conference on Tourism Research Fri, 26 May 2023 00:00:00 +0000 What do hotel managers think of employee rewards? An exploration of five-star hotels in Cape Town <p>Reward systems are important tools that management can use to motivate employees; the main objective of organizations in awarding rewards is to attract and retain efficient, productive, and motivated employees. However, there is no evidence available regarding managers' perceptions of employee rewards in five-star hotels in Cape Town.&nbsp;&nbsp;Therefore, this study aims to explore the perceptions of five-star hotel managers about the reward systems offered to employees. Further, this paper attempts to explore the influence and impact of the covid-19 pandemic on the employee reward systems offered at five-star hotels. A total of 14 interviews were conducted with managers working in four selected five-star hotels. The study used semi-structured interviews to collect qualitative data. The data were analysed using Creswell’s six steps. The study's findings indicate that managers offered distinct types of rewards to their employees, including extrinsic and intrinsic rewards. Managers revealed that extrinsic rewards, specifically money, are the most preferred rewards. The study revealed that the impact of the Covid-19 pandemic led to hotels adjusting their employee reward systems to offer less extrinsic rewards and more intrinsic rewards. This paper concludes by recommending strategies to hotel management for enhancing the type of rewards offered to employees and offering utilisation of effective intrinsic rewards. This is to ensure that employees increase their value towards intrinsic rewards as much as they value extrinsic rewards &nbsp;&nbsp;Implications for future research are also presented.</p> Mzukisi Cwibi Copyright (c) 2023 International Conference on Tourism Research Fri, 26 May 2023 00:00:00 +0000