Key Types of Crowdsourcing in Science: Systematic Literature Review


  • Regina Lenart-Gansiniec Jagiellonian University



crowdsourcing in science, typology, academics, academic crowdsourcing, thematic analysis


Recent changes in information systems technology, combined with the postulates of open access to information, are causing the processes of knowledge production and dissemination to change. The necessity of the democratization of science, scientific openness, social orientation of science and the involvement of stakeholders from outside the scientific community in conducting research becomes a necessity for researchers. This is also in line with the guidelines of the European Commission's Community Research and Development Information Service, according to which academics are expected to change the ways of creating knowledge, be oriented towards solving social problems or transgress traditional disciplinary boundaries. Crowdsourcing in science is a collaborative online process through which scientists involve a group of self-selected individuals of varying, diverse knowledge and skills, via an open call to the Internet and/or online platforms, to undertake a specified research task or set of tasks. While research efforts to date have focused on the benefits of crowdsourcing in science, its typology has yet to mature. Typologies are important in describing complex, multidisciplinary organizational forms such as crowdsourcing in science. The main purpose of this article is to identify and provide a typology of crowdsourcing in science. Based on the thematic analysis of publications collected in a systematic manner and focused group interviews, 12 types of crowdsourcing in science are identified. The proposed crowdsourcing in science typology matrix may be a starting point for future research and decision-making by practitioners regarding the choice of a specific type of crowdsourcing in science.