How does the institutional context affect the risk of substitution faced by women and men?


  • Mariasole Bannò
  • EMILIA FILIPPI University of Trento
  • Sandro Trento



automation of occupations, technological change, unemployment, institutional context, gender


This paper aims to investigate how the institutional context considered in light of the level of gender equality explains the difference in the risk of substitution faced by men and women. To this end, the probability of automation of European occupation is estimated and it is analysed how it is influenced by the gender of the worker. We found that in contexts where gender equality is higher, female workers face a lower risk compared to contexts with a lower gender equality. However, the protection enjoyed by female workers is reduced in less egalitarian contexts because, due to barriers regarding the participation in formal and non-formal education and training, women are not able to acquire the necessary skills to protect themselves from the risk of substitution.