Design Experiments in Game-Based Learning of Metacognition


  • Eelco Braad Hanze University of Applied Sciences Groningen
  • Nick Degens Hanze University of Applied Sciences Groningen, The Netherlands
  • Wijnand IJsselsteijn Eindhoven University of Technology, The Netherlands
  • Wolmet Barendregt Eindhoven University of Technology, The Netherlands



game-based learning, metacognition, design experiments, design research


 Learner metacognition is one of the most influential factors that positively affects learning. Previous work shows that game-based learning can contribute to supporting and developing metacognitive knowledge and skills of learners. While there are many specific examples of such games, it remains unclear how to effectively design game-based learning environments to achieve this in an effective way. In other words: there is sufficient case-specific evidence, but limited design knowledge derived from such cases. In this paper, we attempt to identify such intermediary design knowledge that resides between specific games and generalized theory. We present three design experiments where game-based metacognitive training is evaluated in real-world educational settings. We collected insights regarding usefulness, motivation, usage, effort, and metacognition among participating students. From these experiments we identify what was learned in the form of design recommendations and, as such, contribute to collecting intermediary design knowledge for designing game-based metacognitive training.