Socio-demographic Variables and Push Travel Motivation: Tourists Visiting a Protected Area in South Africa

Authors

  • Nomfundo Sinethemba Mzimela mzimela48@gmail.com, University of Zululand, KwaDlangezwa, South Africa https://orcid.org/0009-0003-2478-636X
  • Sibusiso David Ntshangase NtshangaseSD@unizulu.ac.za, University of Zululand, KwaDlangezwa, South Africa
  • Ikechukwu Onyekwere Ezeuduji ezeudujii@unizulu.ac.za, University of Zululand, KwaDlangezwa, South Africa
  • Nelisile Zanele Mgabhi MgabhiN@unizulu.ac.za, University of Zululand, KwaDlangezwa, South Africa

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.34190/ictr.7.1.1976

Keywords:

Travel motivation, Push factors, Nature-based tourism, Protected areas, Tourist's socio-demographic variables

Abstract

This study aims to explore the key push travel motivation factors from Dann’s theory of push and pull motivation and analysed the influence of tourists’ socio-demographic variables on push travel motivation factors to visit protected areas (PAs). Data were collected via a structured questionnaire from 435 randomly selected tourists visiting Hluhluwe-iMfolozi park (HiP). Data analyses employed descriptive statistics to generate frequencies, mean scores and standard deviations using IBM's SPSS version 28 software. Mann-Whitney Wilcoxon test implemented in Stata software version 15 was employed. The findings revealed that the key tourists push factors are “relaxation and family togetherness”. The study further indicates that demographic variables such as “nationality, residency, employment status and age” have significant effects on tourists’ overall push factors (i.e., relaxation, social interaction, family togetherness, and prestige motivation). Based on the findings, the study made recommendations directed to the park management focusing on promoting and sustaining activities that address the key push motivation factors.

Author Biographies

Nomfundo Sinethemba Mzimela, mzimela48@gmail.com, University of Zululand, KwaDlangezwa, South Africa

Master’s student at the University of Zululand (UNIZULU), SA. She obtained a Bachelor of Tourism Studies (2018), Postgraduate Certificate in Education (2019), Bachelor of Arts Honours (2020) and is currently doing a Master’s degree (2023) from UNIZULU. She served as a Tutor Co-ordinator, Empangeni High School Educator and currently a Mentor.

Sibusiso David Ntshangase, NtshangaseSD@unizulu.ac.za, University of Zululand, KwaDlangezwa, South Africa

Holds a PhD (Tourism and Recreation) degree from the University of Zululand, South Africa, where he is currently serving as a Lecturer. He is an emerging scholar in the areas of tourism entrepreneurship and tourism in protected areas. He has published about ten journal articles around his research interest and contributed about four international conference papers. He is a scholar with great passion for community engagement and sustainable rural development.

Ikechukwu Onyekwere Ezeuduji, ezeudujii@unizulu.ac.za, University of Zululand, KwaDlangezwa, South Africa

Full Professor of Tourism Management at the University of Zululand, South Africa. He obtained his PhD degree from the BOKU-University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna, Austria. He has more than 12 years of teaching experience in Higher Education Institutions. He has widely published in broader areas of tourism development (rural and events tourism), tourism management (strategic tourism management and tourism entrepreneurship) and tourism marketing (brand essence, brand competitiveness, brand image and brand loyalty). 

Nelisile Zanele Mgabhi, MgabhiN@unizulu.ac.za, University of Zululand, KwaDlangezwa, South Africa

Holds a Masters (Tourism and Recreation) degree from the University of Zululand, South Africa, where she is currently serving as an Asistant Lecturer. She is an emerging scholar in the areas of tourism, rural tourism development and protected areas. She has published 2 journal articles around her research interest and contributed about four international conference papers. 

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Published

2024-03-25